NO Release (no + release)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Nitric oxide, superoxide and renal blood flow autoregulation in SHR after perinatal L -arginine and antioxidants

M. P. Koeners
Abstract Aim:, Nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide are considered to be regulatory in renal blood flow (RBF) autoregulation, and hence may contribute to development of hypertension. To extend our previous observations that dynamic NO release is impaired in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) we investigated, firstly, if superoxide dependency of RBF autoregulation is increased in SHR and, secondly, if the beneficial effect of perinatal supplementation in SHR is partly as a result of early correction of RBF autoregulation. We hypothesized that perinatal supplementation by restoring dynamic NO release and/or decreasing superoxide dependency and would improve life-long blood pressure regulation. Methods:, Autoregulation was studied using stepwise reductions in renal perfusion pressure in anaesthetized male SHR, SHR perinatally supplemented with arginine and antioxidants (SHRsuppl) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY), prior to and during i.v. N, -nitro- l -arginine (NO synthase inhibitor) or tempol (superoxide dismutase mimetic). Results:, Spontaneously hypertensive rat displayed a wider operating range of RBF autoregulation as compared with WKY (59 4 vs. 33 2 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.01). Perinatal supplementation in SHR decreased mean arterial pressure, renal vascular resistance and the operating range of RBF autoregulation (43 3 mmHg; P < 0.01). In addition autoregulation efficiency decreased. RBF autoregulation characteristics shifted towards those of normotensive WKY. However, dynamic NO release was still impaired and no clear differences in superoxide dependency in RBF autoregulation between groups was observed. Conclusion:, Perinatal supplements shifted RBF autoregulation characteristics of SHR towards WKY, although capacity of the SHRsuppl kidney to modulate NO production to shear stress still seems impaired. The less strictly controlled RBF as observed in perinatally supplemented SHR could result in an improved long-term blood pressure control. This might partly underlie the beneficial effects of perinatal supplementation. [source]

Electrochemical Investigation of the Role of Reducing Agents in Copper-Catalyzed Nitric Oxide Release from S-Nitrosoglutathione

Monique David-Dufilho
Abstract Studies of nitric oxide (NO) release from S -nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) decomposition by Cu2+ in the presence of reducing agents were performed using a nickel porphyrin and Nafion-coated microsensor in order to compare the efficiency of sodium hydrosulfite (Na2S2O4) and sodium borohydride (NaBH4) to that of the most abundant endogenous reducer, glutathione (GSH). When it was mixed to Cu(NO3)2 and added to equimolar concentration of GSNO, each reducing agent caused a NO release (measured in terms of oxidation current) but only NaBH4 induced a proportional rise if its concentration doubled and that of Cu2+ remained constant. For Na2S2O4, there was a mild increase and for GSH, no change. Furthermore, when Cu2+ concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 5,,M were mixed with 2,,M reducing agent and added to 2,,M GSNO, the NO oxidation current linearly increased with NaBH4 and was constant with Na2S2O4. Concerning GSH, Cu2+ dose-dependently increased the NO release from GSNO only if the Cu2+ -to-reducer ratio was ,1. However, GSH formed the catalytic species Cu+ even in excess of Cu2+ and GSNO as indicated by suppression of the Cu2+/GSH-induced NO release when the Cu+ chelator neocuproine was added to GSNO. This work shows that, among the 3 reducing agents, only NaBH4 allows Cu2+ to dose-dependently increase the NO release from GSNO for Cu2+ -to-reducer ratios ranging from 0.25 to 2.5. Despite this good effectiveness, excess of NaBH4 compared to both Cu2+ and GSNO seems to be required for optimal NO release. [source]

Nitric oxide synthase inhibition in Thoroughbred horses augments O2 extraction at rest and submaximal exercise, but not during short-term maximal exercise

Summary Reason for performing study: Work is required to establish the role of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in metabolism of resting and exercising horses. Objectives: To examine the effects of NO synthase inhibition on O2 extraction and anaerobic metabolism at rest, and during submaximal and maximal exertion. Methods: Placebo and NO synthase inhibition (with N,-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester [l -NAME] administered at 20 mg/kg bwt i.v.) studies were performed in random order, 7 days apart on 7 healthy, exercise-trained Thoroughbred horses at rest and during incremental exercise leading to 120 sec of maximal exertion at 14 m/sec on a 3.5% uphill grade. Results: At rest, NO synthase inhibition significantly augmented the arterial to mixed-venous blood O2 content gradient and O2 extraction as mixed-venous blood O2 tension and saturation decreased significantly. While NO synthase inhibition did not affect arterial blood-gas tensions in exercising horses, the exercise-induced increment in haemoglobin concentration and arterial O2 content was attenuated. In the l -NAME study, during submaximal exercise, mixed-venous blood O2 tension and haemoglobin-O2 saturation decreased to a greater extent causing O2 extraction to increase significantly. During maximal exertion, arterial hypoxaemia, desaturation of haemoglobin and hypercapnia of a similar magnitude developed in both treatments. Also, the changes in mixed-venous blood O2 tension and haemoglobin-O2 saturation, arterial to mixed-venous blood O2 content gradient, O2 extraction and markers of anaerobic metabolism (lactate and ammonia production, and metabolic acidosis) were not different from those in the placebo study. Conclusion: Endogenous NO production augments O2 extraction at rest and during submaximal exertion, but not the during short-term maximal exercise. Also, NO synthase inhibition does not affect anaerobic metabolism at rest or during exertion. Potential relevance: It is unlikely that endogenous NO release modifies aerobic or anaerobic metabolism in horses performing short-term maximal exertion. [source]

The uptake by cells of 2-arachidonoylglycerol, an endogenous agonist of cannabinoid receptors

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 7 2001
Tiziana Bisogno
It is not yet clear if the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is transported into cells through the same membrane transporter mediating the uptake of the other endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide (N -arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA), and whether this process (a) is regulated by cells and (b) limits 2-AG pharmacological actions. We have studied simultaneously the facilitated transport of [14C]AEA and [3H]2-AG into rat C6 glioma cells and found uptake mechanisms with different efficacies but similar affinities for the two compounds (Km 11.0 2.0 and 15.3 3.1 m, Bmax 1.70 0.30 and 0.24 0.04 nmolmin,1mg protein,1, respectively). Despite these similar Km values, 2-AG inhibits [14C]AEA uptake by cells at concentrations (Ki = 30.1 3.9 m) significantly higher than those required to either 2-AG or AEA to inhibit [3H]2-AG uptake (Ki = 18.9 1.8 and 20.5 3.2 m, respectively). Furthermore: (a) if C6 cells are incubated simultaneously with identical concentrations of [14C]AEA and [3H]2-AG, only the uptake of the latter compound is significantly decreased as compared to that observed with [3H]2-AG alone; (b) the uptake of [14C]AEA and [3H]2-AG by cells is inhibited with the same potency by AM404 (Ki = 7.5 0.7 and 10.2 1.7 m, respectively) and linvanil (Ki = 9.5 0.7 and 6.4 1.2 m, respectively), two inhibitors of the AEA membrane transporter; (c) nitric oxide (NO) donors enhance the uptake of both [14C]AEA and [3H]2-AG, thus suggesting that 2-AG action can be regulated through NO release; (d) AEA and 2-AG induce a weak release of NO that can be blocked by a CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, and significantly enhanced in the presence of AM404 and linvanil, thus suggesting that transport into C6 cells limits the action of both endocannabinoids. [source]

Effect of resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin, on thermal hyperalgesia in a mouse model of diabetic neuropathic pain

Sameer Sharma
Abstract Diabetic neuropathic pain, an important microvascular complication in diabetes mellitus, has been recognized as one of the most difficult types of pain to treat. The underlying mechanisms of painful symptoms may be closely associated with hyperglycaemia but a lack of the understanding of its proper aetiology, inadequate relief, development of tolerance and potential toxicity of classical antinociceptives warrant the investigation of the newer agents to relieve this pain. The aim of the present study was to explore the antinociceptive effect of resveratrol on diabetic neuropathic pain and to examine its effect on serum tumour necrosis factor- , (TNF- ,) and whole brain nitric oxide (NO) release. Four weeks after a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 200 mg/kg), mice were tested in the tail immersion and hot-plate assays. Diabetic mice exhibited significant hyperalgesia along with increased plasma glucose and decreased body weights when compared with control mice. Daily treatment with resveratrol (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight; p.o.) for 4 weeks starting from the 4th week of STZ injection significantly attenuated thermal hyperalgesia. Resveratrol also decreased the serum TNF- , levels and whole brain NO release in a dose-dependent manner. These results point towards the potential of resveratrol in attenuating diabetic neuropathic pain. [source]

Inhibition of Rho-dependent pathways by Clostridium botulinum C3 protein induces a proinflammatory profile in microglia

GLIA, Issue 11 2008
Anja Hoffmann
Abstract Successful regeneration in the central nervous system crucially depends on the adequate environment. Microglia as brain immune-competent cells importantly contribute to this task by producing pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. Any environmental change transforms these cells towards an activated phenotype, leading to major morphological, transcriptional and functional alterations. Rho GTPases affect multiple cellular properties, including the cytoskeleton, and C3 proteins are widely used to study their involvement. Especially C3bot from Clostridium botulinum has been considered to promote neuronal regeneration by changing Rho activity. Yet C3bot may exert cellular influences through alternative mechanisms. To determine the role of Rho-dependent pathways in microglia we investigated the influence of C3bot on functional properties of cultivated primary mouse microglial cells. Nanomolar concentrations of C3bot transformed microglia towards an activated phenotype and triggered the release of nitric oxide and several proinflammatory cyto- and chemokines. These inductions were not mediated by the ROCK-kinase pathway, since its selective inhibitors Y27632 and H1152 had no effect. C3-induced and Rho-mediated NO release was instead found to be under the control of NF,B, as revealed by treatment with the NF,B inhibitor PDTC. Thus, C3bot induces a proinflammatory response in microglia resembling the classical proinflammatory phenotype elicited by bacterial LPS. The findings are relevant for the use of C3bot in regenerative approaches. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Endothelial Function in Patients With Migraine During the Interictal Period

HEADACHE, Issue 1 2007
Federico A. Silva MD
Objectives.,The aim of this study is to evaluate endothelial function in migraineur subjects during the asymptomatic period. Background.,Migraine has been proposed as a risk factor for cerebrovascular events. The underlying mechanisms that relate these 2 pathologies are unknown. Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed as the final causative molecule of migraine. Increased NO metabolites concentrations have been reported in migraineur subjects during acute migraine attacks, but there is no evidence indicating alterations in endothelial NO release during the symptom free period in theses subjects. Design and Methods.,Fifty migraineur subjects and 25 healthy subjects matched by gender and age were included. Every subject underwent a complete examination that included medical history, physical examination, resting electrocardiogram, forearm flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), blood determinations of fasting nitrates and nitrites (NO2,+ NO3,), glucose, lipid profile, creatinine, C-reactive protein, and blood cell count. Results.,No differences in FMD or NO2,+ NO3, were detected among groups. The only difference between migraineurs and control subjects was a higher mean blood pressure 92.1 (8.8) mmHg versus 86.7 (8.2) mmHg P= .01. Conclusion.,The endothelial function is not altered during the interictal period in migraineur subjects. [source]

Nitric oxide and pain: ,Something old, something new'

Challenges have emerged following the revival of nitric oxide (NO) from ,something old', a simple gas derived from nitrogen and oxygen with a role in the early stages of evolution, into ,something new', an endogenously formed biological mediator regulating a wide variety of physiological functions. Although pain is a common sensation, it encompasses multiple neurobiologic components, of which NO is only one. In pain research, the study of NO is complicated by convoluted problems related mostly to the effects of NO, which are pro- or anti-nociceptive depending on the circumstances. This dual function reflects the multi-faceted roles of the NO molecule described in physiology. This review covers current information about NO and its implications in pain mechanisms. In addition, it follows the pain pathways, demonstrating the role of NO in peripheral nociceptive transmission as well in central sensitization. This knowledge may provide the scientific basis for developing new drugs that are indicated for different types of pain, drugs that may be related to the chemical links of NO. A comprehensive approach to understanding the effects of NO will help clinicians identify novel agents that combine the pharmacological profile of native drugs with a controllable manner of NO release. Inhibitors of NO synthesis may have analgesic effects and would be of interest for treating inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Unfortunately, only a few of these compounds have reached the stage of clinical pain trials. [source]

Development of selective tolerance to interleukin-1, by human chondrocytes in vitro,

Greta M. Lee
Interleukin-1 induces release of NO and PGE2 and production of matrix degrading enzymes in chondrocytes. In osteoarthritis (OA), IL-1 continually, or episodically, acts on chondrocytes in a paracrine and autocrine manner. Human chondrocytes in chondron pellet culture were treated chronically (up to 14 days) with IL-1,. Chondrons from OA articular cartilage were cultured for 3 weeks before treatment with IL-1, (0.05,10 ng/ml) for an additional 2 weeks. Spontaneous release of NO and IL-1, declined over the pretreatment period. In response to IL-1, (0.1 ng/ml), NO and PGE2 release was maximal on Day 2 or 3 and then declined to near basal level by Day 14. Synthesis was recovered by addition of 1 ng/ml IL-1, on Day 11. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), detected by immunofluorescence, was elevated on Day 2 and declined through Day 14, which coordinated with the pattern of NO release. On the other hand, IL-1,-induced MMP-13 synthesis was elevated on Day 3, declined on Day 5, and then increased again through Day 14. IL-1, increased glucose consumption and lactate production throughout the treatment. IL-1, stimulated proteoglycan degradation in the early days and inhibited proteoglycan synthesis through Day 14. Chondron pellet cultures from non-OA cartilage released the same amount of NO but produced less PGE2 and MMP-13 in response to IL-1, than OA cultures. Like the OA, IL-1,-induced NO and PGE2 release decreased over time. In conclusion, with prolonged exposure to IL-1,, human chondrocytes develop selective tolerance involving NO and PGE2 release but not MMP-13 production, metabolic activity, or matrix metabolism. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Inter-relationship of cytokine production and NOS2 expression in microglia

C. Dello Russo
Under normal conditions, glial cells provide neurotrophic support, but can contribute to damage during neurodegenerative disorders such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Once activated, glia produce and release inflammatory mediators and potentially neurotoxic substances (including cytokines, NO, and prostanoids) whose interactions could lead to sustained inflammation. We investigated the relationship between cytokine production and NO release using enriched cultures of rat microglia. Preliminary data suggest that low concentrations of endotoxin LPS (1,10 ng/mL) activated microglia by a complex mechanism involving NF,B activation, cAMP increase and PKA activation, and IL-1, production and release. We characterized this system using pharmacological activators and inhibitors of NF,B and PKA, and IL-1r, to reduce IL-1, effects. Norepinephrine (NE) dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced NOS2 expression and NO generation, via activation of ,-2 adrenergic receptors (,2-ARs) and elevation of cAMP. Similarly, NE dose-dependently blocked LPS-dependent IL-1, production. The addition of PKA inhibitors did not reverse the suppressive effects of NE on NO production, but did reverse its effects on IL-1,. Addition of IL-1r, also reduced NO production, and exogenous IL-1, reversed the inhibitory effects of NE. These data suggest that effects of NE on LPS-dependent NO release is, at least in part, mediated by blocking of IL-1, secretion. At the same time, results with inhibitors suggest that PKA activation is necessary for LPS effects. Together, these results point to the existence of autocrine and paracrine regulatory mechanisms of microglia activation. The relationship between cytokines and NO could be an important mechanism of sustained and disruptive microglia activation. [source]

Thrombin and PAR-1 acitvating peptide increase iNOS expression in cytokine-stimulated C6 glioma cells

Rosaria Meli
Thrombin (THR) plays a key role in the brain under physiological and pathological conditions. Several of the biological activities of thrombin have been shown to be mainly driven through activation of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1)-type thrombin receptor. Here we have studied the effect of THR and PAR-1-activating peptide (PAR1-AP), SFLLRN, on cytokine-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), a prominent marker of astroglial activation using the rat C6 glioma cells. In this cell line, THR (1,10 U/mL) and PAR1-AP (1,100 m) induced a significant concentration-dependent increase both of IFN-,- (250 U/mL) or TNF-,- (500 U/mL) induced NO release. The observed increase of NO production was related to an enhancement of iNOS expression as measured in cell lysates prepared from different treatments by using SDS,PAGE followed by western blot analysis. The effect of THR, but not that of PAR1-AP, was significantly inhibited by hirulogTM (60 g/mL), a specific and stochiometric THR inhibitor or by cathepsin-G (40 mU/mL), an inhibitor of PAR-1. In conclusion our data suggest a role for THR through activation of PAR-1 in the induction of astroglial iNOS, and further support the hypothesis that THR may function as an important pathophysiological modulator of the inflammatory response. [source]

Blockade of chloride intracellular ion channel 1 stimulates A, phagocytosis

Silvia Paradisi
Abstract In amyloid-, (A,)-stimulated microglial cells, blockade of chloride intracellular ion channel 1 (CLIC1) reverts the increase in tumor necrosis factor-, and nitric oxide (NO) production and results in neuroprotection of cocultured neurons. This effect could be of therapeutic efficacy in Alzheimer's disease (AD), where microglial activation may contribute to neurodegeneration, but it could reduce A, phagocytosis, which could facilitate amyloid plaque removal. Here, we analyzed the CLIC1 blockade effect on A,-stimulated mononuclear phagocytosis. In the microglial cell line BV-2, A,25,35 treatment enhanced fluorescent bead phagocytosis, which persisted also in the presence of IAA-94, a CLIC1 channel blocker. The same result was obtained in rat primary microglia and in BV2 cells, where CLIC1 expression had been knocked down with a plasmid producing small interfering RNAs. To address specifically the issue of A, phagocytosis, we treated BV-2 cells with biotinylated A,1,42 and measured intracellular amyloid by morphometric analysis. IAA-94-treated cells showed an increased A, phagocytosis after 24 hr and efficient degradation of ingested material after 72 hr. In addition, we tested A,1,42 phagocytosis in adult rat peritoneal macrophages. Also, these cells actively phagocytosed A,1,42 in the presence of IAA-94. However, the increased expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), stimulated by A,, was reverted by IAA-94. In parallel, a decrease in NO release was detected. These results suggest that blockade of CLIC1 stimulates A, phagocytosis in mononuclear phagocytes while inhibiting the induction of iNOS and further point to CLIC1 as a possible therapeutic target in AD. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

IL-1,, an immediate early protein secreted by activated microglia, induces iNOS/NO in C6 astrocytoma cells through p38 MAPK and NF-,B pathways

Yun-Jung Kim
Abstract In the present study we sought to examine cell,cell interactions by investigating the effects of factors released by stimulated microglia on inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) induction in astrocytoma cells. After examining the temporal profiles of proinflammatory molecules induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in BV2 microglial cells, iNOS and IL-1, were observed to be the first immediate-response molecules. Removal of LPS after 3 hr stimulation abrogated NO release, whereas a full induction of IL-1, was retained in BV2 cells. We observed consistently that conditioned medium (CM) from activated microglia resulted in the induction of iNOS in C6 cells, and IL-1, was shown to be a key regulator of iNOS induction. An IL-1,-neutralizing antibody diminished NO induction. Incubation with recombinant IL-1, stimulated NO release to a lesser extent compared to microglial CM; co-treatment of LPS and IL-1, had a potent, synergistic effect on NO release from C6 cells. Transient transfection with MEK kinase 1 (MEKK1) or nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-,B) expression plasmids induced iNOS, and IL-1, further enhanced the MEKK1 response. Furthermore, IL-1,-mediated NO release from C6 cells was significantly suppressed by inhibition of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) or NF-,B by specific chemical inhibitors. Both IL-1, and MEKK1 stimulated p38 and JNK MAPKs, as well as the NF-,B pathway, to induce iNOS in C6 cells. Microglia may represent an anti-tumor response in the central nervous system, which is potentiated by the local secretion of immunomodulatory factors that in turn affects astrocytoma (glioma) cells. A better understanding of microglia,glioma or microglia,astrocyte interactions will help in the design of novel immune-based therapies for brain tumors or neuronal diseases. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Loss of lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in scrapie-infected N2a cells

Helne Lindegren
Abstract In scrapie-infected cells, the conversion of the cellular prion protein to the pathogenic prion has been shown to occur in lipid rafts, which are suggested to function as signal transduction platforms. Neuronal cells may respond to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment with a sustained and elevated nitric oxide (NO) release. Because prions and the major LPS receptor CD14 are colocalized in lipid rafts, the LPS-induced NO production in scrapie-infected neuroblastoma cells was studied. This study shows that LPS induces a dose- and time-dependent increase in NO release in the murine neuroblastoma cell line N2a, with a 50-fold increase in NO production at 1 ,g/ml LPS after 96 hr, as measured by nitrite in the medium. This massive NO release was not caused by activation of the neuronal NO synthase (nNOS), but by increased expression of the inducible NOS (iNOS) mRNA and protein. However, in scrapie-infected N2a cells (ScN2a), the LPS-induced NO production was completely abolished. The absence of LPS-induced NO production in ScN2a was due not to abolished enzymatic activity of iNOS but to a complete inhibition of the LPS-induced iNOS gene expression as measured by Western blot and RT-PCR. These results indicate that scrapie infection inhibits the LPS-mediated signal transduction upstream of the transcriptional step in the signaling cascade and may reflect the important molecular and cellular changes induced by scrapie infection. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Cytotoxic activity and effect on nitric oxide production of tirucallane-type triterpenes

Ibeth Oviedo Chvez
Hexane extract from the bark of Amphipterygium adstringens, as well as its principal constituents, masticadienonic acid (1) and 3,-hydroxymasticadienolic acid (2), inhibited the growth of five human cancer cell lines. Derivatives of 1, namely 24,25S -dihydromasticadienonic acid (3) and masticadienolic acid (4), were also evaluated. The results showed that both 3 and 4 had greater activity than 1 on colon cancer cell lines. The effects of 1,4 on the production of nitric oxide (NO) from both resting and lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages were determined. It was found that 1, 2 and 4 caused an increase in NO release from resting macrophages; in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages, only 2 and 4 caused an increase in NO production. [source]

Ethanol Upregulates iNOS Expression in Colon Through Activation of Nuclear Factor-kappa B in Rats

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 1 2010
Chao Wang
Background:, Alcohol inhibits colonic motility but the mechanism is unknown. The goal of this study was to test the possibility that nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-,B) is involved in the upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression induced by ethanol in colon. Methods:, The isometric contraction of longitudinal muscle strips of proximal colon (LP) was monitored by polygraph. Western blot analysis was used to measure the amount of iNOS and I-,B in the cytoplasm and P65 in the nucleus. Immunohistochemistry was applied to locate iNOS in colon. Results:, Ethanol (87mM) inhibited the contraction of LP. Pretreatment of S-methylisothioure (SMT) (1 mM), a specific iNOS inhibitor, Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) (10 mM) and BAY11-7082(10 mM), specific inhibitors of NF-,B significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of ethanol on LP contraction. Ethanol increased the amount of iNOS and content of NO in colon, and these effects were attenuated by pretreatment of PDTC. Following ethanol administration, the amount of I-,B in the cytoplasm decreased, but that of P65, the subunit of NF-,B in the nucleus, increased. The iNOS was located in the cell body of myenteric plexus in colon. Conclusion:, Ethanol inhibited the contraction of LP in colon mainly through activation of NF-,B, the subsequent upregulation of iNOS expression and increase of NO release in myenteric plexus. [source]

Ethanol Effects on Nitric Oxide Production in Cerebral Pial Cultures

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 4 2001
Chin-Lung Shih
Background: Although alcohol abusers are known to have higher incidences of hemorrhagic cerebrovascular diseases, it is not known whether these changes are associated with ethanol (EtOH) action on nitric oxide (NO) production in the cerebrovascular cells. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of EtOH treatment on basal and cytokine-induced NO production in cortical pial cultures. Methods: Cell cultures for this study included murine primary pial vascular cells, primary glial cells and cortical neurons. These cells were exposed to cytokines or EtOH for 24 to 48 hr. The culture media were used for measurement of nitrite, as an indication for NO release, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), as an index of cell membrane integrity. In addition, immunocytochemical determinations were carried out to identify cell types and to assess inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Results: Exposure of primary pial vascular cultures to cytokines that consisted of interleukin-1, (IL-1,; 250 pg/mL) and interferon-, (IFN,; 2 ng/mL) or to EtOH (50 to 100 mM) for 24 to 48 hr significantly elevated NO production. NO production could be attenuated by N -nitro-L-arginine (N-arg), a nonspecific NOS inhibitor, or aminoguanidine (AG), an iNOS inhibitor. Increased iNOS immunoreactivity was observed in cytokines- or EtOH-treated pial cells. When pial cells were cocultured with cortical neurons, prolonged EtOH exposure led to a large increase in NO production as well as LDH release. However, this increase was not observed in pial culture alone or in mixed cortical culture. Nevertheless, inhibition of NO production with N-arg or AG did not alter the EtOH-induced LDH release in the pial cells cocultured with cortical neurons. Conclusion: These results show that EtOH exposure led to increased production of NO in primary pial cell culture. In mixed culture that contained cortical neurons and pial cells, EtOH induced increase in NO as well as LDH release, which is an indication of loss of cell membrane integrity. However, EtOH-mediated LDH release in mixed cortical pial cultures was not a consequence of the increase in NO production by these cells. Studies that use mixed cortical-pial cultures may provide a unique in vitro system for examining the interactions among glial cells, neurons, and cerebrovascular cells. [source]

A novel nitric oxide-releasing statin derivative exerts an antiplatelet/antithrombotic activity and inhibits tissue factor expression,

Summary.,Background:,NO-releasing statins are new chemical entities, combining HMG-CoA reductase inhibition and slow NO release, that possess stronger anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities than the native statins. Objective:,We evaluated the antithrombotic effects of nitropravastatin (NCX-6550) by assessing its activity on platelet activation and tissue factor (TF) expression by mononuclear cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods and results:,In vitro, NCX-6550 inhibited (1) U46619- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation in buffer and plasma; (2) collagen-induced P-selectin expression in whole blood and (3) platelet adhesion to collagen-coated coverslips under high shear stress. These effects were displayed at concentrations of NCX-6550 ranging from 25 to 100 ,m, and were totally reverted by the guanylylcyclase inhibitor ODQ (10 ,m). Equimolar concentrations of pravastatin had no influence on these parameters of platelet function. LPS- and PMA-induced TF expression by blood mononuclear cells was also inhibited by NCX-6550 (IC50 13 ,m), but not by pravastatin, as assessed by functional and immunological assays and by real-time PCR. In a mouse model of platelet pulmonary thromboembolism, induced by the i.v. injection of collagen plus epinephrine, pretreatment with NCX-6550 (24,48 mg kg,1) significantly reduced platelet consumption, lung vessel occlusion and mortality. Moreover, nitropravastatin markedly inhibited the generation of procoagulant activity by spleen mononuclear cells and peritoneal macrophages in mice treated with LPS. In these in vivo models too, pravastatin failed to affect platelet activation and monocyte/macrophage procoagulant activity. Conclusions:,Our results show that nitropravastatin exerts strong antithrombotic effects in vitro and in vivo, and may represent an interesting antiatherothrombotic agent for testing in acute coronary syndromes. [source]

Nicotine-induced NO release in colitis

M. Guslandi
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Reply,nicotine-induced NO release in colitis

J. Green
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Suppression of nNOS expression in rat enteric neurones by the receptor for advanced glycation end-products

K. Korenaga
Abstract, Diabetes mellitus results in a loss of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression in the myenteric plexus but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesized that this may be mediated by advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), a class of modified protein adducts formed by non-enzymatic glycation that interact with the receptor for AGE (RAGE) and which are important in the pathogenesis of other diabetic complications. Whole mount preparations of longitudinal muscles with adherent myenteric plexus (LM-MPs) from the duodenum of adult male rats were exposed to glycated bovines serum albumin (AGE-BSA) or BSA for 24 h. Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for mRNA showed a significant reduction in nNOS expression in LM-MPs after exposure to AGE-BSA. NO release, as measured by the Griess reaction, was also significantly reduced by AGE-BSA. A neutralizing antibody against RAGE attenuated the reduction of nNOS protein caused by AGE-BSA. Immunohistochemistry revealed co-localization of RAGE expression with Hu, a marker for neuronal cells but not for S-100, a glial marker. Advanced glycation end-products reduce nNOS expression in the rat myenteric neurones acting via the receptor RAGE. Our results suggest novel pathways for disruption of the nitrergic phenotype in diabetes. [source]

NO signalling decodes frequency of neuronal activity and generates synapse-specific plasticity in mouse cerebellum

Shigeyuki Namiki
Nitric oxide (NO) is an intercellular messenger regulating neuronal functions. To visualize NO signalling in the brain, we generated a novel fluorescent NO indicator, which consists of the heme-binding region (HBR) of soluble guanylyl cyclase and the green fluorescent protein. The indicator (HBR,GFP) was expressed in the Purkinje cells of the mouse cerebellum and we imaged NO signals in acute cerebellar slices upon parallel fibre (PF) activation with a train of burst stimulations (BS, each BS consisting of five pulses at 50 Hz). Our results showed that the intensity of synaptic NO signal decays steeply with the distance from the synaptic input near PF,Purkinje cell synapses and generates synapse-specific long-term potentiation (LTP). Furthermore, the NO release level has a bell-shaped dependence on the frequency of PF activity. At an optimal frequency (1 Hz), but not at a low frequency (0.25 Hz) of a train of 60 BS, NO release as well as LTP was induced. However, both NO release and LTP were significantly reduced at higher frequencies (2,4 Hz) of BS train due to cannabinoid receptor-mediated retrograde inhibition of NO generation at the PF terminals. These results suggest that synaptic NO signalling decodes the frequency of neuronal activity to mediate synaptic plasticity at the PF,Purkinje cell synapse. [source]

Oxytocin Modulates Nitric Oxide Generation by Human Fetal Membranes at Term Pregnancy

C. Ticconi
Problem:, Nitric oxide (NO), an important mediator of the inflammatory response, is involved in several reproductive processes including pregnancy and labor. Uterus, placenta and fetal membranes are significant sources of NO. Presently, there is no information on factors regulating NO production by fetal membranes. Method of study:, Human fetal membranes at term gestation were cultured for 24 hr in the presence of oxytocin. The concentrations of NO metabolites nitrites in culture medium were determined by the Griess reaction. The presence of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Results:, Oxytocin increased nitrite release by fetal membranes. Messenger ribonucleic acid iNOS expression was also enhanced by oxytocin. These effects were more marked in tissues obtained after labor than before labor. Conclusions:, Oxytocin exerts an overall stimulatory effect on NO release by fetal membranes. This action might be of relevance in the biomolecular processes leading to parturition. [source]

Preservation of Endothelium Nitric Oxide Release by Pulsatile Flow Cardiopulmonary Bypass When Compared With Continuous Flow

Ettore Lanzarone
Abstract The aim of this work is to analyze endothelium nitric oxide (NO) release in patients undergoing continuous or pulsatile flow cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Nine patients operated under continuous flow CPB, and nine patients on pulsatile flow CPB were enrolled. Plasma samples were withdrawn for the chemiluminescence detection of nitrite and nitrate. Moreover the cellular component was withdrawn for the detection of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in the erythrocytes, and an estimation of systemic inflammatory response was carried out. Significant reduction in the intraoperative concentration with respect to the preoperative was observed only under continuous flow CPB for both nitrite and NOx (nitrite + nitrate) concentration (P = 0.010 and P = 0.016, respectively). Significant difference in intraoperative nitrite concentration was also observed between the groups (P = 0.012). Finally, erythrocytes showed a certain endothelial NOS activity, which did not differ between the groups, and no differences in the inflammatory response were pointed out. The significant reduction of NO2 - concentration under continuous perfusion revealed the strong connection among perfusion modality, endothelial NO release, and plasmatic nitrite concentration. The similar erythrocyte eNOS activity between the groups revealed that the differences in blood NO metabolites are mainly ascribable to the endothelium release. [source]

Attenuation of reperfusion injury by renal ischaemic preconditioning: the role of nitric oxide

M.K. Jefayri
Objective To determine the effect on nitric oxide (NO) release and renal NO synthase (endothelial, eNOS and inducible, iNOS) activity of renal ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) in vivo in an animal model, and to examine the possible involvement of NO in ischaemic preconditioning (IP) of the kidney. Materials and methods In a right-nephrectomized rat model, 42 animals were randomized in four groups: controls; IP-only (4 min of ischaemia followed by 11 min of reperfusion, total of four cycles); renal warm ischaemia (45 min) and 6 h reperfusion; ischaemia (45 min) preceded by IP pretreatment. Serum NO metabolites were assayed 2 and 6 h after ischaemia or the control equivalent. NOS expression in the kidney was detected immuno-histochemically, and damage assessed morphologically in sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Kidney function was assessed by the levels of serum creatinine, urea and electrolytes. Results Compared with before ischaemia, the concentration of serum NO metabolites at 6 h was increased in the IP-only animals (P = 0.016) and in the IP + I/R group (P = 0.002). There was greater eNOS expression in the IP-only group (P = 0.009) and in the IP + I/R group than in controls (P = 0.050). iNOS expression was greater in the IP-only animals than in the control group (P = 0.050). Histological assessment showed less evidence of cellular damage in IP + I/R animals than in the I/R-alone group (P = 0.020). Serum creatinine level was not significantly different between the IP-only group and the control. There were no differences after 2 h of reperfusion. Conclusion Ischaemic preconditioning has a protective effect on renal structure and function, which may be produced by increased NO release arising from increased NOS expression by 6 h after reperfusion. [source]

Prevention of a hypoxic Ca2+i response by SERCA inhibitors in cerebral arterioles

C Guibert
The aim of the study was to investigate the mechanism of a novel effect of hypoxia on intracellular Ca2+ signalling in rabbit cerebral arteriolar smooth muscle cells, an effect that was resistant to the L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist methoxyverapamil (D600). [Ca2+]i of smooth muscle cells in intact arteriolar fragments was measured using the Ca2+ -indicator dye fura-PE3. Hypoxia (PO2 10 , 20 mmHg) lowered basal [Ca2+]i but did not inhibit Ca2+ entry pathways measured by Mn2+ -quenching of fura-PE3. The effect of hypoxia was completely prevented by thapsigargin or cyclopiazonic acid, selective inhibitors of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA). Since these inhibitors do not block Ca2+ extrusion or uptake via the plasma membrane, the data indicate that the effect of hypoxia depends on a functional sarcoplasmic reticulum. Because actions of nitric oxide (NO) on vascular smooth muscle are also prevented by SERCA inhibitors it was explored whether the effect of hypoxia occurred via modulation of endogenous NO release. Residual NOS-I and NOS-III were detected by immunostaining, and there were NO-dependent effects of NOS inhibitors on Ca2+i -signalling. Nevertheless, inhibition of endogenous NO production did not prevent the effect of hypoxia on [Ca2+]i. The experiments reveal a novel nitric oxide-independent effect of hypoxia that is prevented by SERCA inhibitors. British Journal of Pharmacology (2002) 135, 927,934; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0704547 [source]

3122: Regulation of retinal tissue oxygenation

Purpose To evaluate the changes in the retinal oxygen partial pressure (PO2) following physiological stimuli. Methods Evaluation of either the preretinal and intraretina partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) distribution, using oxygen sensitive microelectrodes, in various animal models. Measurements were obtained during changes of the perfusion pressure, systemic hyperoxia, hypoxia, hypercapnia, carbogen breathing and following carbonic anydrase inhibitors use. Results The oxygen tension (PO2) in the inner half of the retina remains largely unaffected by moderate changes in perfusion pressure. The increase of the systemic PaO2 through breathing of 100% O2 (hyperoxia) induces endothelin (ET) mediated marked vasoconstriction of the inner retinal arterioles in both anesthetized animals and normal human subjects. The regulatory vasoconstriction maintains the PO2 in retinal tissue constant. A decrease in PaO2 (hypoxia) induces a vasodilation of the retinal arterioles through endothelium-derived NO release. As a result, trans-retinal PO2 profiles made during steps of systemic hypoxia have shown that the values measured in the inner retina up to half of its thickness, remain rather stable. By contrast, the PO2 values, measured close to the choroid and in the outer retina, decrease in a linear manner with the decrease of the PaO2. An increase in the PaCO2 (hypercapnia) of arteriolar blood, produces an increase in retinal blood flow and retinal tissue PO2. Intravenous injection of acetazolamide (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor) produces an increase in preretinal PO2 due to dilation of the retinal vessels Conclusion Thanks to the autoregulatory capability of the retinal circulation, the oxygen tension (PO2) in the inner half of the retina, remains largely unaffected during physiological stimuli. [source]

Delta2 -Specific Opioid Receptor Agonist and Hibernating Woodchuck Plasma Fraction Provide Ischemic Neuroprotection

Meera Govindaswami PhD
Abstract Objectives:, The authors present evidence that the , opioid receptor agonist Deltorphin-Dvariant (Delt-Dvar) and hibernating woodchuck plasma (HWP), but not summer-active woodchuck plasma (SAWP), can provide significant neuroprotection from focal ischemia in mice by a mechanism that relies in part on reducing nitric oxide (NO) release in ischemic tissue. Methods:, Cerebral ischemia was produced in wild-type and NO synthase,deficient (NOS,/,) mice by transient, 1-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Behavioral deficits were determined at 22 hours and infarct volume was assessed at 24 hours after MCAO. Mice were treated with saline or Delt-Dvar at 2.0 and 4.0 mg/kg, or 200 ,L of HWP or SAWP. NOS,/, mice were treated with either saline or Delt-Dvar at 4.0 mg/kg. NO release was determined using an N9 microglial cell line pretreated with ,- or ,-specific opioids and HWP or SAWP prior to activation with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-,. Nitrate in the medium was measured as an indicator of NO production. Results:, Infusion of Delt-Dvar or HWP (but not SAWP) decreased infarct volume and improved behavioral deficits following 1 hour of MCAO and 24 hours of reperfusion. In NOS,/, mice, endothelial NOS+/+ is required to provide Delt-Dvar,induced neuroprotection. Delt-Dvar and HWP dose-dependently decreased NO release in cell culture, while SAWP and other ,- and ,-specific opioids did not. Conclusions:, Delt-Dvar and HWP, but not SAWP, are effective neuroprotectant agents in a mouse model of transient MCAO. In cell culture, the mechanism of this ischemic neuroprotection may rely in part on their ability to block NO release. [source]


Xian Hui Dong
Summary 1.,Changes in [Ca2+]i across the cell membrane and/or the sarcoplasmic reticulum regulate endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity. 2.,In the present study, we investigated the effect of ouabain, a specific inhibitor of Na+/K+ -ATPase, on NO release and [Ca2+]i movements in cultured rat aortic endothelial cells (RAEC) by monitoring NO production continuously using an NO-specific real-time sensor and by measuring the change in [Ca2+]i using a fluorescence microscopic imaging technique with high-speed wavelength switching. The t (half-time of the decline of [Ca2+]i to basal levels after stimulation with 10 mol/L bradykinin) was used as an index of [Ca2+]i extrusion. 3.,A very low concentration of ouabain (10 nmol/L) did not increase the peak of NO production, but decreased the decay of NO release and, accordingly, increased integral NO production by the maximal dose,response concentration induced by bradykinin. The same dose of ouabain affected [Ca2+]i movements across the cell membrane and/or sarcoplasmic reticulum induced by bradykinin with a time-course similar to that of NO release. Moreover, the t was significantly increased. 4.,Pretreatment of RAEC with Na+ -free solution, an inhibitor of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, and nickel chloride hexahydrate prevented the effects induced by bradykinin and ouabain. 5.,These observations using real-time recording indicate that a small amount of ouabain contributes to the bradykinin-stimulated increase of NO production through inhibition of plasma membrane Na+/K+ -ATPase activity and an increase in intracellular Na+ concentrations. The membrane was then depolarized, leading to a decline in the bradykinin-stimulated increase in [Ca2+]i by forward mode Na+/Ca2+ exchange to prolong the Ca2+ signal time. 6.,From these results, we suggest that nanomolar levels of ouabain modulate [Ca2+]i movements and NO production in RAEC. [source]

C-peptide: new findings and therapeutic implications in diabetes

John Wahren
Summary In contrast to earlier views, new data indicate that proinsulin C-peptide exerts important physiological effects and shows the characteristics of an endogenous peptide hormone. C-peptide in nanomolar concentrations binds specifically to cell membranes, probably to a G-protein coupled receptor. Ca2+ - and MAP-kinase dependent signalling pathways are activated, resulting in stimulation of Na+, K+ -ATPase and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase, two enzyme systems known to be deficient in diabetes. C-peptide may also interact synergistically with insulin signal transduction. Studies in intact animals and in patients with type 1 diabetes have demonstrated multifaceted effects. Thus, C-peptide administration in streptozotocin-diabetic animals results in normalization of diabetes-induced glomerular hyperfiltration, reduction of urinary albumin excretion and diminished glomerular expansion. The former two effects have also been observed in type 1 diabetes patients given C-peptide in replacement dose for up to 3 months. Peripheral nerve function and structure are likewise influenced by C-peptide administration; sensory and motor nerve conduction velocities increase and nerve structural changes are diminished or reversed in diabetic rats. In patients with type 1 diabetes, beneficial effects have been demonstrated on sensory nerve conduction velocity, vibration perception and autonomic nerve function. C-peptide also augments blood flow in several tissues in type 1 diabetes via its stimulation of endothelial NO release, emphasizing a role for C-peptide in maintaining vascular homeostasis. Continued research is needed to establish whether, among the hormones from the islets of Langerhans, C-peptide is the ugly duckling that , nearly 40 years after its discovery , may prove to be an endogenous peptide hormone of importance in the treatment of diabetic long-term complications. [source]