Norms

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Norms

  • Frobeniu norm
  • age-specific norm
  • behavioral norm
  • certain norm
  • cultural norm
  • democratic norm
  • energy norm
  • error norm
  • euclidean norm
  • gender norm
  • group norm
  • h1 norm
  • human right norm
  • informal norm
  • ingroup norm
  • institutional norm
  • international norm
  • interpersonal norm
  • l1 norm
  • l2 norm
  • legal norm
  • lp norm
  • maximum norm
  • moral norm
  • new norm
  • organizational norm
  • peer norm
  • personal norm
  • population norm
  • professional norm
  • published norm
  • reaction norm
  • right norm
  • sobolev norm
  • social norm
  • societal norm
  • subjective norm

  • Terms modified by Norms

  • norm violation

  • Selected Abstracts


    THE REACTION NORM FOR ABDOMINAL PIGMENTATION AND ITS CURVE IN DROSOPHILA MEDIOPUNCTATA DEPEND ON THE MEAN PHENOTYPIC VALUE

    EVOLUTION, Issue 1 2009
    Felipe Rocha
    The idea of a general independence between the phenotypic plasticity and the mean value of a trait is, presently, a consensus. Here, we use the reaction norm of abdominal pigmentation (number of dark spots) of Drosophila mediopunctata in response to temperature, to test this idea. We raised eight strains, bearing two different chromosomal inversions and with varying mean phenotypic values, under 11 temperatures in a thermal gradient to test for predictions concerning mean phenotypic values, chromosomal inversions, and reaction norms. Our results revealed a strong effect of different phenotypic groups and no effect of different karyotypes on reaction norms. Moreover, we found a significant negative correlation between mean phenotypic value and the curvature of the reaction norms, revealing a high dependency of the reaction norm shape on mean phenotypic value. These results clearly reject the idea of genetic independence between mean value and phenotypic plasticity, and may indicate a pattern of correlation, which may include results from other traits and species, with an importance that has not been fully appreciated. [source]


    MEASURING PROBABILISTIC REACTION NORMS FOR AGE AND SIZE AT MATURATION

    EVOLUTION, Issue 4 2002
    Mikko Heino
    Abstract We present a new probabilistic concept of reaction norms for age and size at maturation that is applicable when observations are carried out at discrete time intervals. This approach can also be used to estimate reaction norms for age and size at metamorphosis or at other ontogenetic transitions. Such estimations are critical for understanding phenotypic plasticity and life-history changes in variable environments, assessing genetic changes in the presence of phenotypic plasticity, and calibrating size- and age-structured population models. We show that previous approaches to this problem, based on regressing size against age at maturation, give results that are systematically biased when compared to the probabilistic reaction norms. The bias can be substantial and is likely to lead to qualitatively incorrect conclusions; it is caused by failing to account for the probabilistic nature of the maturation process. We explain why, instead, robust estimations of maturation reaction norms should be based on logistic regression or on other statistical models that treat the probability of maturing as a dependent variable. We demonstrate the utility of our approach with two examples. First, the analysis of data generated for a known reaction norm highlights some crucial limitations of previous approaches. Second, application to the northeast arctic cod (Gadus morhua) illustrates how our approach can be used to shed new light on existing real-world data. [source]


    WHEN DO SOCIAL NORMS REPLACE STATUS-SEEKING CONSUMPTION?

    METROECONOMICA, Issue 1 2010
    AN APPLICATION TO THE CONSUMPTION OF CLEANLINESS
    ABSTRACT Interdependencies in consumer behavior stem from either status-seeking consumption or compliance with social norms. This paper analyzes how a consumption act changes from a means to signal the consumer's status to a means of norm compliance. It is shown that such a transformation can only be understood when consumer motivations other than social recognition are taken into account. We depict norm emergence as a learning process based on changing associations between a specific consumption act and widely shared, non-subjectivist consumer needs. Our conjectures are illustrated by means of a case study: the emergence of the cleanliness norm in the 19th century. [source]


    Effect of variation in photoperiodic response on diapause induction and developmental time in the willow leaf beetle, Plagiodera versicolora

    ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA, Issue 1 2000
    Michihiro Ishihara
    Abstract The willow leaf beetle, Plagiodera versicolora (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) overwinters in adult diapause. In this study, the photoperiodic responses for diapause induction and developmental time were examined in the Ishikari (Hokkaido, Japan) population of P. versicolora. All females entered reproductive diapause under short daylength (L10:D14), but 31.7% of females did not enter diapause under long daylength (L16:D8). The developmental time from oviposition to adult emergence was significantly longer at L10:D14 than that at L16:D8. Norm of reaction curves illustrated variation among families in the photoperiodic responses for diapause induction and for developmental time. ANOVA indicated significant family × photoperiod interactions in the developmental time. At L16:D8, developmental time was positively correlated with the incidence of diapause in females. This means that a female having a longer developmental time tends to have a longer critical photoperiod. Such variation may be maintained by differences in selection pressures on the growth rate and the critical photoperiod for diapause induction between univoltine and bivoltine genotypes because Ishikari is located in a transitional area between populations with univoltine and bivoltine life cycles. [source]


    Information seeking and reciprocity: a transformational analysis

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
    Marcello Gallucci
    The motivation to reciprocate is analyzed within the framework of interdependence theory, with focus on the process of transformation of situations. A model of transformation is presented for the motivation to reciprocate and hypotheses regarding allocation behavior and information seeking are derived. The hypotheses are tested in two experiments implementing a game where participants allocate payoff to self and other in a sequential way, with one participant able to gather costly information regarding the other's previous behavior. Individual differences in the motivation to reciprocate are assessed with the Personal Norm of Reciprocity questionnaire. Results show that participants with high motivation to reciprocate seek information regarding other's past behavior, and react to this information as the norm of reciprocity prescribes. Participants with low motivation to reciprocate prefer information regarding the future of the interaction (Study 1), or no information (Study 2), and behave in a more selfish way. Results are discussed with respect of (1) the transformation of situation process, (2) the role of reciprocity as an interpersonal motive, and (3) the validity of the individual differences measure. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    The Quest for Invisibility: Female Entrepreneurs and the Masculine Norm of Entrepreneurship

    GENDER, WORK & ORGANISATION, Issue 5 2006
    Patricia Lewis
    The emphasis in research on female entrepreneurship remains focused on the impact of gender on women's experience of business ownership, often demonstrated through comparisons of male and female entrepreneurs. By contrast, this article explores the differences and divisions between women business owners who are silent about gender issues and those who are not. The main data drawn on in the article are e-mails conducted through a web-based entrepreneurial network set up to promote and support women in business, supplemented with interview material derived from an interview study of 19 women business owners. By considering the way in which some women business owners not only treat entrepreneurship as gender-neutral, but also seek to conceal its gendered nature, we can see how some female entrepreneurs are trying to avoid being identified as different from the masculine norm of entrepreneurship. [source]


    Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Recidivism: The Role of Personal Norm in Predicting Behavioral Intentions of Re-Offending,

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 9 2008
    Stavros P. Kiriakidis
    The study is a partial application of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to the prediction of young offenders' behavioral intentions to re-offend. Participants were 152 young offenders who were randomly selected and who completed a self-report questionnaire assessing the sociocognitive determinants of the TPB and personal norm. It was found that attitudes and perceived behavioral control are necessary factors for the prediction of intentions to re-offend; while personal norm contributed significantly, yet marginally. The TPB provides a parsimonious way to predict behavioral intentions to re-offend. Personal norm could be a variable that expands the model when it is applied to the prediction of young offenders' behavioral intentions to re-offend. [source]


    Sovereignty, Exception, and Norm

    JOURNAL OF LAW AND SOCIETY, Issue 1 2007
    Andrew Norris
    Carl Schmitt's Political Theology is the locus classicus of contemporary discussions of sovereignty. I argue that Schmitt's conception of sovereignty is excessively metaphysical and that it posits an incoherent 'sovereign' ability to decide what shall count as normal. Schmitt follows and radicalizes the late Bodin's claims , themselves the product of a political theology, namely, Bodin 's conversion to Judaism , regarding the necessity of an indivisible and absolute sovereignty. In each, the relation between the executive and the other parts of government is reduced to what Schmitt describes as an ,either/or.' This move is a disastrous mistake. The question is not whether exceptions and emergencies such as terrorist attacks are real, but to what extent the executive branch can rightly claim a monopoly on the ability to determine whether an exception exists, and whether its resulting actions will be permanently unchecked and unregulated. Recent work by Bruce Ackerman is a better guide in these matters than the metaphysics of either Schmitt or Bodin. [source]


    Punishing Those Responsible for the Prison Abuses at Abu Ghraib: The Influence of the Negative Reciprocity Norm (NRN)

    POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
    Paul Eder
    The negative reciprocity norm (NRN) is the personal moral code specifying retaliation as a proper response to wrongdoing (Eisenberger, Lynch, Aselage, & Rohdieck, 2004). We examined the role of negative reciprocity in interpreting and reacting to the prison abuses at Abu Ghraib. Results showed that people who believed that American soldiers behaved wrongly at Abu Ghraib were more likely to view punishing the soldiers responsible as a highly moral response and were less likely to contribute money to a charitable organization that helps American soldiers. These relationships were only present among those highly endorsing the negative reciprocity norm. [source]


    On the Puzzle Surrounding Hans Kelsen's Basic Norm

    RATIO JURIS, Issue 3 2000
    Stanley L. Paulson
    Whereas fundamental norms in the juridico-philosophical tradition serve to impose constraints, Kelsen's fundamental norm,or basic norm (Grundnorm),purports to establish the normativist character of the law. But how is the basic norm itself established? Kelsen himself rules out the appeals that are familiar from the tradition,the appeal to fact, and to morality. What remains is a Kantian argument. I introduce and briefly evaluate the Kantian and neo-Kantian positions, as applied to Kelsen's theory. The distinction between the two positions, I argue, is reflected in an ambiguity in the use of the term "regressive." [source]


    Expert Testimony by Ethicists: What Should be the Norm?

    THE JOURNAL OF LAW, MEDICINE & ETHICS, Issue 2 2005
    Edward J. Imwinkelried
    First page of article [source]


    Baulicher Brandschutz für großflächige Dächer , Kommentar zur neuen Fassung von DIN 18234

    BAUPHYSIK, Issue 2 2004
    Dieter Brein Dipl.-Ing.
    Dächer, die die in DIN 18234 Teile 1 bis 4 beschriebenen Anforderungen erfüllen, können das Brandschutzniveau von großflächigen Dächern bei Brandbeanspruchung von unten ohne klassifizierbare Feuerwiderstandsdauer erheblich verbessern. Ein Brand im Innenraum wird das Dach damit entweder nicht mehr oder nur noch so verzögert am Brandgeschehen beteiligen können, daß eine rechtzeitig alarmierte und eintreffende Feuerwehr realistische Chancen erhält, das Brandereignis noch auf eine kleinere Fläche beschränkt vorzufinden und bekämpfen zu können. Die Aufnahme von DIN 18234 als ein Regeldachaufbau in die MusterIndustriebau-Richtlinie (MIndBauRL) war ein erster wichtiger Schritt der baurechtlichen Anerkennung dieser Norm. Es bleibt zu wünschen, daß die positiven Möglichkeiten nun auch bei den künftig überarbeiteten bauordnungsrechtlichen Vorschriften anderer Sonderbauten berücksichtigt werden können. Fire safety of large roofs for buildings , commentary on the new version of DIN 18234 Compliance with the requirements of DIN 18234 can significantly improve the fire safety of large roofs without classifiable fire resistance. A fire inside the building is thus prevented from spreading to the roof, or spreading to the roof is delayed to such an extent that the fire brigade, provided it was notified immediately and arrives in good time, has a realistic chance of finding the fire contained within a smaller area, so that it can be dealt with successfully. Inclusion of DIN 18234 as a roof construction standard in the German model guidelines for industrial buildings (MIndBauRL) was a first, but important step for the acceptance of this standard as part of the building regulation framework. It is hoped that the opportunities offered by the standard can now also be taken up in future revisions of guidelines for other special-purpose buildings. [source]


    Nutzungskosten: DIN 18960-2008 , Leistungsfähige Grundlage für die zielorientierte Planung der Lebenszykluskosten

    BAUTECHNIK, Issue 7 2008
    Udo Blecken em.
    Die DIN 18960 , Nutzungskosten im Hochbau , ist in überarbeiteter Form im Februar 2008 herausgegeben worden. Sie ist durch Ergänzungen zu einem vollumfänglichen Controllingkonzept (Nutzungskostenvorgabe, -ermittlung, -kontrolle und -steuerung) weiterentwickelt worden, die dem Bauherrn eine kostengesicherte Nutzungskostenplanung ermöglicht. Mit dieser Norm liegt nun eine ökonomisch und ökologisch wichtige Grundlage für den Planungsprozess vor. Im Folgenden sollen die Neuerungen der Norm 18960 beschrieben, die angrenzenden Normen und wichtigen Merkmale erläutert, das Controllingkonzept inkl. eines Berechnungsbeispiels unter Einschluss von Risikoüberlegungen dargestellt und Planungsvertragsfragen besprochen werden. User costs of buildings DIN 18960 , a performance basis for planning of life cycle costs. An updated version of the DIN 18960 , user costs of buildings , has been published in February 2008. The norm has been further developed with supplements to a comprehensive controlling concept (usage cost estimate, usage cost calculation, usage cost monitoring and usage cost management), which provides the builder with the tools to plan the usage costs in a cost-controlled manner. This norm, furthermore, provides an economically and ecologically important basis for the planning process. The new aspects of the DIN 18960 are outlined, the related norms and important features are explained, the controlling concept including a calculation example that considers risk factors is described and questions regarding planning contracts are discussed. [source]


    Sonderlösungen bei der Tragwerksplanung auf der Grundlage der neuen Normen , Klimatische Einwirkungen

    BAUTECHNIK, Issue 3 2005
    Hans-Jürgen Niemann Prof. em.
    Der folgende Beitrag befaßt sich mit den klimatischen Einwirkungen auf weit gespannte Dächer. Im Zentrum stehen die Windlasten. Die Angaben der Norm lassen sich durch Sonderuntersuchungen zuschärfen, soweit die Regelungen das nahe legen und der zusätzliche Aufwand gerechtfertigt ist. Das gilt sowohl für das Windklima am Bauwerksstandort als auch für die aerodynamischen Beiwerte, für die im allgemeinen Windkanalversuche die Grundlage bilden. In einer neuen Norm, der DIN 1055 Teil 100: "Grundlagen der Tragwerksplanung, Sicherheitskonzept und Bemessungsregeln", werden erstmalig die Anforderungen an die Tragsicherheit und Gebrauchstauglichkeit einer Konstruktion formuliert und festgelegt. Sie definiert die Lastannahmen als Teil des Sicherheitskonzepts, legt die Anforderungen an das Lastniveau fest und bestimmt so die Spielräume für eine Zuschärfung der Lastannahmen durch Sonderuntersuchungen für ein bestimmtes Bauprojekt. Hinzu kommen einzelne Öffnungsklauseln, die in den Normen für Wind- und Schneelasten vorgesehen sind. Der Beitrag stellt die Rahmenbedingungen für eine Optimierung der Lastannahmen dar. Special solutions in structural design on the basis of the new design codes , climatic actions. The following contribution deals with climatic actions on large lightweight roofs of stadia. The focus is on the wind loads. In some cases, it becomes necessary or advantageous to provide more precise design wind loads compared to the code provisions. This applies to the local wind climate as well as to the aerodynamic coefficients. The framework for such investigations is established by the requirements set by the code DIN 1055-100: Basis of design, with regard to structural safety and reliability, and by those basic stipulations in the wind loading code which may not be altered. The author presents and discusses the framework for optimised design wind loads. [source]


    Ein Vergleich zweier Sedimentationsverfahren zur Bestimmung des Staubungsverhaltens von Pulvern

    CHEMIE-INGENIEUR-TECHNIK (CIT), Issue 3 2008
    S. Bach Dipl.-Ing.
    Abstract Die DIN EN 15051 ,Arbeitsplatzatmosphäre , Messung des Staubungsverhaltens von Schüttgütern" beschreibt zwei Referenzprüfverfahren zur Bestimmung der Staubungsneigung von Pulvern am Arbeitsplatz und gibt des Weiteren eine Vorgehensweise vor, wie weitere Apparaturen auf ihre Gleichwertigkeit zu diesen Referenzen hin zu testen sind. Im vorliegenden Fall wurde das ,Palas DustView" , ein single-drop Verfahren , mit dem Referenzprüfverfahren B der Norm ,kontinuierlicher Fall im Gegenstrom" verglichen. [source]


    Echocardiographic Left Ventricular Mass in a Multiethnic Southeast Asian Population: Proposed New Gender and Age-Specific Norms

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 8 2008
    M.R.C.P., Raymond Ching-Chiew Wong M.B.B.S.
    Background: Left ventricular mass (LVM) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular outcome. We aimed to define normal reference values of LVM/body surface area (BSA) in a multiethnic Southeast Asian population across ages, and define demographic parameters that predict LVM/BSA. Methods: 198 subjects (44% men, mean age 40 ± 14 years, 82% Chinese, 13% Malay and 5% Indian) with no cardiovascular comorbidity and had normal echo images for age were included in the analysis. Echo LVM was calculated as: 1.04 ×[(left ventricular internal diameter at end-diastole {LVIDd}+ interventricular septal thickness at end-diastole {IVSd}+ left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end-diastole {LVPWd})3, LVIDd3× 0.8]+ 0.61, indexed by BSA (LVM/BSA)* and expressed as g/m2. Results: BSA and blood pressure (BP) were comparable between dichotomous age groups < or , 50 years within the same gender. Women aged , 50 years had larger IVSD, LVPWd, LVM and LVM/BSA compared to younger cohort. (p < 0.01 for all variables). The 95th percentile of LVM in men and women were 189 g and 148 g respectively; corresponding values for LVM/BSA were 106 and 96 g/m2. These values are consistently smaller than published values from the West. Age (r = 0.27, P < 0.001), gender (r =,0.30, P < 0.001), and systolic BP (r = 0.25, P = 0.003) were significant univariate predictors of LVM/BSA. Conclusion: We therefore propose a different cutoff value for the diagnosis of LV hypertrophy among Southeast Asians. [source]


    Social Fractionalization, Endogenous Appropriation Norms, and Economic Development

    ECONOMICA, Issue 298 2008
    INES LINDNER
    We investigate how social composition affects competitive and cooperative behaviour in a linear growth model without secure property rights. If a society is homogeneous or highly fractionalized, it is in the self-interest of people to cooperate. The first-best allocation is enforced through trigger strategies, and growth is independent from social structure. If a society is polarized, i.e. if it consists of a small number of groups, the first-best solution can turn out to be unenforceable and groups will follow an exploitative strategy. In this case, the rate of growth is monotonously decreasing in the degree of fractionalization. [source]


    Evolving Environmental Norms in the European Union

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 1 2003
    Yoichiro Usui
    The EU has demonstrated interesting institutional practices with regard to the evolution of environmental norms. The paper illuminates a role of law in the institutional practices in terms of the discursive power of law, drawing on the fact that law catalyses discourses and individual laws in and of themselves are also discourses. In order to elucidate this discursive viewpoint, the paper offers a conceptual framework, referring to the concepts of frame and regime. Building on this conceptual framework, the paper understands the development of EU environmental law as an example of normative evolution in a re´gime and describes the evolutionary process from pre, to post,Single European Act. [source]


    Foreign Policy Making Under Koizumi: Norms and Japan's Role in the 2003 Iraq War

    FOREIGN POLICY ANALYSIS, Issue 4 2009
    Yukiko Miyagi
    Japan's policy toward the 2003 Iraq War is a test of the constructivist argument about the weight of norms as opposed to material systemic factors in foreign policy making. Constructions of external threats and interests were contested between a largely realist-minded elite around prime minister Koizumi bent on Japan's remilitarization and those still holding to antimilitarist norms. This contest is traced in an analysis of the policy-making process, including the role of bureaucratic and political institutions, the opposition parties and the public. Indicative of the power of norms, Koizumi was forced to compromise his ambition to use the Iraq crisis to help make Japan a "normal" great power. [source]


    Norms for the mini-mental state examination from a sample of Sri Lankan older people

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 7 2009
    Ranil De Silva
    Abstract Objective To derive norms for the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) based on age, gender and level of formal education among the elderly in Sri Lanka. Method A validated Sinhalese version of the MMSE was administered to people aged 55 years and above residing in 14 randomly selected elders' homes. Effects of age, gender and level of formal education on MMSE scores were compared using multiple linear regression analysis. Results A total of 446 subjects [male/female,=,136/320] formed the final sample. Level of education and gender exerted a significant influence on MMSE scores, but not age. The median and 10th percentile scores on the Sinhalese MMSE for the education groups were as follows: education <5 years,=,19 and 12; education >5 years,=,24 and 16, respectively. Conclusion The findings confirm the influence of level of education on MMSE scores among the elderly living in care homes in Sri Lanka, and suggest that education stratified cut-off scores should be used while screening for cognitive impairment in this population. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Norms, Activists, and Legislative Pressure in Strategic Commitment Termination

    INTERNATIONAL STUDIES REVIEW, Issue 3 2009
    Andrew Flibbert
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Transnational Networks and Changing Human Rights Norms

    INTERNATIONAL STUDIES REVIEW, Issue 2 2007
    Jackie Smith
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Imposing International Norms: Great Powers and Norm Enforcement1

    INTERNATIONAL STUDIES REVIEW, Issue 1 2007
    RENEE DE NEVERS
    What role does force play in changing international norms and who is it used against? This essay argues that when great powers seek to promote new norms, they will coerce the weak; persuasion is saved for the strong. The interaction of two factors,the standing of the target state in the international society of states and its power relative to the norm-promoting great power,helps explain the use, or nonuse, of force by great powers seeking to promote norms. The cases of the slave trade, piracy, and state sponsorship of terrorism are examined to evaluate how the attributes of norm-violating states affect the likelihood that great powers will intervene to encourage states to adopt new norms. Power appears to be the best defense against being targeted by a great power seeking to promote norm change, but good standing in the international society of states is an important deterrent against intervention. [source]


    The Taxonomy, Model and Message Strategies of Social Behavior

    JOURNAL FOR THE THEORY OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR, Issue 3 2007
    TSUEN-HO HSU
    ABSTRACT In an era of rising social awareness, both academics and practitioners have been concerned about the effectiveness of pro-social consumer influence strategies. The main assumption here is that for social marketing to succeed one must first understand the factors underlying pro-social consumer behavior. Firstly, drawing on two dimensions (i.e. the welfare receiver and restitution intention) the authors first identify four types of social behavior (altruism, compensation, reciprocity, and egoism). Next, the model describes social behavior as a result of preceding social behavior motivation and actual social behavior intention. Norms and economic evaluation have an impact on social behavior motivation, which in turn influences social behavior intention, eventually leading to actual social behavior. Actual control factors, such as the availability of resources and opportunities, decide whether social behavior intention can really translate into actual social behavior. Finally, authors propose message strategies (incorporating message appeal, message frame and central/peripheral processing) for each type of social behavior. [source]


    Caring in nursing: a different interpretation

    JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING, Issue 6 2001
    Jane Sumner PhD MN RNC
    Caring in nursing: a different interpretation Aim.,To apply Habermas' (1995) Theory of Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action to the nurse,patient relationship, offering a different interpretation to the nurse,patient relationship that is caring in nursing. Rationale.,Many authors have described the nurse,patient relationship, but Habermas' theory synthesizes the components into a complex matrix that is caring in nursing. Findings.,The theory offers three claims to normative validity: the claim to truth which is the factual objective knowledge; the claim to truthfulness which refers to the intrasubjective self; and the claim to right which is the intersubjective interaction. The validity claims explain the patient's personal and illness self, the nurse's personal and professional self, and the interaction/discourse. The interaction is situation specific, and is identified as moral because dialogue/discourse requires a ,considerateness' of each for the other. ,Considerateness' in discourse requires certain rules, including that each participant has an equal voice, be followed in order for the Principle of Universalization to occur. Habermas draws on Kohlberg's (1981), and Selman's (1980) work to develop three levels of moral maturity of communication. These are preconventional, conventional, and postconventional. Initial moral maturity is egocentric, subjective, and obedient to authority. Maturity develops with recognition of other and reciprocity. At the postconventional level there is mutuality and the ability for abstract reasoning. There is a third person objectivity combining speaker and addressee/listener perspectives. Norms are not just accepted, they are reasoned through. This leads to justification of the norm, which is then accepted as valid. When the three validity claims are met and there is genuine ,considerateness' in the interaction there is communicative action. The reverse is strategic action, where the communication is coercive. When there is communicative action both patient and nurse are validated with a sense of fulfillment or . Conclusion.,Habermas' (1995) theory offers a new paradigm for caring in nursing. [source]


    Structural Modeling of Car Use on the Way to the University in Different Settings: Interplay of Norms, Habits, Situational Restraints, and Perceived Behavioral Control,

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 8 2009
    Christian A. Klöckner
    This manuscript presents the results of the application of an extended norm activation model to the explanation of car use on the way to the university with a sample of 430 students of 3 German universities. The proposed two-stage structural model is supported by the data. First, a norm activation process starting with awareness of consequences activates subjective and personal norms. Second, behavior is determined by car-use habits, perceived behavioral control (PBC), car access, and effort to use public transportation. The influence of personal norms on behavior is mediated by habits. Subgroup analyses of the second stage of the model show a high structural stability, but differences in the regression weights. [source]


    Predictors of Teens' Attitudes Toward Condoms: Gender Differences in the Effects of Norms

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 7 2000
    Yuko Mizuno
    Using data collected from a telephone survey of adolescents aged 15 to 19, we studied predictors of condom attitudes. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 348 sexually active teens. Multiple regression revealed that holding other variables constant being females, African American, perceiving that more of their friends were using condoms (i. e., perceived normative behavior). and stronger perceived normative pressure were significantly associated with favorable condom attitudes. Furthermore, significant interaction effects pointed to gender differences in the association between two types of norms and attitudes toward condoms. Perceived normative behavior had a greater effect on the attitudes of female adolescents. Perceived normative pressure had a greater effect on the attitudes of male adolescents. [source]


    The Correlates of Antinuclear Activism: Attitudes, Subjective Norms, and Efficacy

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    LEE FOX-CARDAMONE
    Ajzen's (1988) theory of planned behavior was modified and used to examine antinuclear behavior. Subjects completed a questionnaire measuring their antinuclear attitudes, their perceptions of support for taking antinuclear action, and their perceptions of efficacy in this arena. Then, an antinuclear behavioral intentions questionnaire was presented, as well as several opportunities to engage in various antinuclear actions. Regression analyses indicated that Ajzen's model was supported to the extent that attitude emerged as a significant predictor of antinuclear intentions and behaviors. Subjective norms and efficacy were not significant predictors of either intentions or behaviors. Models incorporating behavior-specific attitude measures accounted for more variance than did models using more general attitude measures toward nuclear war/weapons. [source]


    Presumed Influence on Peer Norms: How Mass Media Indirectly Affect Adolescent Smoking

    JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION, Issue 1 2006
    Albert C. Gunther
    In the context of adolescent smoking adoption, this study examined the presumed influence hypothesis, a theoretical model suggesting that smoking-related media content may have a significant indirect influence on adolescent smoking via its effect on perceived peer norms. That is, adolescents may assume that smoking-related messages in the mass media will influence the attitudes and behaviors of their peers and these perceptions in turn can influence adolescents' own smoking behaviors. Analyzing data from a sample of 818 middle school students, we found that both pro- and antismoking messages indirectly influenced smoking susceptibility through their perceived effect on peers. However, this indirect effect was significantly stronger for prosmoking messages than for antismoking messages, an outcome that most likely increases adolescents' susceptibility to cigarettes. [source]


    How Law Changes the Environmental Mind: An Experimental Study of the Effect of Legal Norms on Moral Perceptions and Civic Enforcement

    JOURNAL OF LAW AND SOCIETY, Issue 4 2009
    Yuval Feldman
    This paper examines how different legal instruments affect people's moral intuitions and willingness to engage in social enforcement in the field of environmental law. These instruments vary in terms of their governance technique, the process through which they were enacted, and their allocation of enforcement responsibilities. Their effect on citizens' moral evaluation and emotional reaction to corporate polluting behaviour are examined, based on an experimental survey of a representative sample of 1400 individuals in Israel. Our findings demonstrate that their design influences people's level of moral and emotional resentment when faced by environmentally problematic behaviour, as well as their motivation to engage in private enforcement. The design of the regulatory instrument could thus generate biases in social reactions to polluting behaviour, irrespective of its actual ecological adverse effect. We analyse the moral and psychological mechanisms which underlie these effects and explore their various policy implications. [source]