NO Levels (no + level)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Bystander signaling between glioma cells and fibroblasts targeted with counted particles

Chunlin Shao
Abstract Radiation-induced bystander effects may play an important role in cancer risks associated with environmental, occupational and medical exposures and they may also present a therapeutic opportunity to modulate the efficacy of radiotherapy. However, the mechanisms underpinning these responses between tumor and normal cells are poorly understood. Using a microbeam, we investigated interactions between T98G malignant glioma cells and AG01522 normal fibroblasts by targeting cells through their nuclei in one population, then detecting cellular responses in the other co-cultured non-irradiated population. It was found that when a fraction of cells was individually irradiated with exactly 1 or 5 helium particles (3He2+), the yield of micronuclei (MN) in the non-irradiated population was significantly increased. This increase was not related to the fraction of cells targeted or the number of particles delivered to those cells. Even when one cell was targeted with a single 3He2+, the induction of MN in the bystander non-irradiated population could be increased by 79% for AG01522 and 28% for T98G. Furthermore, studies showed that nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in these bystander responses. Following nuclear irradiation in only 1% of cells, the NO level in the T98G population was increased by 31% and the ROS level in the AG0 population was increased by 18%. Treatment of cultures with 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO), an NO scavenger, abolished the bystander MN induction in non-irradiated AG01522 cells but only partially in non-irradiated T98G cells, and this could be eliminated by treatment with either DMSO or antioxidants. Our findings indicate that differential mechanisms involving NO and ROS signaling factors play a role in bystander responses generated from targeted T98G glioma and AG0 fibroblasts, respectively. These bystander interactions suggest that a mechanistic control of the bystander effect could be of benefit to radiotherapy. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Cardioprotective effect of sasanquasaponin preconditioning via bradykinin-NO pathway in isolated rat heart

Zhangping Liao
Abstract Sasanquasaponin (SQS) is an effective component of Camellia oleifera Abel. This study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effect of SQS against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and the possible mechanism in isolated rat hearts. These hearts were pretreated by SQS only or SQS and HOE140 in different groups, and then subjected to I/R injury. Hemodynamic parameters, oxidative injury, and NO level were measured. The results showed that SQS preconditioning could decrease the incidences of arrhythmias and improve the heart functions. In addition, SQS preconditioning could protect isolated I/R injured heart against lipid peroxidation, as evidenced by increases in SOD and GSH-Px activity, and by decreases in contents of MDA, ROS generation. However, HOE140 treatment reversed all these indexes. NO production was significantly decreased after a treatment with HOE140. So we can propose that SQS preconditioning could induce the cardioprotective effects and the possible mechanism was that the activation of bradykinin-NO system by SQS preconditioning had an inhibition effect on ROS generation in isolated heart. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Systemic nitric oxide clamping in normal humans guided by total peripheral resistance

J. A. Simonsen
Abstract Aim:, We wanted to stabilize the availability of nitric oxide (NO) at levels compatible with normal systemic haemodynamics to provide a model for studies of complex regulations in the absence of changes in NO levels. Methods:, Normal volunteers (23,28 years) were infused i.v. with the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor NG -nitro- l -arginine methyl ester (l -NAME) at 0.5 mg kg,1 h,1. One hour later, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was co-infused in doses eliminating the haemodynamic effects of l -NAME. Haemodynamic measurements included blood pressure (MABP) and cardiac output (CO) by impedance cardiography. Results:,l -NAME increased MABP and total peripheral resistance (TPR, 1.02 ± 0.05 to 1.36 ± 0.07 mmHg s mL,1, mean ± SEM, P < 0.001). With SNP, TPR fell to a stable value slightly below control (0.92 ± 0.05 mmHg s mL,1, P < 0.05). CO decreased with l -NAME (5.8 ± 0.3 to 4.7 ± 0.3 L min,1, P < 0.01) and returned to control when SNP was added (6.0 ± 0.3 L min,1). A decrease in plasma noradrenaline (42%, P < 0.01) during l -NAME administration was completely reversed by SNP. Plasma renin activity decreased during l -NAME administration and returned towards normal after addition of SNP. In contrast, plasma aldosterone was increased by l -NAME and remained elevated. Conclusions:, Concomitant NOS inhibition and NO donor administration can be adjusted to maintain TPR at control level for hours. This approach may be useful in protocols in which stabilization of the peripheral supply of NO is required. However, the dissociation between renin and aldosterone secretion needs further investigation. [source]

Beneficial effects of aminoguanidine on the cardiovascular system of diabetic rats

Krisztián Stadler
Abstract Background The study focused on investigating the effect of aminoguanidine on cardiovascular damages in diabetes and the possible mechanisms of its action. Methods Aminoguanidine (AMNG) was used to treat streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, and the effects were compared to those obtained under insulin treatment. Blood metabolic parameters, ,NO and ONOO, as well as protein carbonyl levels and cardiac hypertrophy were determined. Results Diabetic animals showed increased ,NO levels and markedly increased ONOO, generation in the aorta, along with a significant hypertrophy and protein carbonylation in the cardiac tissue. Both AMNG and insulin treatment suppressed the levels of overproduced ,NO or ONOO, in the vasculature, but only AMNG was able to prevent hypertrophic alterations and reduce protein carbonylation in the cardiac tissue. Conclusions Oxidative protein modification, together with cardiac hypertrophy and high generation of ,NO and ONOO,, are important early events in the development of cardiovascular complications in diabetes. Aminoguanidine could prevent hypertrophy through inhibition of production of nonenzymatic glycation products rather than via inhibition of ,NO production. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Thaliporphine protects ischemic and ischemic-reperfused rat hearts via an NO-dependent mechanism

Li-Man Hung
Abstract In ischemia or ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), nitric oxide (NO) can potentially exert several beneficial effects. Thaliporphine, a natural alkaloid with Ca2+ channel-activating and Na+/K+ channel-blocking activities, increased NO levels and exerted cardioprotective action in ischemic or I/R rats. The role of NO in the cardioprotective actions of thaliporphine was assessed. The severity of rhythm disturbances and mortality in anesthetized rats with either coronary artery occlusion for 30 min, or 5 min followed by 30-min reperfusion, were monitored and compared in thaliporphine- vs. placebo-treated groups. Thaliporphine treatment significantly increased NO and decreased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in the blood during the end period of ischemia or I/R. These changes in NO and LDH levels by thaliporphine were associated with a reduction in the incidence and duration of ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) during ischemic or I/R period. The mortality of animals was also completely prevented by 1 × 10,8 moles/kg of thaliporphine. In animals subjected to 4 h of left coronary artery occlusion, 1 × 10,7 moles/kg of thaliporphine dramatic reduced cardiac infarct zone from 46 ± 6% to 7.1 ± 1.9%. Inhibition of NO synthesis with 3.7 × 10,6 moles/kg of N, -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) abolished the beneficial effects of thaliporphine during 30 min or 4 h myocardial ischemia. However, the antiarrhythmic activity and mortality reduction efficacy of thaliporphine during reperfusion after 5 min of ischemia was only partially antagonized by L-NAME. These results showed that thaliporphine efficiently exerted the cardioprotections either in acute or prolonged coronary artery occlusion or occlusion-reperfusion situations. The fact that thaliporphine induced cardioprotective effects were abrogated by L-NAME indicates that NO is an important mediator for the cardioprotective effects of thaliporphine in acute or prolonged ischemia, whereas antioxidant activities may contribute to the protection of I/R injury. Drug Dev. Res. 52:446,453, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Nasal nitric oxide measurements before and after repeated humming maneuvers

M. Maniscalco
Abstract Background, It has been recently shown that humming greatly increases nasal nitric oxide (NO). This is most likely owing to a rapid washout of sinus NO caused by the oscillating sound waves. During repeated humming manoeuvres nasal NO gradually decreases, likely because NO accumulated in the sinuses is washed out. Aim, We studied whether humming before measurements would affect nasally exhaled NO. Materials and methods, NO output was measured by the chemiluminescence technique in orally and nasally exhaled air in 38 subjects: 18 healthy subjects (HS), 15 subjects with allergic rhinitis (AR) and five subjects with allergic nasal polyposis (AP). Each subject performed a NO measurement during quiet nasal exhalation either preceded by a period of silence/free speaking or immediately after five consecutive humming manoeuvres (posthumming). Results, Mean nasal NO output (95% CI) after a period of silence/free speaking was 231 nL min,1 (178,284) in HS, 434 nL min,1 (347,522) in AR (P < 0·001) and 262 nL min,1 (163,361) in AP. Post-humming nasal NO output was 16% (5 to 50%) lower in HS and 14% (1 to 49%) lower in AR, while it remained unchanged in AP subjects. Intra-subject coefficient of variation of quiet nasal exhalation was 12% in HS, 13% in AR and 5% in AP. Post humming intraindividual coefficient of variation significantly decreased in both HS and AR, but it did not change in AP. Conclusions, Nasal NO levels measured immediately after repeated humming manoeuvres are consistently lower and more reproducible than nasal NO levels measured after a period of silence or free speaking. Repeated humming effectively empties the sinuses, thereby probably minimizing the normal contribution from the sinuses to nasal NO. This may be useful to better estimate NO output from the nasal cavity mucosa in health and disease. [source]

Role of intracellular Ca2+ and calmodulin/MAP kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase signalling pathway in the mitogenic and antimitogenic effect of nitric oxide in glia- and neurone-derived cell lines

Antonella Meini
Abstract To elucidate the mechanism of cell growth regulation by nitric oxide (NO) and the role played in it by Ca2+, we studied the relationship among intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), mitogen-activated protein kinases [extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)] and proliferation in cell lines exposed to different levels of NO. Data showed that NO released by low [(z)-1-[2-aminiethyl]-N-[2-ammonioethyl]amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2diolate (DETA/NO) concentrations (10 µm) determined a gradual, moderate elevation in [Ca2+]i (46.8 ± 7.2% over controls) which paralleled activation of ERK and potentiation of cell division. Functionally blocking Ca2+ or inhibiting calmodulin or MAP kinase kinase activities prevented ERK activation and antagonized the mitogenic effect of NO. Experimental conditions favouring Ca2+ entry into cells led to increased [Ca2+]i (189.5 ± 4.8%), ERK activation and cell division. NO potentiated the Ca2+ elevation (358 ± 16.8%) and ERK activation leading to expression of p21Cip1 and inhibition of cell proliferation. Furthermore, functionally blocking Ca2+ down-regulated ERK activation and reversed the antiproliferative effect of NO. Both the mitogenic and antimitogenic responses induced by NO were mimicked by a cGMP analogue whereas they were completely antagonized by selective cGMP inhibitors. These results demonstrate for the first time that regulation of cell proliferation by low NO levels is cGMP dependent and occurs via the Ca2+/calmodulin/MAP kinase kinase/ERK pathway. In this effect the amplitude of Ca2+ signalling determines the specificity of the proliferative response to NO possibly by modulating the strength of ERK activation. In contrast to the low level, the high levels (50,300 µm) of DETA/NO negatively regulated cell proliferation via a Ca2+ -independent mechanism. [source]

Effects of melatonin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester on testicular injury induced by myocardial ischemia/reperfusion in rats

Mukaddes E
Abstract Experimental studies indicate that ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) causes remote organ injury although the molecular mechanism has not been clearly defined. In this report, the role of oxidative injury on testicular damage following myocardial I/R injury and the effects of antioxidant agents, melatonin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), on testicular injury were investigated. As far as we know, this is the first report demonstrating that myocardial I/R induces damage to the testes. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham operation (SO), I/R + vehicle, I/R + melatonin, and I/R + caffeic acid phenethyl ester. To produce cardiac damage, the left main coronary artery was occluded for 30 min, followed by 120 min reperfusion, in anesthetized rats. Serum nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and morphological changes were examined. I/R was accompanied by a significant increase in serum MDA and NO levels, whereas, melatonin and CAPE administration significantly reduced these values. Melatonin was more efficient in reducing MDA levels than CAPE (P < 0.05). I/R induced myocardial damage, manifested as the histopathological evidence of intracellular vacuolization, interstitial edema, neutrophil infiltration and coagulative necrosis. I/R + vehicle group showed many histological alterations such as focal tubular atrophy, and degeneration and disorganization of the seminiferous epithelium in testes. The number of atrophic tubules and degenerating cells was significantly higher in I/R + vehicle group than that of SO group. Melatonin and CAPE significantly reduced the number of degenerating cells; additionally, melatonin reduced the number of atrophic tubules (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that myocardial I/R induces severe testicular damage and antioxidant agents, especially melatonin, have protective effects on testicular injury after myocardial I/R. Our data emphasize that oxygen-based reactants may play a central role in remote organ injury. [source]

Decreased hepatic nitric oxide production contributes to the development of rat sinusoidal obstruction syndrome

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
Laurie D. Deleve M.D., Ph.D.
This study examined the role of decreased nitric oxide (NO) in the microcirculatory obstruction of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). SOS was induced in rats with monocrotaline. Monocrotaline caused hepatic vein NO to decrease by 30% at 24 hours and by 70% at 72 hours; this decrease persisted throughout late SOS. NG -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of NO synthase, exacerbated monocrotaline toxicity, whereas V-PYRRO/NO, a liver-selective NO donor prodrug, restored NO levels, preserved sinusoidal endothelial cell (SEC) integrity and sinusoidal perfusion as assessed by in vivo microscopy and electron microscopy, and prevented clinical and histologic evidence of SOS. NO production in vitro by SEC and Kupffer cells, the 2 major liver cell sources of NO, decreases largely in parallel with loss of cell viability after exposure to monocrotaline. Increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity increases early on in SOS and this increase in activity has been implicated in initiating SOS. Infusion of V-PYRRO-NO prevented the monocrotaline-induced increase in MMP-9. In conclusion, decreased hepatic NO production contributes to the development of SOS. Infusion of an NO donor preserves SEC integrity and prevents development of SOS. These findings show that a decrease in NO contributes to SOS by allowing up-regulation of MMP activity, loss of sinusoidal integrity, and subsequent disruption of sinusoidal perfusion. (Hepatology 2003;38:900,908). [source]

Tumoricidal activity of high-dose tumor necrosis factor-, is mediated by macrophage-derived nitric oxide burst and permanent blood flow shutdown

Chandrakala Menon
Abstract This study investigates the role of tumor nitric oxide (NO) and vascular regulation in tumor ulceration following high-dose tumor necrosis factor-, (TNF) treatment. Using TNF-responsive (MethA) and nonresponsive (LL2) mouse tumors, tumor NO concentration was measured with an electrochemical sensor and tumor blood flow by Doppler ultrasound. Mice were also pretreated with a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor, 1400 W. Tumors harvested from TNF-treated mice were cryosectioned and immunostained for murine macrophages, or/and iNOS. MethA tumor-bearing mice were depleted of macrophages. Pre- and post-TNF tumor NO levels were measured continuously, and mice were followed for gross tumor response. In MethA tumors, TNF caused a 96% response rate, and tumor NO concentration doubled. Tumor blood flow decreased to 3% of baseline by 4 hr and was sustained at 24 hr and 10 days post-TNF. Selective NO inhibition with 1400 W blocked NO rise and decreased response rate to 38%. MethA tumors showed tumor infiltration by macrophages post-TNF and the pattern of macrophage immunostaining overlapped with iNOS immunostaining. Depletion of macrophages inhibited tumor NO increase and response to TNF. LL2 tumors had a 0% response rate to TNF and exhibited no change in NO concentration. Blood flow decreased to 2% of baseline by 4 hr, recovered to 56% by 24 hr and increased to 232% by 10 days. LL2 tumors showed no infiltration by macrophages post-TNF. We conclude that TNF causes tumor infiltrating, macrophage-derived iNOS-mediated tumor NO rise and sustained tumor blood flow shutdown, resulting in tumor ulceration in the responsive tumor. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The protective effect of N -acetylcysteine against cyclosporine A-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

Hasan Kaya
Abstract The immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A (CsA) has been reported to exert measurable hepatotoxic effects. One of the causes leading to hepatotoxicity is thought to be reactive oxygen radical formation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of N -acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment on CsA-induced hepatic damage by both analysing superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) activities with malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels, and using an histological approach. CsA administration produced a decrease in hepatic SOD activity, and co-administration of NAC with CsA resulted in an increase in SOD activity. MDA and NO levels increased in the CsA group and NAC treatment prevented those increases. A significant elevation in serum AST and ALT activities was observed in the CsA group, and when NAC and CsA were co-administered, the activities of AST and ALT were close to the control levels. CsA treatment caused evident morphological alterations. Control rats showed no abnormality in the cytoarchitecture of the hepatic parenchyma. The co-administration of NAC with CsA showed no signs of alteration and the morphological pattern was almost similar to the control group. In conclusion, CsA induced liver injury and NAC treatment prevented the toxic side effects induced by CsA administration through the antioxidant and radical scavenging effects of NAC. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Hypoxic damage to the periventricular white matter in neonatal brain: role of vascular endothelial growth factor, nitric oxide and excitotoxicity

Charanjit Kaur
Abstract The present study examined factors that may be involved in the development of hypoxic periventricular white matter damage in the neonatal brain. Wistar rats (1-day old) were subjected to hypoxia and the periventricular white matter (corpus callosum) was examined for the mRNA and protein expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1, (HIF-1,), endothelial, neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, nNOS and iNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 (NMDAR1) between 3 h and 14 days after hypoxic exposure by real-time RT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Up-regulated mRNA and protein expression of HIF-1,, VEGF, NMDAR1, eNOS, nNOS and iNOS in corpus callosum was observed in response to hypoxia. NMDAR1 and iNOS expression was found in the activated microglial cells, whereas VEGF was localized to astrocytes. An enzyme immunoassay showed that the VEGF concentration in corpus callosum was significantly higher up to 7 days after hypoxic exposure. NO levels, measured by colorimetric assay, were also significantly higher in hypoxic rats up to 14 days after hypoxic exposure as compared with the controls. A large number of axons undergoing degeneration were observed between 3 h and 7 days after the hypoxic exposure at electron-microscopic level. Our findings point towards the involvement of excitotoxicity, VEGF and NO in periventricular white matter damage in response to hypoxia. [source]

Poster Sessions CP08: Signal Transduction

G. Taglialatela
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and high levels of nitric oxide (NO) are present in the CNS of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), resulting in both DNA and protein oxidative damage. While iNOS can result in damaging levels of NO, the neuronal constitutive form of NOS (nNOS) has a role in cell signalling and can prevent neuronal apoptosis. iNOS can be induced by inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis alpha (TNF,). TNF, is found in the CNS of AD, where neurons dependent on neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor (NGF) are particularly affected. Here we determined the effect of TNF, on the three NOS isoforms (endothelial, neuronal and inducible) in NGF-responsive PC12 cells. We found that while TNF, and NGF alone were uneffective, their simultaneous addition resulted in iNOS induction and the release of NO. In addition TNF, and NGF synergistically reduced nNOS, independently of the presence of high NO levels promoted by iNOS, while no effect was observed on eNOS. A similar pattern was observed in the brain of aged human subjects as compared to young individuals. Our results suggest that synergistic iNOS induction by TNF, and NGF may occur in selective populations of NGF-responsive neurons. Oxidative damage in such neurons could then occur in the presence of elevated levels of TNF,, that potentially occur in the brain of AD patients. This damaging scenario may further be aggravated by a concomitant reduction of nNOS, brought about by similar synergistic effects between TNF, and NGF. Acknowledgements:, Supported by NIA (AG13945) and Sealy Res. Dev. grants to GT. [source]

Nitric oxide protects osteoblasts from oxidative stress-induced apoptotic insults via a mitochondria-dependent mechanism,

Chia-Chen Chang
Abstract Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to the regulation of osteoblast activities. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of NO pretreatment on oxidative stress-induced osteoblast apoptosis and its possible mechanism using neonatal rat calvarial osteoblasts as the experimental model. Exposure of osteoblasts to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) at a low concentration of 0.3 mM significantly increased cellular NO levels without affecting cell viability. However, when the concentration reached a high concentration of 2 mM, SNP increased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and induced osteoblast injuries. Thus, administration of 0.3 and 2 mM SNP in osteoblasts were respectively used as sources of NO and oxidative stress. Pretreatment with NO for 24 h significantly ameliorated the oxidative stress-caused morphological alterations and decreases in alkaline phosphatase activity, and reduced cell death. Oxidative stress induced osteoblast death via an apoptotic mechanism, but NO pretreatment protected osteoblasts against the toxic effects. The mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly reduced following exposure to the oxidative stress. However, pretreatment with NO significantly lowered the suppressive effects. Oxidative stress increased cellular Bax protein production and cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Pretreatment with NO significantly decreased oxidative stress-caused augmentation of Bax and cytochrome c protein levels. In parallel with cytochrome c release, oxidative stress induced caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation. Pretreatment with NO significantly reduced the oxidative stress-enhanced caspase-3 activation and DNA damage. Results of this study show that NO pretreatment can protect osteoblasts from oxidative stress-induced apoptotic insults. The protective action involves a mitochondria-dependent mechanism. © 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 24:1917,1925, 2006 [source]

Nitric Oxide Plays a Crucial Role in the Development/Progression of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in the Choline-Deficient, l-Amino Acid-Defined Diet-Fed Rat Model

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2010
Koji Fujita
Background:, The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is still unclear. Recently, the 2-hit hypothesis was proposed, in which nitric oxide production, representing oxidative stress, was proposed as a very important candidate for the second hit. Methods:, The total study period was 10 weeks. A total of 20 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group 1 was administered the Choline-Deficient, l-Amino Acid-Defined diet to produce a NASH model, and Group 2 as control received the Choline-Sufficient, l-Amino Acid-defined diet. The blood and tissue concentrations of nitrate + nitrite were measured using the Griess reagent and the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) proteins and mRNA was determined by Western blotting. Results:, In regard to nitric oxide (NO) and NO metabolites, there were significant differences in the blood (especially portal venous blood) as well as tissue (liver and visceral fat) concentrations between the 2 animal groups; the amounts of NO metabolites in the tissues were much higher in the NASH models. The level of nitrotyrosine was much markedly higher in the NASH models than in the controls. In regard to the tissue expression of iNOS a significant difference between the 2 groups was found in the visceral fat, especially in the mesenterium. Conclusions:, Based on these results, we hypothesize that the iNOS expression and NO levels in the visceral fat increase, with increased diffusion of NO and its metabolites into the liver, resulting in increased nitrotyrosine formation in the liver; this, in turn, induces inflammation, apoptosis, and fibrosis in the liver, which are one of the characteristic features of NASH. [source]

Nitric Oxide-Mediated Intestinal Injury Is Required for Alcohol-Induced Gut Leakiness and Liver Damage

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 7 2009
Yueming Tang
Background:, Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) requires endotoxemia and is commonly associated with intestinal barrier leakiness. Using monolayers of intestinal epithelial cells as an in vitro barrier model, we showed that ethanol-induced intestinal barrier disruption is mediated by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) upregulation, nitric oxide (NO) overproduction, and oxidation/nitration of cytoskeletal proteins. We hypothesized that iNOS inhibitors [NG-nitro- l -arginine methyl ester (l -NAME), l -N6 -(1-iminoethyl)-lysine (l -NIL)] in vivo will inhibit the above cascade and liver injury in an animal model of alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH). Methods:, Male Sprague,Dawley rats were gavaged daily with alcohol (6 g/kg/d) or dextrose for 10 weeks ± l -NAME, l -NIL, or vehicle. Systemic and intestinal NO levels were measured by nitrites and nitrates in urine and tissue samples, oxidative damage to the intestinal mucosa by protein carbonyl and nitrotyrosine, intestinal permeability by urinary sugar tests, and liver injury by histological inflammation scores, liver fat, and myeloperoxidase activity. Results:, Alcohol caused tissue oxidation, gut leakiness, endotoxemia, and ASH. l -NIL and l -NAME, but not the d -enantiomers, attenuated all steps in the alcohol-induced cascade including NO overproduction, oxidative tissue damage, gut leakiness, endotoxemia, hepatic inflammation, and liver injury. Conclusions:, The mechanism we reported for alcohol-induced intestinal barrier disruption in vitro , NO overproduction, oxidative tissue damage, leaky gut, endotoxemia, and liver injury , appears to be relevant in vivo in an animal model of alcohol-induced liver injury. That iNOS inhibitors attenuated all steps of this cascade suggests that prevention of this cascade in alcoholics will protect the liver against the injurious effects of chronic alcohol and that iNOS may be a useful target for prevention of ALD. [source]

Endothelial, but not the inducible, nitric oxide synthase is detectable in normal and portal hypertensive rats

Michael Martin Stumm
Abstract:Background: Chronic portal hypertension is accompanied by a nitric oxide (NO) dependent vasodilation. Three isoforms of NO producing synthases (NOS) are characterized: neuronal NOS (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS). Sources of increased NO levels in chronic hypertension is disputed. Methods: To determine eNOS and iNOS expression in different organs of portal hypertensive and control rats, we divided Sprague-Dawley rats in 6 groups: (1) Partial portal vein ligated rats, (2) Bile duct ligated rats, (3) Carbon tetrachloride treated rats, (4) Sham operated rats, (5) Untreated control rats, and (6) LPS treated rats. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunoblotting (IB) using antibodies against eNOS or iNOS were carried out on samples from thymus, aorta, heart, lung, oesophagus, liver, spleen, kidney, pancreas, small and large intestine. Results: IHC revealed an even eNOS expression in all groups. Expression of iNOS was restricted to macrophages in organs of LPS treated and the thymus of rats. IB mirrored these results. Conclusion: In chronic portal hypertension, the main source for NO production depends on eNOS activity. [source]

Involvement of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide radicals in activation and proliferation of rat hepatic stellate cells

Gianluca Svegliati-Baroni
Abstract:Background /Aims: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce HSCs activation, proliferation and collagen gene expression in vitro. Nitric oxide (NO) represents a reactive molecule that reacts with ROS, yielding peroxynitrite. We thus verified the effect of NO on ROS-induced HSCs proliferation in vitro and correlated iNOS expression and ROS formation to HSCs activation in the early phase of liver injury leading to hepatic fibrosis in vivo. Methods/Results: HSCs were incubated with iron ascorbate (FeAsc) in vitro, which induced ROS production, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and increased cell proliferation. This effect was significantly reduced by the presence of the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine. Liver injury was induced in vivo in rats by dimethylnitrosamine administration. HSCs activation started 6 h after DMN administration and peaked at 1 week. ROS generation and neutrophil infiltration were evident for at least 48 h after DMN treatment, showing an identical distribution pattern. Only a few inflammatory cells expressed iNOS 6 h after DMN administration. Conclusions: we have shown that NO acts as a ROS scavenger in vitro, thus inhibiting HSCs proliferation. ROS production by infiltrating neutrophils occurs in the early phase of liver fibrosis and can represent a stimulus to HSCs activation in vivo. The reduced iNOS expression may account for the low NO levels and the inability to prevent the ROS-induced HSC activation in vivo. [source]

Inhibition of Leukocyte Adherence Enables Venular Control of Capillary Perfusion in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

ABSTRACT Objective: Vasoactive molecules can diffuse from venules to dilate closely paired arterioles and enhance capillary perfusion. Venular control of capillary flow has been found to be dependent on nitric oxide (NO), which might be scavenged rapidly in diabetic microvasculature due to the presence of activated leukocytes. This study attempts to improve venular control of capillary flow using fucoidan, which inhibits venular leukocyte adhesion. Methods: Microvascular red blood cell velocity was measured in the mesentery of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, with and without fucoidan treatment, and in normal rats. Arteriolar pathways leading to branching capillaries were videotaped to measure the percent of the surrounding area occupied by a venule (% pairing). Microvascular wall NO was measured using fluorescent diaminofluorescein-2-diacetate in diabetic rats, with and without fucoidan treatment. Results: In normal rats, close pairing of venules to arterioles resulted in faster capillary flow. However, after 4,5 weeks of diabetes, the correlation between capillary velocity and % pairing was no longer significant. Capillary velocity and % pairing decreased , 50% in comparison to normal rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with fucoidan restored venular control of capillary flow and increased NO levels. Conclusion: Leukocyte-derived mediators that scavenge NO may lead to inadequate venular control of capillary flow in diabetes. [source]

Nitric oxide production by a murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

W. Sosroseno
The aim of this study was to determine whether Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide (LPS- A. actinomycetemcomitans) could stimulate a murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7 cells) to produce nitric oxide (NO). The cells were treated with LPS- A. actinomycetemcomitans or Escherichia coli LPS (LPS- Ec) for 24 h. The effects of NG -monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA), polymyxin B and cytokines (IFN-,, TNF-,, IL-4 and IL-12) on the production of NO were also determined. The role of protein tyrosine kinase, protein kinase C and microtubulin organization on NO production were assessed by incubating RAW264.7 cells with genistein, bisindolylmaleide and colchicine prior to LPS- A. actinomycetemcomitans stimulation, respectively. NO levels from the culture supernatants were determined by the Griess reaction. The results showed that LPS- A. actinomycetemcomitans stimulated NO production by RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, but was slightly less potent than LPS- Ec. NMMA and polymyxin B blocked the production of NO. IFN-, and IL-12 potentiated but IL-4 depressed NO production by LPS- A. actinomycetemcomitans -stimulated RAW264.7 cells. TNF-, had no effects on NO production. Genistein and bisindolylmalemaide, but not colchicine, reduced the production of NO in a dose-dependent mechanism. The results of the present study suggest that A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS, via the activation of protein tyrosine kinase and protein kinase C and the regulatory control of cytokines, stimulates NO production by murine macrophages. [source]

Cytokinin- and auxin-induced stomatal opening is related to the change of nitric oxide levels in guard cells in broad bean

She Xiao-Ping
The relationship between cytokinin- and auxin-induced stomatal opening and nitric oxide (NO) levels in guard cells in broad bean was studied. Results indicate that cytokinins and auxins reduced the levels of NO in guard cells and induced stomatal opening in darkness. In addition, cytokinins not only reduced NO levels in guard cells caused by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in light but also abolished NO that had been generated by dark, and then promoted the closed stomata reopening, as did NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide. However, unlike cytokinins, auxins not only had incapability to reduce NO levels by SNP but also could not abolish NO having been generated by dark, so auxins could not promote the closed stomata to reopen. The above-mentioned effects of auxins were similar to that of nitric oxide synthase (enzyme commission inhibitor NG -nitro- l -Arg-methyl ester. Hence, it is concluded that cytokinins reduced probably the levels of NO in guard cells via scavenging, and auxins reduced NO levels through restraining NO generation in all probability, and then induced stomatal opening in darkness. [source]

Lung eNOS and iNOS are Reoxygenation Time-Dependent Upregulated After Acute Hypoxia

Alma Rus
Abstract Nitric oxide plays a critical role in many physiological and physiopathological processes in the lung. Changes in the NO/NOS (Nitric Oxide/Nitric Oxide Synthase) system after hypoxia situations remain controversial in this organ, so that the aim of this work is to perform a complete study of this system in the hypoxic lung after different reoxygenation times ranging from 0 h to 5 days posthypoxia. This is a novel follow-up study carried out in Wistar rats submitted for 30 min to acute hypobaric hypoxia. We measured endothelial and inducible NOS (eNOS, iNOS) mRNA and protein expression, location, and in situ NOS activity as well as nitrated protein expression and location. In addition, NO levels were indirectly quantified (NOx) as well as the apoptosis level. Results showed an increase in eNOS mRNA, protein, activity as well as eNOS positive immunostaining at 0 h posthypoxia, coinciding with raised NOx levels. Contrary, iNOS, nitrated protein expression and apoptosis level augmented during the final reoxygenation times. The lung NO/NOS system provokes two responses to the hypoxia/reoxygenation processes: (i) eNOS is responsible of the immediate response, producing NO, which causes vasodilation and bronchodilation, and (ii) iNOS is related to the second late response, which seems to be involved in some of the deleterious consequences that hypoxia induces in the lung. Anat Rec, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Role of Inflammatory Cytokines and eNOS Gene Polymorphism in Pathophysiology of Pre-Eclampsia

Archana Singh
Citation Singh A, Sharma D, Raghunandan C, Bhattacharjee J. Role of inflammatory cytokines and eNOS gene polymorphism in pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia. Am J Reprod Immunol 2010; 63: 244,251 Problem, Pre-eclampsia involves endothelial vascular dysfunction. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that (i) endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase Glu298Asp gene polymorphism limits constitutive NO production causing endothelial dysfunction and (ii) inflammatory cytokines impairs endothelium dependent relaxation in pre-eclampsia. Method of study, This cross-sectional study included 50 women with pre-eclampsia and 50 healthy pregnant women. Their blood samples were analyzed for NO, inflammatory cytokines and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) gene polymorphism. Result, Decreased NO levels whereas increased tumor necrosis factor-,, interleukin (IL)-6 and interleukin-2 were found in pre-eclampsia (P < 0.001). No significant differences were found in genotype/allele distribution between two groups. Significant negative correlation was observed between NO and IL-6 in pre-eclamptic group (P = 0.001). Conclusion, An IL-6-mediated endothelium dependent NO-cyclic guanine monophosphate-mediated relaxation pathway may be inhibited in systemic vessels in pre-eclampsia. As observed in this study Glu298Asp eNOS gene polymorphism did not showed significant association with pre-eclampsia. [source]

Effects of H2O2 exposure on human sperm motility parameters, reactive oxygen species levels and nitric oxide levels

ANDROLOGIA, Issue 3 2010
S. S. Du Plessis
Summary Research has revealed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) negatively affect sperm function, both in vivo and in vitro. Sperm preparation techniques for assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are potential causes for additional ROS production. This study aimed to correlate the concentration of exogenous H2O2 with sperm motility parameters and intracellular ROS and nitric oxide (NO) levels to reiterate the importance of minimising ROS levels in ART. Human spermatozoa from 10 donors were incubated and exposed to different exogenous H2O2 concentrations (0, 2.5, 7.5 and 15 ,m). Subsequently, motility was determined using computer-aided semen analysis, while ROS (2,7-dichlorofluorescin diacetate) and NO (diaminofluorescein-2/diacetate) were analysed using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Results showed that H2O2 did affect the sperm parameters. Exogenous H2O2 was detrimental to motility and resulted in a significant increase in overall ROS and NO levels. A significant increase in static cells was seen as well. It is important to elucidate the mechanisms between intracellular ROS levels with sperm motility parameters. While this experiment demonstrated a need to reduce exogenous ROS levels during ART, it did not illustrate the cause and effect relationship of intracellular ROS and NO levels with sperm motility. Further research needs to be conducted to define a pathological level of ROS. [source]

Effects of nitrate nitrogen pollution on Central European unionid bivalves revealed by distributional data and acute toxicity testing

Karel Douda
Abstract 1.Studies from Central Europe have shown a relationship between the impaired population status of threatened freshwater mussel species and elevated nitrate nitrogen (N,NO) concentrations in running waters. 2.Causal mechanisms, however, remain unknown, and no experimental data or comprehensive studies involving more species are available, which causes uncertainty in prioritizing conservation actions. 3.This study uses both descriptive and experimental approaches to identify the effects of nitrates on freshwater mussels and demonstrates the need for integrating different research methods for development of conservation strategies for threatened species. 4.Spatial co-occurrence of five native freshwater mussel species (Anodonta anatina, Pseudanodonta complanata, Unio pictorum, Unio tumidus, Unio crassus) and N,NO concentrations were examined in a 7th-order river catchment (Lu,nice River, Czech Republic) with anthropogenically-induced increasing N,NO levels and declining populations of these species during the 20th century. 5.Acute toxicity of N,NO was then estimated for artificially reared juveniles of A. anatina and U. crassus using both lethal and sublethal test endpoints. 6.Results showed that the probability of occurrence of all species was significantly reduced in reaches with elevated N,NO levels. 7.In contrast, the results of toxicity testing revealed that the juvenile stages of the two tested species were less sensitive to N,NO than most previously tested freshwater macroinvertebrates. The detected 96-h median lethal N,NO concentrations were two orders of magnitude higher than the limits derived from distributional data. 8.Despite the probable absence of a direct negative effect of N,NO on freshwater mussel populations, N,NO has potential to be used as an effective indicator of biotope conditions. Identification of causal mechanisms responsible for the observed relationship between unionids and N,NO will require further research. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The effect of plant cytokinin hormones on the production of ethylene, nitric oxide, and protein nitrotyrosine in ageing tobacco leaves

BIOFACTORS, Issue 1-4 2006
N. Wilhelmová
Abstract Transgenic plants with genetically increased or decreased levels of cytokinins were used to investigate the effect of cytokinin level on the production of ethylene, a plant hormone with suggested role in senescence, and the production of nitric oxide, potentially important signalling and regulatory molecule. The production of these gases was followed during the course of leaf development and senescence. The production of ethylene and nitric oxide is under genetic control of genes other than those involved in regulation of senescence. The difference in basic ethylene and NO levels in different tobacco cultivars was higher than their changes in senescence. The results of this study did not indicate a direct link between ethylene production and cytokinin levels. However, there was a decreased production of NO in senescent leaves. Low cytokinins level was associated with increased NO production during leaf development. Protein nitrotyrosine proved to be a better indicator of the reactive nitrogen species than measuring of the NO production. Higher nitrotyrosine concentrations were found in insoluble proteins than in the soluble ones, pointing to membrane proteins as the primary targets of the reactive nitrogen species. In plants with elevated cytokinin levels the content of nitrated proteins decreased both in soluble and insoluble fractions. This finding indicates an antioxidative function of cytokinins against reactive nitrogen species. [source]

Effects of electromagnetic radiation from a cellular telephone on the oxidant and antioxidant levels in rabbits

M. Kemal Irmak
Abstract The number of reports on the effects induced by electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in various cellular systems is still increasing. Until now no satisfactory mechanism has been proposed to explain the biological effects of this radiation. Oxygen free radicals may play a role in mechanisms of adverse effects of EMR. This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of electromagnetic radiation of a digital GSM mobile telephone (900,MHz) on oxidant and antioxidant levels in rabbits. Adenosine deaminase, xanthine oxidase, catalase, myeloperoxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde levels were measured in sera and brains of EMR-exposed and sham-exposed rabbits. Serum SOD activity increased, and serum NO levels decreased in EMR-exposed animals compared to the sham group. Other parameters were not changed in either group. This finding may indicate the possible role of increased oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of adverse effect of EMR. Decreased NO levels may also suggest a probable role of NO in the adverse effect. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Apoptosis-Inducing High .

CHEMMEDCHEM, Issue 10 2008
NO Concentrations Are Not Sustained Either in Nascent or in Developed Cancers
Abstract Nitric oxide (.NO) induces apoptosis at high concentrations by S-nitrosating proteins such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. This literature analysis revealed that failure to sustain high . NO concentrations is common to all cancers. In cervical, gastric, colorectal, breast, and lung cancer, the cause of this failure is the inadequate expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), resulting from the inhibition of iNOS expression by TGF-,1 at the mRNA level. In bladder, renal, and prostate cancer, the reason for the insufficient . NO levels is the depletion of arginine, resulting from arginase overexpression. Arginase competes with iNOS for arginine, catalyzing its hydrolysis to ornithine and urea. In gliomas and ovarian sarcomas, low . NO levels are caused by inhibition of iNOS by N -chlorotaurine, produced by infiltrating neutrophils. Stimulated neutrophils express myeloperoxidase, catalyzing H2O2 oxidation of Cl, to HOCl, which N-chlorinates taurine at its concentration of 19,mM in neutrophils. In squamous cell carcinomas of the skin, ovarian cancers, lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease, and breast cancers, low . NO concentrations arise from the inhibition of iNOS by N -bromotaurine, produced by eosinophil-peroxidase-expressing infiltrating eosinophils. Eosinophil peroxidase catalyzes the H2O2 oxidation of Br, to HOBr, which N-brominates taurine to N -bromotaurine at its concentration of 15,mM in eosinophils. In microvascularized tumors, the . NO concentration is further depleted; . NO is rapidly consumed by red blood cells (RBCs) through S-nitrosation of RBC glutathione and hemoglobin, and by oxidation to nitrate by RBC oxyhemoglobin. Angiogenesis-inhibiting antibodies are currently used to treat cancers; their mode of action is not, as previously thought, reduction of the tumor O2 or nutrient supply. They actually decrease the loss of . NO to RBCs. [source]

Exhaled nitric oxide in seasonal allergic rhinitis: influence of pollen season and therapy

C. Gratziou
Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) has been proposed as a potential indirect marker of lower airway inflammation in asthma. To investigate the existence of lower airways inflammation in allergic rhinitis eNO measurements were performed in 32 patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic seasonal allergic rhinitis early in and out of pollen seasons and in 80 healthy volunteers. To further define how exhaled NO is modified by therapy, NO levels were detected following 1-month treatment with either inhaled steroids or non-steroids therapy with nedocromil. Exhaled NO (mean ±,SE) was significantly elevated in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis with and without symptoms (24.2 + 2.5 and 13.9 + 2.9 ppb, respectively) as compared to healthy volunteers (4.5 + 0.3 ppb) both in and out of pollen season (21.2 + 2.1 and 9.0 + 1.4 p.p.b., respectively) with a higher increase during the allergen exposure in season. Higher levels of exhaled NO were detected in patients with symptoms, either from the upper or lower airways, and with bronchial hyperreactivity. The increased exhaled NO in symptomatic patients was reduced only by inhaled steroids and not by nedocromil. These findings possibly suggest the existence of lower airway inflammation in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis in and out of pollen season. Thus, exhaled NO may be used as a non-invasive index for early detection of lower airway inflammation and for monitoring the optional treatment in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. [source]


Ahmed M Mohamadin
SUMMARY 1Melatonin (MT) is a pineal hormone that is also abundant in the gut and has a well known role in scavenging oxygen free radicals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential protective effects of MT against H2O2 -induced gastric lesions in rats. 2An experimental model of gastric ulceration was established in rats using 15% H2O2. Melatonin (12.5, 25 or 50 mg/kg, intagastrically) was administered to rats 30 min before H2O2 challenge. 3Intragastric administration of H2O2 resulted in haemorrhagic lesions in the fundic area of the stomach. Furthermore, H2O2 induced gastric oxidative stress, as indicated by depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), inhibition of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and elevation of malonedialdehyde (MDA) levels. These effects were accompanied by decreased gastric tissue levels of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and nitric oxide (NO), as well as increased levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-,. Administration of MT (12.5, 25 or 50 mg/kg) 30 min before H2O2 significantly attenuated the development of gastric lesions in a dose-dependent manner. The protective effects of MT were accompanied by significant inhibition of the H2O2 -induced reduction in gastric content of GSH and GPx activity and elevation in MDA levels. Furthermore, MT antagonized H2O2 -induced reduction of gastric PGE2 and NO levels and elevation of TNF-,. 4In conclusion, MT protects rat gastric mucosa against H2O2 -induced damage. The observed protective effects of MT can be attributed, at least in part, to its anti-oxidant properties, preservation of PGE2 and NO levels, as well as inhibition of TNF-, induction in gastric tissues. [source]