NO Generation (no + generation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences


Selected Abstracts


Imidazoline-induced amplification of glucose- and carbachol-stimulated insulin release includes a marked suppression of islet nitric oxide generation in the mouse

ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2009
S. Meidute-Abaraviciene
Abstract Aim:, The role of islet nitric oxide (NO) production in insulin-releasing mechanisms is unclear. We examined whether the beneficial effects of the imidazoline derivative RX 871024 (RX) on ,-cell function might be related to perturbations of islet NO production. Methods:, Experiments were performed with isolated islets or intact mice challenged with glucose or carbachol with or without RX treatment. Insulin was determined with radioimmunoassay, NO generation with high-performance liquid chromatography and expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) with confocal microscopy. Results:, RX treatment, in doses lacking effects on basal insulin, greatly amplified insulin release stimulated by the NO-generating secretagogues glucose and carbachol both in vitro and in vivo. RX also improved the glucose tolerance curve. Islets incubated at high glucose levels (20 mmol L,1) displayed increased NO production derived from both neuronal constitutive NO synthase (ncNOS) and iNOS. RX abrogated this glucose-induced NO production concomitant with amplification of insulin release. Confocal microscopy revealed abundant iNOS expression in , cells after incubation of islets at high but not low glucose levels. This was abolished after RX treatment. Similarly, islets cultured for 24 h at high glucose levels showed intense iNOS expression in , cells. This was abrogated with RX and followed by an amplified glucose-induced insulin release. Conclusion:, RX effectively counteracts the negative impact of ,-cell NO generation on insulin release stimulated by glucose and carbachol suggesting imidazoline compounds by virtue of NOS inhibitory properties being of potential therapeutic value for treatment of ,-cell dysfunction in hyperglycaemia and type 2 diabetes. [source]


Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA): the silent transition from an ,uraemic toxin' to a global cardiovascular risk molecule

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, Issue 2 2005
D. Fliser
Abstract Endothelial dysfunction as a result of reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) plays a central role in the process of atherosclerotic vascular disease. In endothelial cells NO is synthesized from the amino acid l -arginine by the action of the NO synthase (NOS), which can be blocked by endogenous inhibitors such as asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). Acute systemic administration of ADMA to healthy subjects significantly reduces NO generation, and causes an increase in systemic vascular resistance and blood pressure. Increased plasma ADMA levels as a result of reduced renal excretion have been associated with atherosclerotic complications in patients with terminal renal failure. However, a significant relationship between ADMA and traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as advanced age, high blood pressure and serum LDL-cholesterol, has been documented even in individuals without manifest renal dysfunction. As a consequence, the metabolism of ADMA by the enzyme dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) has come into the focus of cardiovascular research. It has been proposed that dysregulation of DDAH with consecutive increase in plasma ADMA concentration and chronic NOS inhibition is a common pathophysiological pathway in numerous clinical conditions. Thus, ADMA has emerged as a potential mediator of atherosclerotic complications in patients with coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, etc., being the culprit and not only an innocent biochemical marker of the atherosclerotic disease process. [source]


Nitric oxide-dependent protein synthesis in parotid and submandibular glands of anaesthetized rats upon sympathetic stimulation or isoprenaline administration

EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
Shariel Sayardoust
In anaesthetized female rats, the ,-adrenoceptor agonist isoprenaline was intravenously infused (20 ,g kg,1 min,1) for 30 min or the ascending cervical sympathetic nerve trunk was intermittently stimulated (50 Hz, 1 s every tenth second) on one side for 30 min. The incorporation of [3H]leucine into trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-insoluble material was used as an index of protein synthesis. In response to isoprenaline, the [3H]leucine incorporation increased by 79% in the parotid glands and by 82% in the submandibular glands. The neuronal type NO-synthase inhibitor N-PLA, reduced (P < 0.001) this response to 26% and 20%, respectively. Sympathetic stimulation under ,-adrenoceptor blockade increased the [3H]leucine incorporation by 192% in the parotid glands and by 35% in the submandibular glands. N-PLA reduced the corresponding percentage figures to 86% (P < 0.01) and 8% (P < 0.05). When tested in the parotid glands, the non-selective NO-synthase inhibitor L -NAME reduced (P < 0.01) the nerve-evoked response to 91%. The increase in [3H]leucine incorporation in response to sympathetic stimulation under ,-adrenoceptor blockade was not affected by N-PLA in the parotid (139%versus 144%) and submandibular glands (39%versus 34%). In non-stimulated glands, the [3H]leucine incorporation was not influenced by the NO-synthase inhibitors. In conclusion, ,-adrenoceptor mediated salivary gland protein synthesis is largely dependent on NO generation by neuronal type NO-synthase, most likely of parenchymal origin. [source]


Signalling events involved in interferon-,-inducible macrophage nitric oxide generation

IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
Julie Blanchette
Summary Nitric oxide (NO) produced by macrophages (M,) in response to interferon-, (IFN-,) plays a pivotal role in the control of intracellular pathogens. Current knowledge of the specific biochemical cascades involved in this IFN-,-inducible M, function is still limited. In the present study, we evaluated the participation of various second messengers , Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1,, MAP kinase kinase (MEK1/2), extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/Erk2) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-,B) , in the regulation of NO production by IFN-,-stimulated J774 murine M,. The use of specific signalling inhibitors permitted us to establish that JAK2/STAT1,- and Erk1/Erk2-dependent pathways are the main players in IFN-,-inducible M, NO generation. To determine whether the inhibitory effect was taking place at the pre- and/or post-transcriptional level, we evaluated the effect of each antagonist on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene and protein expression, and on the capacity of IFN-, to induce JAK2, Erk1/Erk2 and STAT1, phosphorylation. All downregulatory effects occurred at the pretranscriptional level, except for NF-,B, which seems to exert its role in NO production through an iNOS-independent event. In addition, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) analysis revealed that STAT1, is essential for IFN-,-inducible iNOS expression and NO production, whereas the contribution of NF-,B to this cellular regulation seems to be minimal. Moreover, our data suggest that Erk1/Erk2 are responsible for STAT1, Ser727 residue phosphorylation in IFN-,-stimulated M,, thus contributing to the full activation of STAT1,. Taken together, our results indicate that JAK2, MEK1/2, Erk1/Erk2 and STAT1, are key players in the IFN-,-inducible generation of NO by M,. [source]


Involvement of the JAK-STAT pathway and SOCS3 in the regulation of adiponectin-generated reactive oxygen species in murine macrophage RAW 264 cells

JOURNAL OF CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2010
Sumio Akifusa
Abstract Adiponectin is a protein hormone produced by differentiating adipocytes and has been proposed to have anti-diabetic and immunosuppressive properties. We previously reported that the globular form of adiponectin (gAd) induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), followed by caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death in RAW 264 cells. Here, we demonstrate that gAd-induced ROS generation and apoptosis were diminished by suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). The phosphorylation level of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 detected by Western blotting was highest at 20,min in gAd-treated RAW 264 cells. This phosphorylation was inhibited by AG490, a specific inhibitor of janus-activator kinase (JAK). The gAd-induced ROS and NO were reduced by administration of AG490 and Jak-2-specific siRNA in RAW 264 cells. The gAd stimulation transiently induced SOCS3 mRNA expression and protein production. We examined SOCS3-overexpressing RAW 264 cells to investigate the role of the JAK-STAT pathway in gAd-induced ROS and NO generation. SOCS3 overexpression significantly reduced both ROS and NO generation. Additionally, gAd-induced caspase activation and apoptotic cell death were reduced in SOCS3 transfectants compared with vector control transfectants. These results suggest that the JAK-STAT pathway, which can be suppressed by SOCS3 expression, is involved in gAd-induced ROS and NO generation followed by apoptotic cell death. J. Cell. Biochem. 111: 597,606, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Role of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway and extracellular environment in the nitric oxide donor-induced increase in dopamine secretion from PC12 cells: a microdialysis in vitro study

JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 6 2003
Pier Andrea Serra
Abstract In vitro microdialysis was used to investigate the mechanism of nitric oxide (NO) donor-induced changes in dopamine (DA) secretion from PC12 cells. Infusion of the NO-donor S-nitroso- N -acetylpenicillamine (SNAP, 1.0 mm) induced a long-lasting increase in DA and 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) dialysate concentrations. SNAP-induced increases were inhibited either by pre-infusion of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo[4,3]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 0.1 mm) or by Ca2+ omission. Ca2+ re-introduction restored SNAP effects. SNAP-induced increases in DA + 3-MT were unaffected by co-infusion of the l -type Ca2+ channel inhibitor nifedipine. The NO-donor (+/,)-(E)-4-ethyl-2-[(E)-hydroxyimino]-5-nitro-3-hexenamide (NOR-3, 1.0 mm) induced a short-lasting decrease in dialysate DA + 3-MT. Ascorbic acid (0.2 mm) co-infusion allowed NOR-3 to increase dialysate DA + 3-MT. ODQ pre-infusion inhibited NOR-3 + ascorbic acid-induced DA + 3-MT increases. Infusion of high K+ (75 mm) induced a 2.5-fold increase in dialysate DA + 3-MT. The increase was abolished by NOR-3 co-infusion. Conversely, co-infusion of ascorbic acid (0.2 mm) with NOR-3 + high K+ restored high K+ effects. Co-infusion of nifedipine inhibited high K+ -induced DA + 3-MT increases. These results suggest that activation of the NO/sGC/cyclic GMP pathway may be the underlying mechanism of extracellular Ca2+ -dependent effects of exogenous NO on DA secretion from PC12 cells. Extracellular Ca2+ entry may occur through nifedipine-insensitive channels. NO effects and DA concentrations in dialysates largely depend on both the timing of NO generation and the extracellular environment in which NO is generated. [source]


Inter-relationship of cytokine production and NOS2 expression in microglia

JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 2002
C. Dello Russo
Under normal conditions, glial cells provide neurotrophic support, but can contribute to damage during neurodegenerative disorders such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Once activated, glia produce and release inflammatory mediators and potentially neurotoxic substances (including cytokines, NO, and prostanoids) whose interactions could lead to sustained inflammation. We investigated the relationship between cytokine production and NO release using enriched cultures of rat microglia. Preliminary data suggest that low concentrations of endotoxin LPS (1,10 ng/mL) activated microglia by a complex mechanism involving NF,B activation, cAMP increase and PKA activation, and IL-1, production and release. We characterized this system using pharmacological activators and inhibitors of NF,B and PKA, and IL-1r, to reduce IL-1, effects. Norepinephrine (NE) dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced NOS2 expression and NO generation, via activation of ,-2 adrenergic receptors (,2-ARs) and elevation of cAMP. Similarly, NE dose-dependently blocked LPS-dependent IL-1, production. The addition of PKA inhibitors did not reverse the suppressive effects of NE on NO production, but did reverse its effects on IL-1,. Addition of IL-1r, also reduced NO production, and exogenous IL-1, reversed the inhibitory effects of NE. These data suggest that effects of NE on LPS-dependent NO release is, at least in part, mediated by blocking of IL-1, secretion. At the same time, results with inhibitors suggest that PKA activation is necessary for LPS effects. Together, these results point to the existence of autocrine and paracrine regulatory mechanisms of microglia activation. The relationship between cytokines and NO could be an important mechanism of sustained and disruptive microglia activation. [source]


Cytokinin- and auxin-induced stomatal opening is related to the change of nitric oxide levels in guard cells in broad bean

PHYSIOLOGIA PLANTARUM, Issue 3 2006
She Xiao-Ping
The relationship between cytokinin- and auxin-induced stomatal opening and nitric oxide (NO) levels in guard cells in broad bean was studied. Results indicate that cytokinins and auxins reduced the levels of NO in guard cells and induced stomatal opening in darkness. In addition, cytokinins not only reduced NO levels in guard cells caused by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in light but also abolished NO that had been generated by dark, and then promoted the closed stomata reopening, as did NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide. However, unlike cytokinins, auxins not only had incapability to reduce NO levels by SNP but also could not abolish NO having been generated by dark, so auxins could not promote the closed stomata to reopen. The above-mentioned effects of auxins were similar to that of nitric oxide synthase (enzyme commission 1.14.13.39) inhibitor NG -nitro- l -Arg-methyl ester. Hence, it is concluded that cytokinins reduced probably the levels of NO in guard cells via scavenging, and auxins reduced NO levels through restraining NO generation in all probability, and then induced stomatal opening in darkness. [source]


Nitric oxide, induced by wounding, mediates redox regulation in pelargonium leaves

PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
M. Arasimowicz
Abstract The subject of this study was the participation of nitric oxide (NO) in plant responses to wounding, promoted by nicking of pelargonium (Pelargonium peltatum L.) leaves. Bio-imaging with the fluorochrome 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA) and electrochemical in situ measurement of NO showed early (within minutes) and transient (2 h) NO generation after wounding restricted to the site of injury. In order to clarify the functional role of NO in relation to modulation of the redox balance during wounding, a pharmacological approach was used. A positive correlation was found between NO generation and regulation of the redox state. NO caused a slight restriction of post-wounded O2, production, in contrast to the periodic and marked increase in H2O2 level. The observed changes were accompanied by time-dependent inhibition of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity. The effect was specific to NO, since the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5 tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) reversed the inhibition of CAT and APX, as well as temporarily enhancing H2O2 synthesis. Finally, cooperation of NO/H2O2 restricted the depletion of the low-molecular weight antioxidant pool (i.e. ascorbic acid and thiols) was positively correlated with sealing and reconstruction changes in injured pelargonium leaves (i.e. lignin formation and callose deposition). The above results clearly suggest that NO may promote restoration of wounded tissue through stabilisation of the cell redox state and stimulation of the wound scarring processes. [source]


Nitric oxide in plants: the history is just beginning

PLANT CELL & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 3 2001
M. V. Beligni
ABSTRACT Nitric oxide (NO) is a bioactive molecule that exerts a number of diverse activities in phylogenetically distant species, as well as opposing effects in related biological systems. It was firstly described in mammals as a major messenger in the cardiovascular, immune and nervous system, in which it plays regulatory, signalling, cytoprotective and cytotoxic effects (Ignarro, Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 30, 535,560, 1990; Anbar, Experientia 51, 545,550, 1995). This versatility is mainly achieved through interactions with targets via either a redox or an additive chemistry (Stamler, Cell 78, 931,936, 1994). For this reason, metal- and thiol-containing proteins serve as major target sites for NO: these include signalling proteins, receptors, enzymes, transcription factors and DNA, among others. Furthermore, NO is a small, highly diffusible molecule. It rapidly crosses biological membranes and triggers various different processes in a short period of time. In this context, NO can co-ordinate and regulate cellular functions of microsomes and organelles such as mitochondria. The ubiquity of NO reactions, as well as the finding that the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying many physiological processes are well conserved between diverse species, have opened the exploration of NO chemistry in different organisms. Among these, plants were not the exception. The research in plants has been focused on three main fields: (i) the search for NO or any source of NO generation; (ii) the examination of the effects of NO upon exogenous treatments; and (iii) the search for the same molecules involved in NO-sensitive transduction pathways as in animals (e.g. cGMP, Ca2+, calmodulin). As it is evident from this review, recent progress on NO functionality in plants has been impressive. With the use of biochemistry, molecular genetics and structural biology, together with classical physiological approaches, an explosion of new discoveries will surely begin. It is certainly a good time for plant biologists. [source]


Characteristics and function of cardiac mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase

THE JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
Elena N. Dedkova
We used laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive fluorescent dye DAF-2 and the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive dyes CM-H2DCF and MitoSOX Red to characterize NO and ROS production by mitochondrial NO synthase (mtNOS) in permeabilized cat ventricular myocytes. Stimulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake by exposure to different cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i= 1, 2 and 5 ,m) resulted in a dose-dependent increase of NO production by mitochondria when l -arginine, a substrate for mtNOS, was present. Collapsing the mitochondrial membrane potential with the protonophore FCCP or blocking the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter with Ru360 as well as blocking the respiratory chain with rotenone or antimycin A in combination with oligomycin inhibited mitochondrial NO production. In the absence of l -arginine, mitochondrial NO production during stimulation of Ca2+ uptake was significantly decreased, but accompanied by increase in mitochondrial ROS production. Inhibition of mitochondrial arginase to limit l -arginine availability resulted in 50% inhibition of Ca2+ -induced ROS production. Both mitochondrial NO and ROS production were blocked by the nNOS inhibitor (4S)- N -(4-amino-5[aminoethyl]aminopentyl)- N,-nitroguanidine and the calmodulin antagonist W-7, while the eNOS inhibitor l - N5 -(1-iminoethyl)ornithine (l -NIO) or iNOS inhibitor N -(3-aminomethyl)benzylacetamidine, 2HCl (1400W) had no effect. The superoxide dismutase mimetic and peroxynitrite scavenger MnTBAP abolished Ca2+ -induced ROS generation and increased NO production threefold, suggesting that in the absence of MnTBAP either formation of superoxide radicals suppressed NO production or part of the formed NO was transformed quickly to peroxynitrite. In the absence of l -arginine, mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake induced opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP), which was blocked by the PTP inhibitor cyclosporin A and MnTBAP, and reversed by l -arginine supplementation. In the presence of the mtNOS cofactor (6R)-5,6,7,8,-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4; 100 ,m) mitochondrial ROS generation and PTP opening decreased while mitochondrial NO generation slightly increased. These data demonstrate that mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake activates mtNOS and leads to NO-mediated protection against opening of the mitochondrial PTP, provided sufficient availability of l -arginine and BH4. In conclusion, our data show the importance of l -arginine and BH4 for cardioprotection via regulation of mitochondrial oxidative stress and modulation of PTP opening by mtNOS. [source]


Real-time measurement of nitric oxide in single mature mouse skeletal muscle fibres during contractions

THE JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
Deborah Pye
Nitric oxide (NO) is thought to play multiple roles in skeletal muscle including regulation of some adaptations to contractile activity, but appropriate methods for the analysis of intracellular NO activity are lacking. In this study we have examined the intracellular generation of NO in isolated single mature mouse skeletal muscle fibres at rest and following a period of contractile activity. Muscle fibres were isolated from the flexor digitorum brevis muscle of mice and intracellular NO production was visualized in real-time using the fluorescent NO probe 4-amino-5-methylamino-2,,7,-difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF-FM DA). Some leakage of DAF-FM was apparent from fibres loaded with the probe, but they retained sufficient probe to respond to changes in intracellular NO following addition of the NO donor 3-(2-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-nitrosohydrazino)- N -methyl-1-propanamine (NOC-7) up to 30 min after loading. Electrically stimulated contractions in isolated fibres increased the rate of change in DAF-FM fluorescence by ,48% compared to non-stimulated fibres (P < 0.05) and the rate of change in DAF-FM fluorescence in the stimulated fibres returned to control values by 5 min after contractions. Treatment of isolated fibres with the NO synthase inhibitors NG -nitro- l -arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l -NAME) or NG -monomethyl- l -arginine (l -NMMA) reduced the increase in DAF-FM fluorescence observed in response to contractions of untreated fibres. Treatment of fibres with the cell-permeable superoxide scavenger 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzenedisulphonic acid (Tiron) also reduced the increase in fluorescence observed during contractions suggesting that superoxide, or more probably peroxynitrite, contributes to the fluorescence observed. Thus this technique can be used to examine NO generation in quiescent and contracting skeletal muscle fibres in real time, although peroxynitrite and other reactive nitrogen species may potentially contribute to the fluorescence values observed. [source]


NO signalling decodes frequency of neuronal activity and generates synapse-specific plasticity in mouse cerebellum

THE JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
Shigeyuki Namiki
Nitric oxide (NO) is an intercellular messenger regulating neuronal functions. To visualize NO signalling in the brain, we generated a novel fluorescent NO indicator, which consists of the heme-binding region (HBR) of soluble guanylyl cyclase and the green fluorescent protein. The indicator (HBR,GFP) was expressed in the Purkinje cells of the mouse cerebellum and we imaged NO signals in acute cerebellar slices upon parallel fibre (PF) activation with a train of burst stimulations (BS, each BS consisting of five pulses at 50 Hz). Our results showed that the intensity of synaptic NO signal decays steeply with the distance from the synaptic input near PF,Purkinje cell synapses and generates synapse-specific long-term potentiation (LTP). Furthermore, the NO release level has a bell-shaped dependence on the frequency of PF activity. At an optimal frequency (1 Hz), but not at a low frequency (0.25 Hz) of a train of 60 BS, NO release as well as LTP was induced. However, both NO release and LTP were significantly reduced at higher frequencies (2,4 Hz) of BS train due to cannabinoid receptor-mediated retrograde inhibition of NO generation at the PF terminals. These results suggest that synaptic NO signalling decodes the frequency of neuronal activity to mediate synaptic plasticity at the PF,Purkinje cell synapse. [source]


Detection and Localization of Two Constitutive NOS Isoforms in Bull Spermatozoa

ANATOMIA, HISTOLOGIA, EMBRYOLOGIA, Issue 6 2003
H. Meiser
Summary Bull spermatozoa were examined for the presence and localization of constitutive Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS), as nitric oxide (NO) is involved in calcium-dependent capacitation. In bull spermatozoa, NO generation is enhanced by l -arginine (3 ,m) and abolished by the NOS-inhibitor N -nitro- l -arginine methyl ester (l -NAME). In addition, presence of NOS in bull spermatozoa was verified by immunohistochemistry, revealing the existence of both neuronal NOS (nNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS) immunoreaction. These findings were confirmed by Western blot technique, showing immunoreactive bands at 161 kDa (nNOS) and 133 kDa (eNOS). Confocal laser microscopy localized nNOS related immunofluorescence at the acrosome cap of sperms and their flagellum-mainpart. This technique also identified eNOS staining spread over the spermatozoan head. In conclusion, immunohistochemistry, Western blot technique, and NO generation suggest the presence of n- and eNOS in bull spermatozoa. [source]


Nitric oxide generation from hydroxylamine in the presence of neutrophils and in the cell-free system

APMIS, Issue 7-8 2001
Magdalena Klink
Conversion of hydroxylamine (HA) to nitric oxide (NO) has been studied in the presence or absence of human neutrophils with or without myristate acetate phorbol (PMA), catalase (CAT), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors. The generation of NO from HA in the presence of neutrophils was higher than in the cell-free system. We found that catalase did not influence the nitrite generation from HA in the cell-free system and in the presence of neutrophils. The H2O2 enhanced the NO generation from HA in the presence of neutrophils only. When catalase and H2O2 were added together, a high increase of NO generation from HA in both systems was observed. The addition of SOD decreased whereas addition of PMA enhanced the NO generation from HA in the presence of neutrophils. The presented data show the possible role of oxygen radicals in the decomposition of HA to NO. The addition of NOS inhibitors to the culture of neutrophils decreased the generation of nitrite from HA. Our results suggest that NO generation from HA, which is an intermediate in NO production from L-arginine, may be supported by an enzymatic pathway in which cellular NO synthase is involved. [source]


Immunomodulatory and Anticancer Activities of Some Novel 2-Substituted-6-bromo-3-methylthiazolo[3,2- a]benzimidazole Derivatives

ARCHIV DER PHARMAZIE, Issue 4 2009
Hatem A. Abdel-Aziz
Abstract Ethyl 6-bromo-3-methyl-1,3-thiazolo[3,2- a]benzimidazole-2-carboxylate 2 was prepared by the ambient temperature bromination of ethyl 3-methyl-1,3-thiazolo[3,2- a]benzimidazole-2-carboxylate 1. The acid hydrazide 4 was obtained by the reaction of ester 2 with hydrazine hydrate. Treatment of compound 4 with benzaldehyde or 2-thiophenaldehyde yielded the corresponding hydrazones 6a and 6b, respectively, while the reaction of acid hydrazide 4 with ethoxymethylene malononitrile (7a) or with ethyl ethoxymethylene cyanoacetate (7b) in refluxing ethanol afforded pyrazole derivatives 9a and 9b, respectively. Taken together, from the biological investigations compounds 9a and 9b were the most significant inhibitors of LPS-stimulated NO generation from Raw murine macrophage 264.7, and, as another result, compounds 2 and 4 had a weak radical scavenging activity against DPPH radicals. Moreover, 2, 4, and 9a had a concomitant strong cytotoxicity against both colon carcinoma cells (HCT-116) and hepatocellular carcinoma cells (Hep-G2) while 9b showed specific cytotoxicity only against colon carcinoma cells. [source]


Activation and potentiation of the NO/cGMP pathway by NG -hydroxyl- L -arginine in rabbit corpus cavernosum under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and ageing

BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
Javier Angulo
When nitric oxide synthase (NOS) produces NO from NG -hydroxy- L -arginine (OH-arginine) instead of L -arginine, the total requirement of molecular oxygen and NADPH to form NO is reduced. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of OH-arginine on the contractility of rabbit corpus cavernosum (RCC) and to compare the capacities of L -arginine and OH-arginine to enhance NO-mediated responses under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and in ageing, as models of defective NO production. OH-arginine, but not L -arginine, was able to relax phenylephrine-contracted rabbit trabecular smooth muscle. OH-arginine-induced relaxation was inhibited by the NOS-inhibitor, L -NNA (300 ,M), and by the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, ODQ (20 ,M), while it was not affected by the cytochrome P450 oxygenase inhibitor, miconazole (0.1 mM). Administration of OH-arginine, but not L -arginine, produced a significant increment of cGMP accumulation in RCC tissue. Relaxation elicited by OH-arginine (300 ,M) was still observed at low oxygen tension. The increase of cGMP levels induced by ACh (30 ,M) in RCC was significantly enhanced by addition of OH-arginine (300 ,M) in normoxic conditions, as well as under hypoxia, while L -arginine did not alter the effects of ACh on cGMP accumulation. Endothelium-dependent and nitrergic nerve-mediated relaxations were both significantly reduced in RCC from aged animals (>20-months-old) when compared with young adult rabbits (5-months-old). Treatment with OH-arginine (300 ,M) significantly potentiated endothelium-dependent and neurogenic relaxation in corpus cavernosum from aged rabbits, while L -arginine (300 ,M) did not have significant effects. Results show that OH-arginine promotes NO-mediated relaxation of RCC and potentiates the NO-mediated responses induced by stimulation of endogenous NO generation in hypoxic and aged tissues. We propose that the use of OH-arginine could be of interest in the treatment of erectile dysfunction, at least in those secondary to defective NO production. British Journal of Pharmacology (2003) 138, 63,70. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0705027 [source]


P2 receptors: new potential players in atherosclerosis

BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, Issue 4 2002
Francesco Di Virgilio
Atherosclerosis is a focal inflammatory disease of the arterial wall. It starts with the formation of fatty streaks on the arterial wall that evolve to form a raised plaque made of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and infiltrating leukocytes surrounding a necrotic core. The pathogenesis of the atherosclerotic lesion is incompletely understood, but it is clear that a dysfunction of the endothelium, recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells and SMC proliferation have a pivotal role. Over recent years receptors for extracellular nucleotides, the P2 receptors, have been recognized as fundamental modulators of leukocytes, platelets, SMCs and endothelial cells. P2 receptors mediate chemotaxis, cytokine secretion, NO generation, platelet aggregation and cell proliferation in response to accumulation of nucleotides into the extracellular milieu. Clinical trials have shown the benefit of antagonists of the ADP platelet receptor(s) in the prevention of vascular accidents in patients with atherosclerosis. Therefore, we anticipate that a deeper understanding of the involvement of P2 receptors in atheroma formation will open new avenues for drug design and therapeutic intervention. British Journal of Pharmacology (2002) 135, 831,842; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0704524 [source]


Clinical importance of serum interleukin-18 and nitric oxide activities in breast carcinoma patients

CANCER, Issue 3 2002
Nazan GŁnel M.D.
Abstract BACKGROUND Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a novel immunoregulatory cytokine that was known previously as interferon-,,inducing factor. IL-18 levels can be used as a serum indicator for monitoring the clinical course of patients with hematologic malignancies and gastric carcinoma. Nitric oxide (NO) is a pleiotropic molecule that participates in the multistep processing of carcinogenesis. METHODS In the current study, we measured serum IL-18 and nitrate and nitrite levels in 38 metastatic and 26 nonmetastatic breast carcinoma patients and 16 healthy control subjects. Serum nitrate and nitrite levels were measured as an index of NO generation. RESULTS The levels of serum IL-18 and nitrate and nitrite were increased significantly in breast carcinoma patients compared with control subjects (P < 0.001). Serum IL-18 levels were significantly higher in the metastatic patients compared with the nonmetastatic patients (P < 0.001). There was no difference in serum nitrate and nitrite levels between metastatic and nonmetastatic patients (P > 0.05). Patients with bone metastasis have higher serum IL-18 levels and lower serum nitrate and nitrite levels compared with patients with liver, lung, and local metastasis (P < 0.001). There was no correlation among serum IL-18, nitrate and nitrite, CA 15-3, and carcinoemybryonic antigen levels (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that serum IL-18 and nitrate and nitrite levels may be useful markers in monitoring metastatic breast carcinoma pateints. IL-18 and NO activities in breast carcinoma patients with bone metastasis may be more valuable in the follow-up of these patients. Cancer 2002;95:663,7. © 2002 American Cancer Society. DOI 10.1002/cncr.10705 [source]


Effect of montelukast pretreatment on inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression in the lungs of antigen-challenged allergic mice

CLINICAL & EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGY, Issue 12 2003
K. Sade
Summary Background Growing evidence suggests that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is the main source of the high output of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) in asthma. Treatment of asthmatic patients with glucocorticoids reduces high levels of exhaled NO mainly by inhibiting the transcription of iNOS. A similar reduction in exhaled NO was recently observed in patients treated with the leukotriene receptor antagonists, but the exact interaction between these drugs and iNOS remains obscure. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a leukotriene receptor antagonist, montelukast, on the expression and activity of iNOS in a murine model of allergic asthma. Methods Twenty-four BALB/c mice were sensitized to OVA and were equally divided into 3 groups (Groups 1,3). Eight additional mice were sham sensitized and served as a negative control group (Group 4). Group 1 received montelukast 1 mg/kg/day in their drinking water, Group 2 received dexamethasone 1 mg/kg/day in their drinking water and Groups 3 and 4 received plain tap water. After 1 week, the animals were challenged by inhalation of OVA and, 3 h later, they were killed and their lung cells were isolated by enzymatic tissue digestion. NO generation was measured by a Griess assay, and iNOS mRNA was studied by RT-PCR. Results A significant increase in iNOS mRNA expression and in NO generation was evident after allergen challenge compared with the controls. Pretreatment with montelukast mildly decreased NO production without producing a concomitant significant decrease in iNOS mRNA expression. Conclusion: Unlike pretreatment with glucocorticoids, we failed to find compelling evidence for a major role for montelukast treatment in the modulation of iNOS mRNA in a murine model of acute asthma. [source]


Neuroprotective effect of asymmetric dimethylarginine against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion-induced damage in PC12 cells

CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 5-6 2010
Xiao-Qing Tang
Summary 1. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a well-known endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor. Although it has been shown to be a novel risk marker in cardiovascular medicine and chronic kidney disease, we speculated that in some states associated with excess of nitric oxide (NO), such as 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+)-induced neuronal injury, ADMA might be protective by limiting the toxic effect of high concentrations of NO. 2. The aim of the present study is to explore the protection of ADMA against MPP+ -induced apoptosis and the molecular mechanisms underlying in PC12 cells. 3. We found that exogenous application of ADMA obviously protected PC12 cells against MPP+ -induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis not only by reducing the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, but also by attenuating an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species. Moreover, ADMA attenuated MPP+ -induced excessive activation of nitric oxide synthase and overproduction of NO. 4. The results of the present study suggest that the protection caused by ADMA is related to preserving mitochondrial membrane potential and attenuating the MPP+ -induced intracellular reactive oxygen species generation through inhibiting nitric oxide synthase activity and limiting NO generation. [source]