NO Synthase Inhibitor NG (no + synthase_inhibitor_ng)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Modulation of the cGMP signaling pathway by melatonin in pancreatic , -cells

Ina Stumpf
Abstract:, Melatonin influences the second messenger cyclic guanosine 3,,5,-monophosphate (cGMP) signaling pathway in pancreatic , -cells via a receptor-mediated mechanism. In the present study, it was determined how the regulation of cGMP concentrations by melatonin proceeds. The results provide evidence that melatonin acts via the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), as molecular investigations demonstrated that long-term incubation with melatonin significantly reduced the expression levels of the sGC mRNA in rat insulinoma , -cells (INS1) cells, whereas mRNA expression of membrane guanylate cyclases was unaffected. Incubation with melatonin abolished the S-nitrosoacetyl penicillamine-induced increase of cGMP concentrations in INS1 cells. In addition, the cGMP-inhibitory effect of melatonin was reversed by preincubation with the sGC inhibitors 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo(4,3- ,)quinoxalin-1-one and 4H-8-bromo-1,2,4-oxadiazolo(3,4-d)benz(b)(1,4)oxazin-1-one. Nitric oxide (NO) production was not influenced after 1 hr of melatonin application, but was influenced after a 4 hr incubation period. Preincubation of INS1 cells with the NO synthase inhibitor NG -monomethyl- l -arginine did not abolish the cGMP-inhibitory effect of melatonin. Transcripts of cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels were significantly reduced after melatonin treatment in a dose-dependent manner, indicating the involvement of these channels in mediating the melatonin effect in INS1 cells. The results of this study demonstrate that melatonin mediates its inhibitory effect on cGMP concentrations in pancreatic , -cells by inhibiting the sGC, but does not influence NO concentration or NO synthase activity in short-term incubation experiments. In addition, it was demonstrated that melatonin is involved in modulation of CNG channel mRNA. [source]

Nitric Oxide Synthesis Inhibition Attenuates Conditioned Reinstatement of Ethanol-Seeking, but Not the Primary Reinforcing Effects of Ethanol

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2004
Xiu Liu
Background: Nitric oxide (NO) signaling has been implicated in regulating aspects of the reinforcing and addictive actions of cocaine. These experiments were designed to examine whether NO-dependent neurotransmission also participates in mediating the addictive actions of another drug of abuse, ethanol, with emphasis on both the primary reinforcing effects of ethanol and the incentive motivational effects of ethanol-related contextual stimuli. Methods: Male Wistar rats were operantly trained to orally self-administer 10% (w/v) ethanol in daily 30-min sessions and to associate distinct discriminative stimuli with the availability of ethanol (S+) versus nonreward (S,). Rats were treated with the NO synthase inhibitor NG -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; 0, 10, or 40 mg/kg intraperitoneally) 30 min before self-administration tests that were conducted after establishment of stable levels of daily ethanol intake and conditioned reinstatement tests that were performed after extinction of ethanol-maintained operant responding. Results: l-NAME did not alter the primary reinforcing effects of ethanol in self-administration tests. In contrast, l-NAME dose-dependently attenuated the recovery of extinguished responding induced by the ethanol S+ in the absence of ethanol availability during reinstatement tests. Conclusions: These results suggest that the NO system does not play a role in behavior reinforced directly by ethanol. However, the results implicate NO-dependent neurotransmission in alcohol-seeking responses elicited by drug-related contextual stimuli. [source]

Differences in circular muscle contraction and peristaltic motor inhibition caused by tachykinin NK1 receptor agonists in the guinea-pig small intestine

The tachykinin NK1 receptor agonist substance P methyl ester (SPOME) impedes intestinal peristalsis by releasing nitric oxide (NO) from inhibitory motor neurones. Since NK1 receptor agonists differ in their receptor interaction, we set out to compare a range of NK1 receptor agonists including SPOME, septide and GR-73 632 in their effects on propulsive peristalsis and circular muscle activity in the guinea-pig isolated small intestine. SPOME (100,300 n M) inhibited peristalsis by a rise of the pressure threshold at which peristaltic waves were triggered, whereas septide and GR-73 632 (30,300 n M) interrupted peristalsis by causing circular muscle spasms. Separate experiments showed that all three NK1 receptor agonists caused contraction of the circular muscle, which was enhanced by the NO synthase inhibitor NG -nitro- L -arginine methyl ester (300 ,M) and the P2X purinoceptor antagonist suramin (300 ,M). In contrast, tetrodotoxin (300 n M) augmented the contractile effect of septide and GR-73 632 but not that of SPOME. It is concluded that the motor response to NK1 receptor agonists involves release of NO and adenosine triphosphate from inhibitory motor neurones. However, the NK1 receptor agonists differ in the mechanism by which they cause inhibitory transmitter release, which corresponds to differences in their antiperistaltic action. [source]

Direct evidence of nitric oxide release from neuronal nitric oxide synthase activation in the left ventricle as a result of cervical vagus nerve stimulation

Kieran E. Brack
Information regarding vagal innervation in the cardiac ventricle is limited and the direct effect of vagal stimulation on ventricular myocardial function is controversial. We have recently provided indirect evidence that the anti-fibrillatory effect of vagus nerve stimulation on the ventricle is mediated by nitric oxide (NO). The aim of this study was to provide direct evidence for the release of nitric oxide in the cardiac ventricle during stimulation of the efferent parasympathetic fibres of the cervical vagus nerve. The isolated innervated rabbit heart was employed with the use of the NO fluorescent indicator 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2 DA) during stimulation of the cervical vagus nerves and acetylcholine perfusion in the absence and presence of the non-specific NO synthase inhibitor NG -nito- l- arginine (l- NNA) and the neuronal NO synthase selective inhibitor 1-(2-trifluormethylphenyl)imidazole (TRIM). Using the novel fluorescence method in the beating heart, we have shown that NO-dependent fluorescence is increased by 0.92 ± 0.26, 1.20 ± 0.30 and 1.91 ± 0.27% (during low, medium and high frequency, respectively) in the ventricle in a stimulation frequency-dependent manner during vagus nerve stimulation, with comparable increases seen during separate stimulation of the left and right cervical vagus nerves. Background fluorescence is reduced during perfusion with l- NNA and the increase in fluorescence during high frequency vagal stimulation is inhibited during perfusion with both l- NNA (1.97 ± 0.35% increase before l- NNA, 0.00 ± 0.02% during l- NNA) and TRIM (1.78 ± 0.18% increase before TRIM, ,0.11 ± 0.08% during TRIM). Perfusion with 0.1 ,m acetylcholine increased NO fluorescence by 0.76 ± 0.09% which was blocked by l- NNA (change of 0.00 ± 0.03%) but not TRIM (increase of 0.82 ± 0.21%). Activation of cardiac parasympathetic efferent nerve fibres by stimulation of the cervical vagus is associated with NO production and release in the ventricle of the rabbit, via the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase. [source]

Effect Of Anti-Oxidant Treatment And Cholesterol Lowering On Resting Arterial Tone, Metabolic Vasodilation And Endothelial Function In The Human Forearm: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

Stephen J Duffy
SUMMARY 1. The aim of the present study was to determine whether anti-oxidant therapy with vitamin E and/or cholesterol-lowering therapy with simvastatin would augment resting forearm blood flow (FBF) and metabolic vasodilation in response to exercise and improve endothelial function in young patients with hypercholesterolaemia. 2. Endothelium-dependent and -independent, nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation have been shown to be impaired in young, otherwise healthy subjects with hypercholesterolaemia. Recent experimental and clinical studies suggest that vascular function may be improved with anti-oxidant or cholesterol- lowering therapy, although these treatments may be synergistic. 3. We compared FBF at rest, in response to isotonic exercise, the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine (ACh), the endothelium-independent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and the NO synthase inhibitor NG -monomethyl- L -arginine (L -NMMA) in 26 young, otherwise healthy volunteers (mean (±SD) age 29±7 years; 14 female, 12 male) with hypercholesterolaemia, before and after 6 months treatment with vitamin E, simvastatin and/or placebo. Treatment was randomized, double-blinded in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Forearm blood flow was measured using venous occlusion plethysmography. 4. Vitamin E therapy increased plasma ,-tocopherol from 39.5±9.6 to 75.7±33.8 ,mol/L (P < 0.001). Simvastatin reduced total cholesterol from 6.9±1.7 to 4.9±0.8 mmol/L and low- density lipoprotein (LDL) from 4.8±1.7 to 3.0±0.7 mmol/L (both P < 0.001), although total and LDL,cholesterol also decreased slightly in the placebo group. Vitamin E increased resting FBF from 2.1±0.3 to 2.4±0.3 mL/100 mL per min (P = 0.04) and decreased resting forearm vascular resistance from 42.1±4.2 to 36.1±3.4 units (P = 0.01), but the reduction in resting FBF with L -NMMA was not affected. Vasodilation in response to isotonic exercise, ACh and SNP was similar before and after treatment in the placebo, vitamin E, simvastatin and in the combined vitamin E,simvastatin groups. NG -Monomethyl- L -arginine infusion reduced resting FBF and functional hyperaemia in response to exercise and these responses were not altered by treatment. 5. These data suggest that while vitamin E therapy augments resting FBF and reduces forearm vascular resistance in young hypercholesterolaemic subjects, these effects may not be via NO-dependent pathways. Metabolic vasodilation and responses to the NO-mediated vasodilators ACh and SNP were not favourably affected by anti-oxidant or cholesterol-lowering therapy, either alone or in combination. [source]

Real-time measurement of nitric oxide in single mature mouse skeletal muscle fibres during contractions

Deborah Pye
Nitric oxide (NO) is thought to play multiple roles in skeletal muscle including regulation of some adaptations to contractile activity, but appropriate methods for the analysis of intracellular NO activity are lacking. In this study we have examined the intracellular generation of NO in isolated single mature mouse skeletal muscle fibres at rest and following a period of contractile activity. Muscle fibres were isolated from the flexor digitorum brevis muscle of mice and intracellular NO production was visualized in real-time using the fluorescent NO probe 4-amino-5-methylamino-2,,7,-difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF-FM DA). Some leakage of DAF-FM was apparent from fibres loaded with the probe, but they retained sufficient probe to respond to changes in intracellular NO following addition of the NO donor 3-(2-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-nitrosohydrazino)- N -methyl-1-propanamine (NOC-7) up to 30 min after loading. Electrically stimulated contractions in isolated fibres increased the rate of change in DAF-FM fluorescence by ,48% compared to non-stimulated fibres (P < 0.05) and the rate of change in DAF-FM fluorescence in the stimulated fibres returned to control values by 5 min after contractions. Treatment of isolated fibres with the NO synthase inhibitors NG -nitro- l -arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l -NAME) or NG -monomethyl- l -arginine (l -NMMA) reduced the increase in DAF-FM fluorescence observed in response to contractions of untreated fibres. Treatment of fibres with the cell-permeable superoxide scavenger 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzenedisulphonic acid (Tiron) also reduced the increase in fluorescence observed during contractions suggesting that superoxide, or more probably peroxynitrite, contributes to the fluorescence observed. Thus this technique can be used to examine NO generation in quiescent and contracting skeletal muscle fibres in real time, although peroxynitrite and other reactive nitrogen species may potentially contribute to the fluorescence values observed. [source]