NO Production (no + production)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of NO Production

  • decreased no production
  • endogenous no production
  • induced no production

  • Selected Abstracts

    Estrogen-Dependent Enhancement of NO Production in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarius Contributes to Ethanol-Induced Hypotension in Conscious Female Rats

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2 2009
    Guichu Li
    Background:, Our previous pharmacological and cellular studies showed that peripheral (cardiac and vascular) nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-derived NO is implicated in the estrogen (E2)-dependent hypotensive action of ethanol in female rats. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that enhanced NO production in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) is implicated in the E2 -dependent hypotensive action of ethanol. Methods:, To achieve this goal, we utilized in vivo electrochemistry to measure real time changes in neuronal NO to investigate the acute effects of intragastric ethanol (0, 0.5, or 1 g/kg) on NO in NTS neurons, blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) in conscious female rats in the absence (ovariectomized, OVX, rats) or presence of E2. Results:, In sham operated (SO) rats, ethanol elicited dose-related increase in NTS NO and reduction in BP. These neurochemical and BP effects of ethanol were absent in OVX rats. Whether the neurochemical effect of ethanol and the associated hypotension are dependent on rapid E2 signaling was investigated. In OVX rats pretreated, 30 minutes earlier, with E2 (1 ,g/kg), intragastric ethanol (1 g/kg) increased NTS NO and reduced BP and these responses were comparable to those obtained in SO rats. Conclusions:, The present findings suggest that increased production of NO in NTS neurons contributes to ethanol-evoked hypotension in female rats. Further, ethanol enhancement of neuronal NO production in the brainstem is dependent on rapid E2 signaling. [source]

    Preparation of Amino Alcohols Condensed with Carbohydrates: Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Inhibitory Effect on NO Production

    Taís A. Corręa
    This work reports the preparation of several amino alcohols condensed with d -arabinose, d -glucose, and d -galactose derivatives. These compounds were evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxicity and ability to decrease nitric oxide production in J774A.1 cells. Arabinofuranoside derivatives 5a, 5b and 5c showed a significant inhibition of nitric oxide production (>80% at 5 ,g/mL), while the galactopyranoside derivative 8d showed a notable nitric oxide inhibitory activity (126% at 0.5 ,g/mL). [source]

    Constituents of Asarum sieboldii with Inhibitory Activity on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced NO Production in BV-2 Microglial Cells

    Ah-Reum Han
    Abstract Bioassay-guided fractionation of the root extract of Asarum sieboldii led to the isolation of the four active compounds (,)-sesamin (1), (2E,4E,8Z,10E)- N -(2-methylpropyl)dodeca-2,4,8,10-tetraenamide (2), kakuol (3), and ,3,4,5-trimethoxytoluene' (=1,2,3-trimethoxy-5-methylbenzene; 4), in terms of inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. Compounds 1,4 showed potent inhibition of NO production, with IC50 values in the low nanomolar-to-micromolar range. Also isolated were the known compounds methylkakuol (5), ,3,5-dimethoxytoluene', safrole, asaricin, methyleugenol, and (,)-asarinin, which were found to be inactive in the above assay. Among the ten known isolates, compounds 1, 2, and 5 were found for the first time in this plant. [source]

    Imidazoline-induced amplification of glucose- and carbachol-stimulated insulin release includes a marked suppression of islet nitric oxide generation in the mouse

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2009
    S. Meidute-Abaraviciene
    Abstract Aim:, The role of islet nitric oxide (NO) production in insulin-releasing mechanisms is unclear. We examined whether the beneficial effects of the imidazoline derivative RX 871024 (RX) on ,-cell function might be related to perturbations of islet NO production. Methods:, Experiments were performed with isolated islets or intact mice challenged with glucose or carbachol with or without RX treatment. Insulin was determined with radioimmunoassay, NO generation with high-performance liquid chromatography and expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) with confocal microscopy. Results:, RX treatment, in doses lacking effects on basal insulin, greatly amplified insulin release stimulated by the NO-generating secretagogues glucose and carbachol both in vitro and in vivo. RX also improved the glucose tolerance curve. Islets incubated at high glucose levels (20 mmol L,1) displayed increased NO production derived from both neuronal constitutive NO synthase (ncNOS) and iNOS. RX abrogated this glucose-induced NO production concomitant with amplification of insulin release. Confocal microscopy revealed abundant iNOS expression in , cells after incubation of islets at high but not low glucose levels. This was abolished after RX treatment. Similarly, islets cultured for 24 h at high glucose levels showed intense iNOS expression in , cells. This was abrogated with RX and followed by an amplified glucose-induced insulin release. Conclusion:, RX effectively counteracts the negative impact of ,-cell NO generation on insulin release stimulated by glucose and carbachol suggesting imidazoline compounds by virtue of NOS inhibitory properties being of potential therapeutic value for treatment of ,-cell dysfunction in hyperglycaemia and type 2 diabetes. [source]

    Nitric oxide, superoxide and renal blood flow autoregulation in SHR after perinatal L -arginine and antioxidants

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 4 2007
    M. P. Koeners
    Abstract Aim:, Nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide are considered to be regulatory in renal blood flow (RBF) autoregulation, and hence may contribute to development of hypertension. To extend our previous observations that dynamic NO release is impaired in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) we investigated, firstly, if superoxide dependency of RBF autoregulation is increased in SHR and, secondly, if the beneficial effect of perinatal supplementation in SHR is partly as a result of early correction of RBF autoregulation. We hypothesized that perinatal supplementation by restoring dynamic NO release and/or decreasing superoxide dependency and would improve life-long blood pressure regulation. Methods:, Autoregulation was studied using stepwise reductions in renal perfusion pressure in anaesthetized male SHR, SHR perinatally supplemented with arginine and antioxidants (SHRsuppl) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY), prior to and during i.v. N, -nitro- l -arginine (NO synthase inhibitor) or tempol (superoxide dismutase mimetic). Results:, Spontaneously hypertensive rat displayed a wider operating range of RBF autoregulation as compared with WKY (59 ± 4 vs. 33 ± 2 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.01). Perinatal supplementation in SHR decreased mean arterial pressure, renal vascular resistance and the operating range of RBF autoregulation (43 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.01). In addition autoregulation efficiency decreased. RBF autoregulation characteristics shifted towards those of normotensive WKY. However, dynamic NO release was still impaired and no clear differences in superoxide dependency in RBF autoregulation between groups was observed. Conclusion:, Perinatal supplements shifted RBF autoregulation characteristics of SHR towards WKY, although capacity of the SHRsuppl kidney to modulate NO production to shear stress still seems impaired. The less strictly controlled RBF as observed in perinatally supplemented SHR could result in an improved long-term blood pressure control. This might partly underlie the beneficial effects of perinatal supplementation. [source]

    Endothelially Derived Nitric Oxide Affects the Severity of Early Acetaminophen-induced Hepatic Injury in Mice

    Steven D. Salhanick MD
    Abstract Objectives: The precise mechanism of hepatocellular toxicity following acetaminophen (APAP) poisoning remains unclear. Nitric oxide is implicated in APAP toxicity as an inflammatory signaling molecule and as a precursor to the free radical peroxynitrate. The effects of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-derived NO in APAP toxicity are known; however, the role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived NO is unknown. The authors sought to evaluate the effect of eNOS-derived NO during APAP toxicity. Methods: C57BL6/J mice deficient in eNOS (eNOS KO) or iNOS (iNOS KO) and wild-type mice (WT) were treated with 300 mg/kg APAP. Alanine aminotransferase levels and plasma nitrate and nitrite levels were measured. Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1, and Glucose Transporter 1 (Glut-1) levels were determined by Western blot. Results: Alanine aminotransferase levels were significantly elevated in all treated animals. Alanine aminotransferase levels were significantly lower in eNOS KO and iNOS KO than in treated WT animals. Plasma nitrate/nitrite levels were significantly higher in WT animals than in iNOS KO and eNOS KO animals. HIF-1, expression was increased in WT mice and decreased in iNOS KO mice. Glut-1 is a downstream, indirect marker of HIF function. Glut-1 expression was increased in WT and eNOS KO mice. Conclusions: Deficiency of either iNOS or eNOS results in decreased NO production and is associated with reduced hepatocellular injury following APAP poisoning. HIF-1, and Glut-1 levels are increased following APAP poisoning, implying that HIF-1, is functional during the pathogenic response to APAP poisoning. [source]

    Beneficial effects of aminoguanidine on the cardiovascular system of diabetic rats

    Krisztián Stadler
    Abstract Background The study focused on investigating the effect of aminoguanidine on cardiovascular damages in diabetes and the possible mechanisms of its action. Methods Aminoguanidine (AMNG) was used to treat streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, and the effects were compared to those obtained under insulin treatment. Blood metabolic parameters, ,NO and ONOO, as well as protein carbonyl levels and cardiac hypertrophy were determined. Results Diabetic animals showed increased ,NO levels and markedly increased ONOO, generation in the aorta, along with a significant hypertrophy and protein carbonylation in the cardiac tissue. Both AMNG and insulin treatment suppressed the levels of overproduced ,NO or ONOO, in the vasculature, but only AMNG was able to prevent hypertrophic alterations and reduce protein carbonylation in the cardiac tissue. Conclusions Oxidative protein modification, together with cardiac hypertrophy and high generation of ,NO and ONOO,, are important early events in the development of cardiovascular complications in diabetes. Aminoguanidine could prevent hypertrophy through inhibition of production of nonenzymatic glycation products rather than via inhibition of ,NO production. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Nitric oxide synthase inhibition in Thoroughbred horses augments O2 extraction at rest and submaximal exercise, but not during short-term maximal exercise

    Summary Reason for performing study: Work is required to establish the role of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in metabolism of resting and exercising horses. Objectives: To examine the effects of NO synthase inhibition on O2 extraction and anaerobic metabolism at rest, and during submaximal and maximal exertion. Methods: Placebo and NO synthase inhibition (with N,-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester [l -NAME] administered at 20 mg/kg bwt i.v.) studies were performed in random order, 7 days apart on 7 healthy, exercise-trained Thoroughbred horses at rest and during incremental exercise leading to 120 sec of maximal exertion at 14 m/sec on a 3.5% uphill grade. Results: At rest, NO synthase inhibition significantly augmented the arterial to mixed-venous blood O2 content gradient and O2 extraction as mixed-venous blood O2 tension and saturation decreased significantly. While NO synthase inhibition did not affect arterial blood-gas tensions in exercising horses, the exercise-induced increment in haemoglobin concentration and arterial O2 content was attenuated. In the l -NAME study, during submaximal exercise, mixed-venous blood O2 tension and haemoglobin-O2 saturation decreased to a greater extent causing O2 extraction to increase significantly. During maximal exertion, arterial hypoxaemia, desaturation of haemoglobin and hypercapnia of a similar magnitude developed in both treatments. Also, the changes in mixed-venous blood O2 tension and haemoglobin-O2 saturation, arterial to mixed-venous blood O2 content gradient, O2 extraction and markers of anaerobic metabolism (lactate and ammonia production, and metabolic acidosis) were not different from those in the placebo study. Conclusion: Endogenous NO production augments O2 extraction at rest and during submaximal exertion, but not the during short-term maximal exercise. Also, NO synthase inhibition does not affect anaerobic metabolism at rest or during exertion. Potential relevance: It is unlikely that endogenous NO release modifies aerobic or anaerobic metabolism in horses performing short-term maximal exertion. [source]

    A 4-trifluoromethyl derivative of salicylate, triflusal, stimulates nitric oxide production by human neutrophils: role in platelet function

    De Miguel
    Background The thrombotic process is a multicellular phenomenon in which not only platelets but also neutrophils are involved. Recent in vitro studies performed in our laboratory have demonstrated that triflusal, a 4-trifluoromethyl derivative of salicylate, reduced platelet aggregation not only by inhibiting thromboxane A2 production but also by stimulating nitric oxide (NO) generation by neutrophils. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether oral treatment of healthy volunteers with triflusal could modify the ability of their neutrophils to produce NO and to test the role of the NO released by neutrophils in the modulation of ADP-induced platelet aggregation and ,-granule secretion. Methods The study was performed in 12 healthy volunteers who were orally treated with triflusal (600 mg day,1) for 5 days. Flow cytometric detection of platelet surface expression of P-selectin was used as a measure of the ability of platelets to release the contents of their ,-granules. Results After treatment with triflusal, there was an increase in NO production by neutrophils and an increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression in neutrophils. A potentiation of the inhibition of platelet aggregation by neutrophils was reversed by incubating neutrophils with both an l -arginine antagonist, NG -nitro- l -arginine methyl ester ( l -NAME) and an NO scavenger, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5 tetramethylimidazoline 1-oxyl 3-oxide (C-PTIO). A slight decrease in P-selectin surface expression on platelets was found which was not modified by the presence of neutrophils and therefore by the neutrophil-derived NO. Exogenous NO released by sodium nitroprusside dose-dependently inhibited both ADP-stimulated ,-granule secretion and platelet aggregation. Therefore, platelet aggregation showed a greater sensitivity to be inhibited by exogenous NO than P-selectin expression. Conclusion Oral treatment of healthy volunteers with triflusal stimulated NO production and eNOS protein expression in their neutrophils. After triflusal treatment, the neutrophils demonstrated a higher ability to prevent ADP-induced platelet aggregation. However, the neutrophils and the endogenous NO generated by them failed to modify P-selectin expression in ADP-activated platelets. [source]

    A role for nitric oxide in sensory-induced neurogenesis in an adult insect brain

    M. Cayre
    In the adult cricket, neurogenesis occurs in the mushroom bodies, the main integrative structures of the insect brain. Mushroom body neuroblast proliferation is modulated in response to environmental stimuli. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unspecified. In the present study, we demonstrate that electrical stimulation of the antennal nerve mimics the effects of olfactory activation and increases mushroom body neurogenesis. The putative role of nitric oxide (NO) in this activity-regulated neurogenesis was then explored. In vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrate that NO synthase inhibition decreases, and NO donor application stimulates neuroblast proliferation. NADPH-d activity, anti- l -citrulline immunoreactivity, as well as in situ hybridization with a probe specific for Acheta NO synthase were used to localize NO-producing cells. Combining these three approaches we clearly establish that mushroom body interneurons synthesize NO. Furthermore, we demonstrate that experimental interventions known to upregulate neuroblast proliferation modulate NO production: rearing crickets in an enriched sensory environment induces an upregulation of Acheta NO synthase mRNA, and unilateral electrical stimulation of the antennal nerve results in increased l -citrulline immunoreactivity in the corresponding mushroom body. The present study demonstrates that neural activity modulates progenitor cell proliferation and regulates NO production in brain structures where neurogenesis occurs in the adult insect. Our results also demonstrate the stimulatory effect of NO on mushroom body neuroblast proliferation. Altogether, these data strongly suggest a key role for NO in environmentally induced neurogenesis. [source]

    Decreased iNOS synthesis mediates dexamethasone-induced protection of neurons from inflammatory injury in vitro

    Sabine Golde
    Abstract Brain inflammation is accompanied by transection of axons and death of neurons in the acute lesions of multiple sclerosis. We explored mechanisms of inflammatory damage to neurons in vitro using cocultures of rat embryonal cortical neurons with microglia activated by interferon-gamma (IFN,) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Previously, we have demonstrated that microglia are highly toxic to neurons and that nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is necessary and sufficient to mediate this toxicity. Here, we show that addition of dexamethasone (1 µM) to activated cocultures provides effective neuroprotection. We demonstrate that dexamethasone down-regulates NO production of primary microglia by ,,50% and reduces steady-state iNOS protein and mRNA expression by ,,70%. These changes were reversed by the glucocorticoid receptor blocker RU-486. Furthermore, we analysed the stability of iNOS protein and show that whilst inhibitors of the proteasome blocked iNOS degradation they did not reverse the dexamethasone effect. Our results indicate that the main mechanism of corticosteroid activity on iNOS is reduction in protein synthesis, not destabilization as previously suggested. [source]

    Potentiation of 3-hydroxyglutarate neurotoxicity following induction of astrocytic iNOS in neonatal rat hippocampal cultures

    Stefan Kölker
    Abstract Neuronal damage in glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (GDD) has previously been addressed to N- methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated neurotoxicity of the accumulating neurotoxic metabolite 3-hydroxyglutarate. However, acute encephalopathic crises in GDD patients are typically precipitated by febrile illness or even routine vaccinations, suggesting a potentiating role of inflammatory cytokines. In the present study we investigated the effect of interleukin-1, and interferon-, on 3-hydroxyglutarate toxicity in rat cortical astrocyte cultures and neonatal rat hippocampal cultures. A cotreatment of both culture systems with interleukin-1, and interferon-, induced the protein expression of astrocytic inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), resulting in increased nitric oxide (NO) production. Cytokine pretreatment alone had no effect on cell viability but potentiated 3-hydroxyglutarate neurotoxicity. NOS inhibition by aminoguanidine and L-NAME prevented an iNOS-mediated potentiation of 3-hydroxyglutarate neurotoxicity but failed to protect neurons against 3-hydroxyglutarate alone. In contrast, superoxide dismutase/catalase as well as MK-801 prevented toxicity of 3-hydroxyglutarate alone as well as its potentiation by iNOS, supporting a central role of NMDA receptor stimulation with subsequently increased superoxide anion production. It is concluded that the potentiation of 3-hydroxyglutarate neurotoxicity is most probably due to an induction of astrocytic iNOS and concomitantly increased NO production, enabling enhanced peroxynitrite formation. Thus, we provide evidence for a neuroimmunological approach to the precipitation of acute encephalopathic crises in GDD by inflammatory cytokines. [source]

    Effect of nitric oxide and NO synthase inhibition on nonquantal acetylcholine release in the rat diaphragm

    M. R. Mukhtarov
    Abstract After anticholinesterase treatment, the postsynaptic muscle membrane is depolarized by about 5 mV due to nonquantal release of acetylcholine (ACh) from the motor nerve terminal. This can be demonstrated by the hyperpolarization produced by the addition of curare (H-effect). The magnitude of the H-effect was decreased significantly to 3 mV when the nitric oxide (NO) donors, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) were applied to the muscle, or when NO production was elevated by adding l -arginine, but not d -arginine, as a substrate. The H-effect was increased to 8,9 mV by inhibition of NO synthase by l -nitroarginine methylester ( l -NAME), or by guanylyl cyclase inhibition by methylene blue and 1H-[1,2,4]oxidiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). ODQ increased the H-effect to 7.3 ± 0.2 mV and diminished the SNP-induced decrease of the H-effect when applied together with SNP. The effects of NO donors and l -arginine were eliminated by adding reduced haemoglobin, an extracellular NO scavenger. The present results, together with earlier evidence for the presence of NO synthase in muscle fibres, indicate that nonquantal release of ACh is modulated by NO production in the postsynaptic cell. [source]

    The effect of ultraviolet B irradiation on nitric oxide synthase expression in murine keratinocytes

    M. Sasaki
    Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO), which has several physiological functions in skin, is generated by NO synthase (NOS). NOS has at least three isoforms; endothelial NOS (eNOS), brain NOS (bNOS), and inducible NOS (iNOS). Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation has been reported to stimulate NO production in skin via induction or activation of NOS, however, the exact mechanism of NOS induction by UVB irradiation remains obscure. In this study, we investigated the direct effect of UVB on the expression of NOS isoforms in murine keratinocytes, and found a significant increase in NO production within 48 h. mRNA and protein expressions of bNOS were both enhanced by UVB irradiation in murine keratinocytes, whereas iNOS mRNA expression was suppressed at 4 and 12 h after UVB irradiation. These results suggest that the enhancement of NO production observed after UVB irradiation in murine keratinocytes may be explained in part by the upregulation of bNOS expression, but not iNOS expression. [source]

    The emerging role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the regulation of myocardial function

    Barbara Casadei
    The recent discovery of a NOS1 gene product (i.e. a neuronal-like isoform of nitric oxide synthase or nNOS) in the mammalian left ventricular (LV) myocardium has provided a new key for the interpretation of the complex experimental evidence supporting a role for myocardial constitutive nitric oxide (NO) production in the regulation of basal and ,-badrenergic cardiac function. Importantly, nNOS gene deletion has been associated with more severe LV remodelling and functional deterioration in murine models of myocardial infarction, suggesting that nNOS-derived NO may also be involved in the myocardial response to injury. To date, the mechanisms by which nNOS influences myocardial pathophysiology remain incompletely understood. In particular, it seems over simplistic to assume that all aspects of the myocardial phenotype of nNOS knockout (nNOS,/,) mice are a direct consequence of lack of NO production from this source. Emerging data showing co-localisation of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and nNOS in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of rodents, and increased XOR activity in the nNOS,/, myocardium, suggest that nNOS gene deletion may have wider implications on the myocardial redox state. Similarly, the mechanisms regulating the targeting of myocardial nNOS to different subcellular compartments and the functional consequences of intracellular nNOS trafficking have not been fully established. Whether this information could be translated into a better understanding and management of human heart failure remains the most important challenge for future investigations. [source]

    A pathway through interferon-, is the main pathway for induction of nitric oxide upon stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide in mouse peritoneal cells

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 19 2003
    Motohiro Matsuura
    Production of nitric oxide (NO) in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated using cultures of mouse peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) and the macrophage cell line RAW264.7. In the presence of anti-(interferon-,) (IFN-,), NO production was markedly suppressed in the PEC culture but not in the RAW264.7 culture. In the PEC culture, LPS induced both IFN-, production and activation of IFN response factor-1, which leads to the gene expression of inducible NO synthase, but neither was induced in the culture of RAW264.7 cells. In addition to anti-(IFN-,), antibodies against interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 showed a suppressive effect on LPS-induced NO production in the PEC culture, and these antibodies in synergy showed strong suppression. Stimulation of the PEC culture with IL-12 or IL-18 induced production of IFN-, and NO, and these cytokines, in combination, exhibited marked synergism. Stimulation of the culture with IFN-, induced production of NO, but not IL-12. The macrophage population in the PEC, prepared as adherent cells, responded well to LPS for IL-12 production, but weakly for production of IFN-, and NO. The macrophages also responded well to IFN-, for NO production. For production of IFN-, by stimulation with LPS or IL-12 + IL-18, nonadherent cells were required in the PEC culture. Considering these results overall, the indirect pathway, through the production of intermediates (such as IFN-,-inducing cytokines and IFN-,) by the cooperation of macrophages with nonadherent cells, was revealed to play the main role in the LPS-induced NO production pathway, as opposed to the direct pathway requiring only a macrophage population. [source]

    Smad3-dependent signaling underlies the TGF-,1-mediated enhancement in astrocytic iNOS expression

    GLIA, Issue 11 2010
    Mary E. Hamby
    Abstract We previously demonstrated that transforming growth factor-,1 (TGF-,1), while having no effect alone, enhances nitric oxide (NO) production in primary, purified mouse astrocytes induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon-, (IFN-,), by recruiting a latent population of astrocytes to respond, thereby enhancing the total number of cells that express Nos2. In this investigation, we evaluated the molecular signaling pathway by which this occurs. We found that purified murine primary astrocytes express mRNA for TGF,RII as well as the TGF,RI subunit activin-like kinase 5 (ALK5), but not ALK1. Immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed the expression of TGF,RII and ALK5 protein in astrocytes. Consistent with ALK5 signaling, Smad3 accumulated in the nucleus of astrocytes as early as 30 min after TGF-,1 (3 ng/mL) treatment and persisted upto 32 hr after TGF-,1 administration. Addition of ALK5 inhibitors prevented TGF-,1-mediated Smad3 nuclear accumulation and NO production when given prior to the Nos2 induction stimuli, but not after. Finally, astrocyte cultures derived from Smad3 null mutant mice did not exhibit a TGF-,1-mediated increase in iNOS expression. Overall, this data suggests that ALK5 signaling and Smad3 nuclear accumulation is required for optimal enhancement of LPS plus IFN,-induced NO production in astrocytes by TGF-,1. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Blockade of IL-15 activity inhibits microglial activation through the NF,B, p38, and ERK1/2 pathways, reducing cytokine and chemokine release

    GLIA, Issue 3 2010
    Diego Gomez-Nicola
    Abstract Reactive glia formation is one of the hallmarks of damage to the CNS, but little information exists on the signals that direct its activation. Microglial cells are the main regulators of both innate and adaptative immune responses in the CNS. The proinflammatory cytokine IL-15 is involved in regulating the response of T and B cells, playing a key role in regulating nervous system inflammatory events. We have used a microglial culture model of inflammation induced by LPS and IFN, to evaluate the role of IL-15 in the proinflammatory response. Our results indicate that IL-15 is necessary for the reactive response, its deficiency (IL-15-/-) leading to the development of a defective proinflammatory response. Blockade of IL-15, both with blocking antibodies or with the ganglioside Neurostatin, inhibited the activation of the NF,B pathway, decreasing iNOS expression and NO production. Inhibiting IL-15 signaling also blocked the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways ERK1/2 and p38. The major consequence of these inhibitory effects, analyzed using cytokine antibody arrays, was a severe decrease in the production of chemokines, cytokines and growth factors, like CCL17, CCL19, IL-12, or TIMP-1, that are essential for the development of the phenotypic changes of glial activation. In conclusion, activation of the IL-15 system seems a necessarystep for the development of glial reactivity and the regulation of the physiology of glial cells. Modulating IL-15 activity opens the possibility of developing new strategies to control gliotic events upon inflammatory stimulation. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Oxidative stress in glial cultures: Detection by DAF-2 fluorescence used as a tool to measure peroxynitrite rather than nitric oxide

    GLIA, Issue 2 2002
    Sanjoy Roychowdhury
    Abstract 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA) is widely used as a fluorescent probe to detect endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO). Recent reports that refer to the high sensitivity of DAF-2 toward NO prompted us to test its efficiency and specificity in a mixed murine primary glial culture model, in which the NO-synthesizing enzyme inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is expressed by stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-, (IFN-,). Cultures were loaded with DAF-2DA and the fluorescence was measured using confocal microscopy. NO production in the cultures was determined using the ozone/chemiluminescence technique. Due to the extremely high photosensitivity of DAF-2, low laser intensities were used to avoid artifacts. No difference in DAF-2 fluorescence was observed in NO-producing cultures compared to control cultures, whereas the NO/peroxynitrite-sensitive dye 2,7-dihydrodichlorofluorescein (DCF) showed a significant fluorescence increase specifically in microglia cells. A detectable gain in fluorescence was seen when NO-containing buffer was added to the DAF-2DA,loaded cells with a minimum NO concentration at 7.7 ,M. An additional gain of DAF-2 fluorescence was obtained when the cells were depleted of glutathione (GSH) with L-buthionine S,R-sulfoximine (BSO). Hence, we monitored the change in DAF-2 fluorescence intensity in the presence of NO and O in a cell-free solution. The fluorescence due to NO was indeed larger when O was added, implying a higher sensitivity of DAF-2 for peroxynitrite. Nevertheless, our results also indicate that measurement of DCF fluorescence is a better tool for monitoring intracellular changes in the levels of NO and/or peroxynitrite than DAF-2. GLIA 38:103,114, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Nuclear factor-kappaB as a molecular target for migraine therapy.

    HEADACHE, Issue 4 2003
    U Reuter
    Ann Neurol. 2002;51:507-516. Nitric oxide (NO) generated from inducible NO synthase (iNOS) participates in immune and inflammatory responses in many tissues. The NO donor glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) provokes delayed migraine attacks when infused into migraineurs and also causes iNOS expression and delayed inflammation within rodent dura mater. Sodium nitroprusside, an NO donor as well, also increases iNOS expression. Because inflammation and iNOS are potential therapeutic targets, we examined transcriptional regulation of iNOS following GTN infusion and the consequences of its inhibition within dura mater. We show that intravenous GTN increases NO production within macrophages. L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)lysine, a selective iNOS inhibitor, attenuates the NO signal, emphasizing the importance of enzymatic activity to delayed NO production. iNOS expression is preceded by significant nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activity, as reflected by a reduction in the inhibitory protein-kappa-Balpha (IkappaBalpha) and activation of NF-kappaB after GTN infusion. IkappaBalpha degradation, NF-kappaB activation, and iNOS expression were attenuated by parthenolide (3mg/kg), the active constituent of feverfew, an anti-inflammatory drug used for migraine treatment. These findings suggest that GTN promotes NF-kappaB activity and inflammation with a time course consistent with migraine attacks in susceptible individuals. We conclude, based on results with this animal model, that blockade of NF-kappaB activity provides a novel transcriptional target for the development of anti-migraine drugs. Comment: This paper suggesting the localization of NO production in dural macrophages as part of delayed inflammation may indicate proliferation and or recruitment of these cells in migraine. Could this also be a target for drug treatment? Specifically, is the genetic transcription that leads to nitric oxide generation such a target? To amend slightly the old advertising slogan, "when Michael Moskowitz talks, we all listen." DSM and SJT [source]

    Nitric oxide suppresses transforming growth factor-,1,induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and apoptosis in mouse hepatocytes,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
    Xinchao Pan
    Nitric oxide (NO) is a multifunctional regulator that is implicated in various physiological and pathological processes. Here we report that administration of NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) inhibited transforming growth factor-,1 (TGF-,1)-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and apoptosis in mouse hepatocytes. Overexpression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) by transfection of the iNOS-expressing vector, which increased NO production, also inhibited the TGF-,1-induced EMT and apoptosis in these cells. Treatment of cells with proinflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-,, interleukin (IL)-1,, and interferon (IFN)-,, which increased the endogenous NO production, produced the same inhibitory effect. Furthermore, exogenous NO donor SNAP treatment caused a decrease in the intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. Consistently, depletion of intracellular ATP by mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) inhibited the TGF-,1-induced EMT and apoptosis, suggesting that an NO-induced decrease of ATP involved in the NO-mediated inhibition of TGF-,1-induced EMT and apoptosis. NO and FCCP also inhibited TGF-,1-induced STAT3 activation, suggesting that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 inactivation is involved in the NO-induced effects on TGF-,1-induced EMT and apoptosis. Conclusion: Our study indicates that NO plays an important role in the inhibition of TGF-,1-induced EMT and apoptosis in mouse hepatocytes through the downregulation of intracellular ATP levels. The data provide an insight into the in vivo mechanisms on the function of NO during the processes of both EMT and apoptosis. (HEPATOLOGY 2009.) [source]

    Decreased hepatic nitric oxide production contributes to the development of rat sinusoidal obstruction syndrome

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
    Laurie D. Deleve M.D., Ph.D.
    This study examined the role of decreased nitric oxide (NO) in the microcirculatory obstruction of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). SOS was induced in rats with monocrotaline. Monocrotaline caused hepatic vein NO to decrease by 30% at 24 hours and by 70% at 72 hours; this decrease persisted throughout late SOS. NG -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of NO synthase, exacerbated monocrotaline toxicity, whereas V-PYRRO/NO, a liver-selective NO donor prodrug, restored NO levels, preserved sinusoidal endothelial cell (SEC) integrity and sinusoidal perfusion as assessed by in vivo microscopy and electron microscopy, and prevented clinical and histologic evidence of SOS. NO production in vitro by SEC and Kupffer cells, the 2 major liver cell sources of NO, decreases largely in parallel with loss of cell viability after exposure to monocrotaline. Increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity increases early on in SOS and this increase in activity has been implicated in initiating SOS. Infusion of V-PYRRO-NO prevented the monocrotaline-induced increase in MMP-9. In conclusion, decreased hepatic NO production contributes to the development of SOS. Infusion of an NO donor preserves SEC integrity and prevents development of SOS. These findings show that a decrease in NO contributes to SOS by allowing up-regulation of MMP activity, loss of sinusoidal integrity, and subsequent disruption of sinusoidal perfusion. (Hepatology 2003;38:900,908). [source]

    Stimulation of NMDA and AMPA glutamate receptors elicits distinct concentration dynamics of nitric oxide in rat hippocampal slices

    HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 7 2009
    J.G. Frade
    Abstract Nitric oxide (,NO) is an intercellular messenger implicated in memory formation and neurodegeneration in the hippocampus. Owing to its physical and chemical properties, the concentration dynamics of ,NO is a critical issue in determining its bioactivity as a signaling molecule. Its production is closely related to glutamate N -methyl- D -aspartate (NMDA) receptors, following a rise in intracellular calcium levels. However, that dependent on ,-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptors remains elusive and controversial, despite reports describing a role for these receptors in other brain regions, largely because of lack of quantitative and dynamic measurements of ,NO. Using a ,NO-selective microsensor inserted in the diffusional spread of ,NO in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices, we measured its real-time endogenous production, following activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors and under tissue physiological oxygen tension. Both NMDA and AMPA stimulation resulted in a concentration-dependent ,NO production but encompassing distinct kinetics for lag phases and slower rates of ,NO production were observed for AMPA stimulation. Robustness of the results was achieved instrumentally and pharmacologically, by means of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors and antagonists of NMDA (D -(,)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, AP5) and AMPA (2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide, NBQX) receptors. When using glutamate as a stimulus, ,NO production was of lower magnitude in the presence of AP5 plus NBQX than with AP5 alone, suggesting that even when NMDA receptors are inhibited Ca2+ rises to levels to induce a peak of ,NO from the background. Whereas extracellular Ca2+ was required for the ,NO signals, Philanthotoxin-4,3,3 (PhTX-4,3,3) a toxin used to target Ca2+ -permeable AMPA receptors, attenuated ,NO production. These observations are interpreted on basis of a distinct coupling between the glutamate receptors and neuronal NOS. A role for Ca2+ -permeable AMPA receptors in the Ca2+ activation of neuronal NOS is suggested. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Spatiotemporal analysis of NO production upon NMDA and tetanic stimulation of the hippocampus

    HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 4 2005
    Norio Takata
    Abstract Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous neuromessenger. Although increasing evidence reveals significant physiological effects of NO in the hippocampal synaptic plasticity, the spatial distribution of NO production has remained largely uncharacterized due to the poor development of techniques for real-time NO imaging. In this work, using a NO-reactive fluorescent dye, diaminorhodamine-4M (DAR-4M), time-dependent heterogeneous NO production is demonstrated in hippocampal slices upon N-methyl- D -aspartate (NMDA) stimulation or tetanic stimulation. NMDA-induced DAR fluorescence increase in the CA1 was found to be twice that in the CA3 and the dentate gyrus (DG). Intracellular Ca2+ concentration was also investigated. NMDA induced similar Ca2+ responses both in the CA1 and DG, which were approx. 13% greater than that in the CA3. Subsequently, spatial distribution of NO production in the CA1 upon a tetanic stimulation of Schaffer collateral was investigated, because there are contradictory reports on the effect of NO on long-term potentiation (LTP), and that NO is known to exert various physiological effects depending on its concentration. In the stratum radiatum (sr), DAR fluorescence increase upon tetanus was largest at the vicinity of a stimulating electrode and decreased as a function of increasing distance from the stimulating electrode, suggesting the possibility that the effect of NO in LTP is dependent on the distance between stimulating and recording electrodes. The tetanus-induced Ca2+ response observed in the sr showed the same but weak distant dependence from the stimulating electrode. Taken together, the observed heterogeneity in the distribution of NO production is suggestive of region-specific effects of NO in the hippocampus. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Detrimental role of endogenous nitric oxide in host defence against Sporothrix schenckii

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    Karla Simone S. Fernandes
    Summary We earlier demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) is a fungicidal molecule against Sporothrix schenckii in vitro. In the present study we used mice deficient in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS,/,) and C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice treated with N,-nitro-arginine (Nitro-Arg-treated mice), an NOS inhibitor, both defective in the production of reactive nitrogen intermediates, to investigate the role of endogenous NO during systemic sporotrichosis. When inoculated with yeast cells of S. schenckii, WT mice presented T-cell suppression and high tissue fungal dissemination, succumbing to infection. Furthermore, susceptibility of mice seems to be related to apoptosis and high interleukin-10 and tumour necrosis factor-, production by spleen cells. In addition, fungicidal activity and NO production by interferon-, (IFN-,) and lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages from WT mice were abolished after fungal infection. Strikingly, iNOS,/, and Nitro-Arg-treated mice presented fungal resistance, controlling fungal load in tissues and restoring T-cell activity, as well as producing high amounts of IFN-, Interestingly, macrophages from these groups of mice presented fungicidal activity after in vitro stimulation with higher doses of IFN-,. Herein, these results suggest that although NO was an essential mediator to the in vitro killing of S. schenckii by macrophages, the activation of NO system in vivo contributes to the immunosuppression and cytokine balance during early phases of infection with S. schenckii. [source]

    Nitric oxide in inflammatory bowel disease: a universal messenger in an unsolved puzzle

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 4 2004
    George Kolios
    Summary In recent years, nitric oxide (NO), a gas previously considered to be a potentially toxic chemical, has been established as a diffusible universal messenger that mediates cell,cell communication throughout the body. Constitutive and inducible NO production regulate numerous essential functions of the gastrointestinal mucosa, such as maintenance of adequate perfusion, regulation of microvascular and epithelial permeability, and regulation of the immune response. Up-regulation of the production of NO via expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) represents part of a prompt intestinal antibacterial response; however, NO has also been associated with the initiation and maintenance of inflammation in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent studies on animal models of experimental IBD have shown that constitutive and inducible NO production seems to be beneficial during acute colitis, but sustained up-regulation of NO is detrimental. This fact is also supported by studies on mice genetically deficient in various NOS isoforms. However, the mechanism by which NO proceeds from being an indispensable homeostatic regulator to a harmful destructor remains unknown. Furthermore, extrapolation of data from animal colitis models to human IBD is questionable. The purpose of this review is to update our knowledge about the role of this universal mediator and the enzymes that generate it in the pathogenesis of IBD. [source]

    Signalling events involved in interferon-,-inducible macrophage nitric oxide generation

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
    Julie Blanchette
    Summary Nitric oxide (NO) produced by macrophages (M,) in response to interferon-, (IFN-,) plays a pivotal role in the control of intracellular pathogens. Current knowledge of the specific biochemical cascades involved in this IFN-,-inducible M, function is still limited. In the present study, we evaluated the participation of various second messengers , Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1,, MAP kinase kinase (MEK1/2), extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/Erk2) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-,B) , in the regulation of NO production by IFN-,-stimulated J774 murine M,. The use of specific signalling inhibitors permitted us to establish that JAK2/STAT1,- and Erk1/Erk2-dependent pathways are the main players in IFN-,-inducible M, NO generation. To determine whether the inhibitory effect was taking place at the pre- and/or post-transcriptional level, we evaluated the effect of each antagonist on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene and protein expression, and on the capacity of IFN-, to induce JAK2, Erk1/Erk2 and STAT1, phosphorylation. All downregulatory effects occurred at the pretranscriptional level, except for NF-,B, which seems to exert its role in NO production through an iNOS-independent event. In addition, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) analysis revealed that STAT1, is essential for IFN-,-inducible iNOS expression and NO production, whereas the contribution of NF-,B to this cellular regulation seems to be minimal. Moreover, our data suggest that Erk1/Erk2 are responsible for STAT1, Ser727 residue phosphorylation in IFN-,-stimulated M,, thus contributing to the full activation of STAT1,. Taken together, our results indicate that JAK2, MEK1/2, Erk1/Erk2 and STAT1, are key players in the IFN-,-inducible generation of NO by M,. [source]

    Adrenaline inhibits macrophage nitric oxide production through ,1 and ,2 adrenergic receptors

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    L. B. Sigola
    Summary This study was conducted to investigate the role of the acute stress hormone adrenaline on macrophage nitric oxide (NO) production. Murine peritoneal macrophages were stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the absence or presence of adrenaline. Adrenaline inhibited the LPS-induced nitrite response in a dose-dependent manner. The suppressive effect of adrenaline on NO production was mediated via ,1 and ,2 adrenergic receptors since isoprenaline (a non-selective ,1 and ,2 agonist), dobutamine and salbutamol (selective ,1 and ,2 agonists, respectively) had similar effects on the NO response. In addition, the inhibitory effect of adrenaline on NO was abrogated by both propranolol (a non-specific , blocker) and atenolol (a specific ,1 inhibitor). In contrast to , receptor activation, the , adrenergic agonist phenylephrine had no effect on the LPS NO response, and furthermore, phentolamine (an , receptor antagonist) did not ameliorate adrenaline's inhibitory action. [source]

    The effect of mineral trioxide aggregate on phagocytic activity and production of reactive oxygen, nitrogen species and arginase activity by M1 and M2 macrophages

    T. M. B. Rezende
    Abstract Aim, To assess the influence of co-culture with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) on phagocytosis and the production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) and nitrogen (NO) species and the arginase activity by M1 and M2 peritoneal macrophages. Methodology, Cellular viability, adherence and phagocytosis of Saccharomyces boulardii were assayed in the presence of MTA. Macrophages were stimulated with zymosan for ROI assays and with Fusobacterium nucleatum and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and IFN- , for NO production and arginase activity, when in contact with capillaries containing MTA. Data were analysed by T, anova, Kruskall,Wallis and Mann,Whitney tests. Results, M2 macrophages displayed greater cellular viability in polypropylene tubes, greater ability to ingest yeast and smaller production of ROI and higher arginase activity when compared with M1 macrophages. Both macrophages, M1 and M2, presented similar cell adherence and NO production. The addition of bacterial preparations to macrophages interfered with NO and arginase productions. MTA did not interfere with any of the parameters measured. Conclusions, Phagocytosis and the ability of the two macrophage subtypes to eliminate microbes were not affected by MTA. [source]

    Numerical study on NO formation in CH4,O2,N2 diffusion flame diluted with CO2

    Dong-Jin Hwang
    Abstract Numerical study with momentum-balanced boundary conditions has been conducted to grasp chemical effects of added CO2, to either fuel- or oxidizer-side on flame structure and NO emission behaviour in CH4,O2,N2 diffusion flames. Cautious investigation is made for the comparison among the behaviours of principal chain branching and important H-removal key reactions. This describes successfully the reason why flame temperatures for fuel-side dilution are higher than those for oxidizer-side dilution. The role of the principal chain branching reaction is also recognized to be important even in the change of major flame structure caused by chemical effects. The importantly contributing reaction steps to NO production are examined. The reduced production rates of thermal NO and prompt NO due to chemical effects are much more remarkable for fuel-side dilution. It is also found that the reaction step, H+NO+M=HNO+M plays a decisive role of the formation and destruction of prompt NO. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]