NO Synthase Inhibitor (no + synthase_inhibitor)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by NO Synthase Inhibitor

  • no synthase inhibitor ng

  • Selected Abstracts


    Nitric oxide, superoxide and renal blood flow autoregulation in SHR after perinatal L -arginine and antioxidants

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 4 2007
    M. P. Koeners
    Abstract Aim:, Nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide are considered to be regulatory in renal blood flow (RBF) autoregulation, and hence may contribute to development of hypertension. To extend our previous observations that dynamic NO release is impaired in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) we investigated, firstly, if superoxide dependency of RBF autoregulation is increased in SHR and, secondly, if the beneficial effect of perinatal supplementation in SHR is partly as a result of early correction of RBF autoregulation. We hypothesized that perinatal supplementation by restoring dynamic NO release and/or decreasing superoxide dependency and would improve life-long blood pressure regulation. Methods:, Autoregulation was studied using stepwise reductions in renal perfusion pressure in anaesthetized male SHR, SHR perinatally supplemented with arginine and antioxidants (SHRsuppl) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY), prior to and during i.v. N, -nitro- l -arginine (NO synthase inhibitor) or tempol (superoxide dismutase mimetic). Results:, Spontaneously hypertensive rat displayed a wider operating range of RBF autoregulation as compared with WKY (59 ± 4 vs. 33 ± 2 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.01). Perinatal supplementation in SHR decreased mean arterial pressure, renal vascular resistance and the operating range of RBF autoregulation (43 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.01). In addition autoregulation efficiency decreased. RBF autoregulation characteristics shifted towards those of normotensive WKY. However, dynamic NO release was still impaired and no clear differences in superoxide dependency in RBF autoregulation between groups was observed. Conclusion:, Perinatal supplements shifted RBF autoregulation characteristics of SHR towards WKY, although capacity of the SHRsuppl kidney to modulate NO production to shear stress still seems impaired. The less strictly controlled RBF as observed in perinatally supplemented SHR could result in an improved long-term blood pressure control. This might partly underlie the beneficial effects of perinatal supplementation. [source]


    Parathyroid hormone stimulates the endothelial expression of vascular endothelial growth factor

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, Issue 11 2008
    G. Rashid
    ABSTRACT Background, We showed previously that parathyroid hormone (PTH) may stimulate the endothelial expression of pro-atherosclerotic and pro-inflammatory markers. Considering the impact of PTH on vasculature, we decided to evaluate its effect on mRNA and intra-cellular protein expressions of endothelial vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) taking into account that VEGF may play a role in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunctions. Materials and methods, Human umbilical vein cords endothelial cells (HUVEC) were stimulated for 24 h with 10,12,10,10 mol L,1 PTH. The VEGF-165 mRNA expression (critical in stimulating endothelial cell proliferation) was evaluated by RT/PCR and the intra-cellular VEGF protein expression by flow cytometry. The pathways by which PTH may have an effect on VEGF expression were also evaluated. Results, PTH (10,10 mol L,1) significantly increased VEGF-165 mRNA expression (P < 0·05). The addition of 50 nmol L,1 protein kinase C (PKC) and 10 µmol L,1 protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors significantly reduced the VEGF-165 mRNA expression (P = 0·01). We also examined whether nitric oxide (NO) may be involved in the PTH-induced stimulation of VEGF-165 expression. Pre-treatment of the cells with 200 µmol L-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, NO synthase inhibitor) was found to inhibit VEGF-165 mRNA expression (P = 0·006). VEGF protein could not be detected in the medium of HUVEC but it was present in the cell cytoplasm. PTH had no significant effect on cytoplasmatic VEGF protein expression. Conclusion, The stimulatory effect of PTH on endothelial VEGF-165 mRNA expression is partly through PKC and PKA pathways and is also NO dependent. [source]


    The nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway modulates the inspiratory-related activity of hypoglossal motoneurons in the adult rat

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 1 2008
    Fernando Montero
    Abstract Motoneurons integrate interneuronal activity into commands for skeletal muscle contraction and relaxation to perform motor actions. Hypoglossal motoneurons (HMNs) are involved in essential motor functions such as breathing, mastication, swallowing and phonation. We have investigated the role of the gaseous molecule nitric oxide (NO) in the regulation of the inspiratory-related activity of HMNs in order to further understand how neural activity is transformed into motor activity. In adult rats, we observed nitrergic fibers and bouton-like structures in close proximity to motoneurons, which normally lack the molecular machinery to synthesize NO. In addition, immunohistochemistry studies demonstrated that perfusion of animals with a NO donor resulted in an increase in the levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in motoneurons, which express the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) in the hypoglossal nucleus. Modulators of the NO/cGMP pathway were micro-iontophoretically applied while performing single-unit extracellular recordings in the adult decerebrated rat. Application of a NO synthase inhibitor or a sGC inhibitor induced a statistically significant reduction in the inspiratory-related activity of HMNs. However, excitatory effects were observed by ejection of a NO donor or a cell-permeable analogue of cGMP. In slice preparations, application to the bath of a NO donor evoked membrane depolarization and a decrease in rheobase, which were prevented by co-addition to the bath of a sGC inhibitor. These effects were not prevented by reduction of the spontaneous synaptic activity. We conclude that NO from afferent fibers anterogradely modulates the inspiratory-related activity of HMNs by a cGMP-dependent mechanism in physiological conditions. [source]


    Evidence against ,2 -adrenoceptors mediating relaxation in rat thoracic aortae: ,2 -agonists relaxation depends on interaction with ,1 -adrenoceptors

    FUNDAMENTAL & CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
    Enrique F. Castillo
    Abstract In rat aorta, the presence of functional ,2 -adrenoceptors (,2 -AR) was investigated in ring preparations preconstricted with ,1 -adrenergic and non- ,1 -adrenergic agonists. Particularly, the hypothetical interference of ,2 -AR agonists with ,1 -AR-mediated vasoconstriction was evaluated. Relaxant and contractile responses to ,2 -AR agonists were obtained. In endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings preconstricted with phenylephrine (1 × 10,6 m), the imidazoline derivatives, clonidine and UK14304, induced relaxations with similar order of potencies (,log EC50) and maxima relaxant effects respectively. Pretreatment with the NO synthase inhibitor, NG -nitro- l -arginine methyl ester (l -NAME) had no effect on the relaxant responses to clonidine and UK14304. In phenylephrine-constricted rings with endothelium, relaxations to clonidine and UK 14304 were not antagonized by the selective ,2 -AR antagonist, rauwolscine (,1 × 10,6 m). Clonidine and UK 14304 induced only contractions on endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings contracted with prostaglandin F2, (3 × 10,7 m). Moreover, clonidine and UK 14304-induced relaxation of endothelium-denuded arteries precontracted with methoxamine but not with serotonin. Finally, the concentration,contraction curves to clonidine and UK 14304 in endothelium-denuded aortic rings were significantly shifted to the right by the ,1D -AR selective antagonist, BMY 7378, and rauwolscine. The pA2 and pKB values for BMY 7378 and rauwolscine, respectively, against endothelium-independent actions of clonidine and UK 14304 were characteristic of an effect on the ,1D -AR. The other selective ,2 -AR agonist tested BHT 933 (an azepine derivative), lacks considerable relaxant and contractile effects in rat aorta. The results provide no evidence for the presence of functional ,2 -AR in rat aorta. Respectively, the relaxant and contractile effects of the imidazoline derivatives, clonidine and UK 14304, may be due to an adjustable (in relation to the agonist-dependent active state of the ,1 -AR), inhibitory and excitatory, interaction with ,1 -ARs. [source]


    Phentolamine mesylate relaxes rabbit corpus cavernosum by a nonadrenergic, noncholinergic mechanism

    FUNDAMENTAL & CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Issue 1 2001
    Subbarao Vemulapalli
    The contribution of NO-cGMP dependent pathway to phentolamine mesylate-evoked nonadrenergic, noncholinergic relaxation of rabbit corpus cavernosum was investigated in vitro. Stimulation of nonadrenergic, noncholinergic neurons of the rabbit corpus cavernosum elicited frequency-related relaxation that was significantly attenuated by L-NAME (NO synthase inhibitor) or ODQ (an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase). Moreover, tetrodotoxin, a sodium channel blocker, abolished the electrical field stimulation-induced relaxation of rabbit corpus cavernosum, suggesting that neuronal release of NO mediates relaxation to electrical field stimulation. Phentolamine mesylate (30 and 100 nM) dose-dependently enhanced electrical field stimulation-induced relaxation of the rabbit corpus cavernosum. Prazosin (30 ,M) and yohimbine (30 ,M) failed to affect phentolamine mesylate-mediated nonadrenergic, noncholinergic rabbit penile smooth muscle relaxation, suggesting that phentolamine relaxes rabbit corpus cavernosum independent of ,-adrenergic receptor blockade. In contrast, pretreatment of the rabbit cavernosal strips with L-NAME significantly-attenuated electrical field stimulation produced relaxations to phentolamine mesylate, suggesting that phentolamine mesylate relaxes rabbit corpus cavernosum by activating NO synthase. The data suggest that phentolamine mesylate relaxes nonadrenergic noncholinergic neurons of the rabbit corpus cavernosum by activating NO synthase and is independent of ,-adrenergic receptor blockade. [source]


    Insulin restores glucose inhibition of adenosine transport by increasing the expression and activity of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 2 in human umbilical vein endothelium

    JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    Gonzalo Muńoz
    L -Arginine transport and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis (L -arginine/NO pathway) are stimulated by insulin, adenosine or elevated extracellular D -glucose in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Adenosine uptake via the human equilibrative nucleoside transporters 1 (hENT1) and 2 (hENT2) has been proposed as a mechanism regulating adenosine plasma concentration, and therefore its vascular effects in human umbilical veins. Thus, altered expression and/or activity of hENT1 or hENT2 could lead to abnormal physiological plasma adenosine level. We have characterized insulin effect on adenosine transport in HUVEC cultured in normal (5 mM) or high (25 mM) D -glucose. Insulin (1 nM) increased overall adenosine transport associated with higher hENT2-, but lower hENT1-mediated transport in normal D -glucose. Insulin increased hENT2 protein abundance in normal or high D -glucose, but reduced hENT1 protein abundance in normal D -glucose. Insulin did not alter the reduced hENT1 protein abundance, but blocked the reduced hENT1 and hENT2 mRNA expression induced by high D -glucose. Insulin effect on hENT1 mRNA expression in normal D -glucose was blocked by NG -nitro- L -arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, NO synthase inhibitor) and mimicked by S -nitroso- N -acetyl- L,D -penicillamine (SNAP, NO donor). L-NAME did not block insulin effect on hENT2 expression. In conclusion, insulin stimulation of overall adenosine transport results from increased hENT2 expression and activity via a NO-independent mechanism. These findings could be important in hyperglycemia-associated pathological pregnancies, such as gestational diabetes, where plasma adenosine removal by the endothelium is reduced, a condition that could alter the blood flow from the placenta to the fetus affecting fetus growth and development. J. Cell. Physiol. 209: 826,835, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Asymmetric dimethylarginine may be a missing link between cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (Review Article)

    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 6 2007
    SEIJI UEDA
    SUMMARY: Decreased nitric oxide (NO) production and/or impaired NO bioavailability may occur in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and could contribute to the elevation of blood pressure, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the progression of renal injury in these patients. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for reduced NO action in patients with CKD remains to be elucidated. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a naturally occurring l -arginine analogue found in plasma and various types of tissues, acting as an endogenous NO synthase inhibitor in vivo. Further, plasma level of ADMA is elevated in patients with CKD and found to be a strong biomarker or predictor for future cardiovascular events. In addition, plasma level of ADMA could predict the progression of renal injury in these patients as well. These findings suggest that elevation of ADMA may be a missing link between CVD and CKD. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms for the elevation of ADMA and its pathophysiological role for CVD in high-risk patients, especially focusing on patients with CKD. [source]


    Role of Nitric Oxide in the Development of Distant Metastasis From Squamous Cell Carcinoma,

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 2 2007
    Richard L. Scher MD
    Abstract Background: Metastasis, the dissemination of malignant cells to distant sites, remains one of the most significant factors responsible for death from cancer. Recent studies have shown some improvement in the rate of distant metastasis (DM) with the addition of chemotherapy to surgery and radiation for treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, diagnosis and treatment at an early stage ultimately leads to a better prognosis. The prediction of which patients will develop metastasis and the selection of treatment most effective at preventing and treating metastasis remains dependent on an incomplete understanding of prognostic factors and the biological and molecular basis for metastatic development. This study was undertaken using an in vivo model to investigate the possible role of nitric oxide (NO) in the development of metastasis from HNSCC. The findings will result in better understanding of the metastatic process for HNSCC, with the potential to develop and implement therapies that could prevent and treat metastasis in patients. Objectives/Hypothesis: 1) To analyze whether in vivo videomicroscopy (IVVM) is useful for the study of DM from squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck; 2) with use of IVVM, investigate the effect of the biological mediators NO and interleukin (IL)-1 on the adhesion of circulating human HNSCC cells in the hepatic microcirculation. Study Design: Prospective study using an animal model. Methods: Phase 1: athymic nude rats and mice were used for IVVM experiments. The cremaster muscle and liver, used as arterial and venous flow models, were tested to determine whether IVVM was useful for the study of human HNSCC interactions with the microcirculation. A human squamous cell carcinoma cell line (FaDu) labeled with the intracytoplasmic fluorescent marker BCECF-am. was used for all experiments. Videomicroscopic images of FaDu cells in the microcirculation were analyzed for cell adhesion, morphology, deformation, circulation, location of adhesion within the microcirculation, and alteration of microvascular circulation. Phase 2: the effect of IL-1, NO, and NO inhibitors on HNSCC cell adhesion in the hepatic microcirculation of nude mice was analyzed by IVVM. This was followed by histologic determination of the ratio of FaDu cells present for liver area analyzed. Nude mice were treated with 1) IL-1; 2) L-arginine (an NO substrate); or 3) L-N-monomethyl-L-arginine (an NO synthase inhibitor) alone or in combination. These data were analyzed statistically to determine the effect on cell adhesion in the liver. Results: IVVM provided a method for the study of circulating HNSCC with the microcirculation in both the cremaster and liver models. FaDu cells were arrested at the inflow side of the circulation, with maintenance of cell integrity. L-arginine and IL-1 both increased FaDu cell arrest in the liver above baseline (P = .00008 and P = .03), and the combination of these agents potentiated the effect (P = .000009). Conclusions: IVVM allows direct assessment of circulating HNSCC with the microcirculation and is a powerful model for the study of DM. NO and IL-1 play a role in increasing the arrest of HNSCC in the liver and are important in the generation of DM in patients with HNSCC. [source]


    Opposite effects of endogenous nitric oxide and prostaglandin F2, in the rat mesenteric bed

    AUTONOMIC & AUTACOID PHARMACOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
    H. A. Peredo
    Summary 1 The relationship between the effects of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) and prostanoids on the noradrenaline (NA)-induced contractions and the mechanisms involved were investigated in the rat perfused mesenteric bed, using NG -nitro- l -arginine methyl ester (l -NAME), a NO synthase inhibitor and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor. 2 The constrictor responses to NA were reduced to 50% by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor 10 ,m indomethacin as well as by 1 ,m SNP. When indomethacin and SNP were perfused simultaneously the contractions were further reduced. 3 The NA-induced contractions were increased by the addition of 400 ,ml -NAME and the addition of either indomethacin or SNP abolished such increases. The simultaneous perfusion of both agents further reduced the contractions. 4 Removal of the endothelium increased NA-induced contractions to a similar extent as l -NAME and this increase was abolished by indomethacin as well as by SNP. 5 The perfusion of 10 ,m NA augmented the release of prostaglandin (PG) F2, by the mesenteric bed without modifications in any other prostanoid. In the presence of l -NAME, this effect was further increased. However, SNP abolished the NA-induced stimulation of PGF2, release. 6 In de-endothelialized preparations NA also stimulated PGF2, production as observed in intact preparations. This effect was more marked in the presence of l -NAME; in contrast, SNP abolished the stimulation. 7 In conclusion, the present results suggest an opposite action between NO and PGF2, on the NA-induced contractions in the rat mesenteric bed. [source]


    Enhancement of the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of theophylline by a low dose of a nitric oxide donor or non-specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, Issue 7 2009
    Adel Gomaa
    Background and purpose:, Although there are many new specific phosphodiesterase inhibitors with anti-inflammatory activity, none have yet reached the market because of their low therapeutic efficacy. Our study was aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effect of an established phosphodiesterase inhibitor, theophylline, and to investigate the effect of the nitric oxide (NO) donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) or NO synthase inhibitor, L-NG -monomethyl arginine (L-NMMA) on its actions. Experimental approach:, The effects of theophylline alone and combined with SNP or L-NMMA on the pathogenesis of adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats were evaluated. Key results:, Prophylactic or therapeutic doses of theophylline significantly ameliorated the pathogenesis of adjuvant arthritis in rats as evidenced by a significant decrease in the arthritis index, hind paws volume, ankle joint diameter, fever, body weight loss and hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent manner. Inflammatory cellular infiltrate in synovium of ankle joint and pannus formation were also markedly inhibited. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels were significantly increased in arthritic rats given theophylline alone or in combination with either SNP or L-NMMA. Co-administration of a low dose of SNP or L-NMMA enhanced significantly the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effect of theophylline. In contrast, a high dose of SNP counteracted the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of theophylline. Conclusions and Implication:, These findings confirm the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of theophylline and suggest a new approach to enhance the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of theophylline would be to administer it in combination with a low dose of a NO donor or a non-specific NO synthase inhibitor. [source]


    Possible involvement of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in the depressor responses to platelet activating factor (PAF) in rats

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, Issue 6 2000
    Yoshio Tanaka
    In anaesthetized rats, platelet activating factor (PAF; 1 ,g kg,1) decreased mean arterial blood pressure by around 60 mmHg (n=18). This depressor response was completely blocked by the PAF antagonist, CV-6209 (1 mg kg,1), indicating the role of PAF-specific receptor in the response. NG -nitro- L -arginine methyl ester (L -NAME; 50 mg kg,1), an NO synthase inhibitor, profoundly elevated systemic blood pressure (n=19), indicating an important role of NO in the basal blood pressure regulation. The depressor response to PAF (1 ,g kg,1) normalized against that to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (10 ,g kg,1) was not substantially different between rats treated without and with L -NAME (n=4). In contrast, the depressor effect of acetylcholine (0.03,1.0 ,g kg,1) normalized against that of SNP (10 ,g kg,1) was significantly attenuated by L -NAME (n=5). Charybdotoxin (0.4 mg kg,1) plus apamin (0.2 mg kg,1) significantly attenuated the depressor response to PAF (1 ,g kg,1) (n=5) without affecting the blood pressure change due to SNP (1 mg kg,1) (n=3). Charybdotoxin (0.4 mg kg,1) (n=4) or apamin (0.2 mg kg,1) (n=4) alone did not affect the PAF-induced depressor response. These findings suggest that EDHF may make a significant contribution to the depressor response to PAF in rats. Although NO plays the determinant role in the basal blood pressure regulation, its contribution to PAF-produced depressor response seems to be less as compared with that to the depressor response to acetylcholine. British Journal of Pharmacology (2000) 131, 1113,1120; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0703681 [source]


    Frontal cortical afferents facilitate striatal nitric oxide transmission in vivo via a NMDA receptor and neuronal NOS-dependent mechanism

    JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2007
    Stephen Sammut
    Abstract Striatal nitric oxide (NO) signaling plays a critical role in modulating neural processing and motor behavior. Nitrergic interneurons receive synaptic inputs from corticostriatal neurons and are activated via ionotropic glutamate receptor stimulation. However, the afferent regulation of NO signaling is poorly characterized. The role of frontal cortical afferents in regulating NO transmission was assessed in anesthetized rats using amperometric microsensor measurements of NO efflux and local field potential recordings. Low frequency (3 Hz) electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral cortex did not consistently evoke detectable changes in striatal NO efflux. In contrast, train stimulation (30 Hz) of frontal cortical afferents facilitated NO efflux in a stimulus intensity-dependent manner. Nitric oxide efflux evoked by train stimulation was transient, reproducible over time, and attenuated by systemic administration of either the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 or the neuronal NO synthase inhibitors 7-nitroindazole and NG -propyl- l -arginine. The interaction between NO efflux evoked via train stimulation and local striatal neuron activity was assessed using dual microsensor and local field potential recordings carried out concurrently in the contralateral and ipsilateral striatum, respectively. Systemic administration of the non-specific NO synthase inhibitor methylene blue attenuated both evoked NO efflux and the peak oscillation frequency (within the delta band) of local field potentials recorded immediately after train stimulation. Taken together, these observations indicate that feed-forward activation of neuronal NO signaling by phasic activation of frontal cortical afferents facilitates the synchronization of glutamate driven oscillations in striatal neurons. Thus, NO signaling may act to amplify coherent corticostriatal transmission and synchronize striatal output. [source]


    Glutamate-induced post-activation inhibition of locus coeruleus neurons is mediated by AMPA/kainate receptors and sodium-dependent potassium currents

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    Teresa Zamalloa
    Background and purpose:, Locus coeruleus (LC) neurons respond to sensory stimuli with a glutamate-triggered burst of spikes followed by an inhibition. The aim of our work was to characterize the inhibitory effect of glutamate in the LC. Experimental approach:, Single-unit extracellular and patch-clamp recordings were performed to examine glutamate responses in rat brain slices containing the LC. Key results:, Glutamate caused an initial activation followed by a late post-activation inhibition (PAI). Both effects were blocked by an AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist but not by NMDA or metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists. All glutamate receptor agonists were able to activate neurons, but only AMPA and quisqualate caused inhibition. In neurons clamped at ,60 mV, glutamate and AMPA induced inward, followed by outward, currents, with the latter reversing polarity at ,110 mV. Glutamate-induced PAI was not modified by ,2 -adrenoceptor, µ opioid, A1 adenosine and GABAA/B receptor antagonists or Ca2+ -dependent release blockade, but it was reduced by raising the extracellular K+ concentration. Glutamate-induced PAI was not affected by several potassium channel, Na+/K+ pump, PKC and neuronal NO synthase inhibitors or lowering the extracellular Ca2+ concentration. The Na+ -activated K channel opener bithionol concentration-dependently potentiated glutamate-induced PAI, whereas partial (80%) Na+ replacement reduced glutamate- and AMPA-induced PAI. Finally, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays showed the presence of mRNA for the Ca2+ -impermeable GluR2 subunit in the LC. Conclusions and implications:, Glutamate induces a late PAI in the LC, which may be mediated by a novel postsynaptic Na+ -dependent K+ current triggered by AMPA/kainate receptors. Mandarin translation of abstract [source]