No Significant Differences (no + significant_difference)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

ORIGINAL RESEARCH,ENDOCRINOLOGY: Evaluation of the Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Testosterone Levels in Adult Men

Graziele Halmenschlager MS
ABSTRACT Introduction., Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent among men. Many studies have evaluated the effect of cigarette smoking on levels of male reproductive hormones; however, the findings still remain controversial. Aim., To evaluate the influence of cigarette smoking on serum levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), bioavailable testosterone (BT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Methods., A total of 255 men (90 smokers and 165 nonsmokers), aged 30 to 70 years, were investigated. Weight and height were obtained and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Also, waist circumference and hip circumference were measured and waist-to-hip ratio was obtained. Fasting blood samples were drawn for determination of plasmatic glucose levels and serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides, albumin, prolactin, TT, SHBG, LH, and FSH. The values of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) were determined by Friedwald equation and the values of FT and BT were calculated from TT, SHBG, and albumin. Statistical significance was set at P , 0.05. Main Outcome Measures., The influence of smoking on levels of TT, FT, and BT. Results., No significant difference was observed in the mean values of TT (P = 0.580), FT (P = 0.869), BT (P = 0.933), SHBG (P = 0.279), LH (P = 0.573), and FSH (P = 0.693) in the different levels of pack-years when compared to nonsmokers. Moreover, after multivariate logistic regression, no association between increased pack-years of smoking and increased odds ratio for occurrence of low hormones and SHBG levels was observed. Conclusion., In this study, smokers and nonsmokers had similar mean values of androgens, gonadotropins and SHBG. However, it is necessary to standardize pack-years of smoking in order to elucidate the influence of cigarette smoking on sex hormone levels, as well as to minimize differences among studies and to confirm our results. Halmenschlager G, Rossetto S, Lara GM, and Rhoden EL. Evaluation of the effects of cigarette smoking on testosterone levels in adult men. J Sex Med 2009;6:1763,1772. [source]

The dynamics of unattached benthic macroalgal accumulations in the Swan,Canning Estuary

Helen Astill
Abstract It has been suggested that macroalgal accumulations may impact on benthic nutrient cycling by promoting remineralization of sedimentary nutrients, otherwise inaccessible, and act as sinks/sources for dissolved nutrients in the water column. However, little consideration has been given to the time taken for these impacts to occur, and if accumulations persist long enough in a region for impacts to occur. In this study, accumulations were characterized seasonally, according to biomass, height relative to water depth, and organic content of the underlying sediment, from November 1996 to August 1997, in the Swan,Canning Estuary. Persistence of accumulations was measured from late summer to mid-winter in 1997, by tagging individual plants and recording the time tagged plants persisted at 10 sites. In summer 1998, physicochemical profiles of accumulations were measured over 24 h, at two locations: one with relatively low sediment organic content (SOCn) (1·5% LOI) and one with relatively high SOC (6% LOI). Accumulations rarely exceeded 25 cm in height, regardless of water column depth, and ranged between 100 and 500 g dwt m,2. Macroalgae persisted between one week, in relatively well-flushed regions, to one month in areas with poor flushing. Over the entire diurnal period, almost 100% of incident light was attenuated at the bottom of all accumulations. Dissolved oxygen levels at the bottom of accumulations were generally depressed, particularly at night, with hypoxia (1 mg l,1) recorded at the high SOC site at 03 : 00 h. No significant differences in FRP concentrations (approximately 30,60 µg l,1) were recorded between sites, or within accumulation profiles. Ammonium levels were greatly raised inside accumulations at the high SOC site by 03 : 00 h (10 and 300 µg l,1, inside and outside, respectively). The results show that, where SOC is high, conditions within accumulations are affected. Impacts occurred within 24 h; well within the period for which accumulations persist. These results also indicate that regulation of hydrological regimes in estuarine systems may result in increased persistence of macroalgal accumulations, and associated water quality problems. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The impact of a nurse-led support and education programme for spouses of stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial

Jenny Larson RN, PhD student
Aims and objectives., The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of a nurse-led support and education programme for improving the spouses' perceived general quality of life, life situation, general well-being and health state. Background., Stroke is a disease with great consequences for the patients and their families. The spouses often feel obligated to care for the patient, providing psychological and physical support and having to cope with the patient's physical and cognitive impairments. This might lead to increased problems, as family members struggle to adapt to their new roles and responsibilities. Design and methods., Longitudinal, randomized controlled trial. One hundred spouses were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups, 50 in each group. The intervention group participated in a support and education programme, six times during six months, led by stroke specialist nurses. Both groups were followed for 12 months. Results., No significant differences were found, between intervention and control groups, over time. In the sub analyses, we found that the group attending 5,6 times had a significant decrease in negative well-being and increased quality of life over time, while the group attending fewer times had a significant decrease in positive well-being and health state, similar to the control group, which also had a significant decrease in negative and general well-being. Conclusions., A support and education programme might have a positive effect on spouses' well-being, on condition that they attend at least five times. Relevance to clinical practice., To facilitate the spouses' role as informal caregivers to the stroke patients, further development of the support and education programme used in the present study is needed, including empowerment approach and implementation of coping strategies. [source]

Protozoan population and fermentation parameters of rumen contents of sheep from heavy metal contaminated area

The rumen contents from Slovak Merino sheep (12 months of age) were used for in vitro study on the influence of area contaminated by heavy metals on rumen fermentation and protozoan activity. Sheep were browsing in the contaminated area of Kal'ava village (Slovakia) and were exposed to 1-year intake of heavy metals. The area of Kal'ava is contaminated by atmospheric pollution from the non-ferrous metal works at Krompachy (Slovakia). Based on the levels of mercury (4.8 mg'kg), copper (232.9 mg/kg), cadmium (1.2 mg/kg), lead (92.5 mg/kg) and arsenic (74.6 mg/1) the soil was categorized as profusely contaminated. Grass contamination was below the toxic limits. In the tested materials, copper was present at the highest levels followed by lead and arsenic. Meadow hay was used as a tested substrate of fermentation activity; it was incubated with buffered rumen fluid for 24 h. The significantly decreased values of fermentation parameters (total gas, methane, total VFA, acetate) were associated with a reduced total concentration of protozoans. Significant decrease was detected in the total rumen ciliate population and population of c. No significant differences were observed in the concentration of Dasytricha ruminantium and Ophryoscolex c. tricoronatus. The study was supported by funds from Grant Agency for Science of the Slovak Academy of Sciences (2/3058/23, 2/3064/23) and funds from APVT grant (51012602). [source]

Effect of dietary protein level on growth, survival and ammonia efflux rate of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) raised in a zero water exchange culture system

Silvia Gómez-Jiménez
Abstract Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae (1.96±0.07 g) were reared in a zero water exchange system for 25 days at 28°C. They were fed four commercial diets containing 25%, 30%, 35% or 40% crude protein in three replicate aquaria per dietary treatment. Total ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and pH were monitored weekly and total ammonia levels were additionally measured every 3 days using the flow injection analysis method. Total ammonia efflux rates were measured at days 0, 14 and 21, and survival and growth rates were recorded at the end of the experiment. No significant differences between water quality parameters such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH were found. Nitrite concentration remained low in all dietary treatments up to the second week increasing considerably from day 14 onwards suggesting the initiation of the nitrification process. Water total ammonia of all experimental groups exhibited a gradual increase up to day 13; however, following this time ammonia levels of all experimental groups decreased, probably due to either the action of bacterial nitrification or ammonia-N uptake by the animals. High ammonia efflux rates were recorded at day 14, especially after the first hour of immersion in the 25% protein group, but no significant changes occurred in any experimental group after 3 h. No significant differences in weight gain, final weight or survival of shrimp were observed under these experimental conditions. The importance of zero water exchange systems and their effects on the nitrogen metabolism of crustaceans are discussed. [source]