No Evidence (no + evidence)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Satisfaction With Work and Family Life: No Evidence of a Cultural Reversal

K. Jill Kiecolt
Hochschild (1997) argued that in recent decades the rewards of work have increased relative to those of family life and that this cultural reversal has aggravated the time bind that families face by increasing working hours. To the contrary, pooled data from the 1973,1994 General Social Surveys indicate that in working families, women have shifted away from finding work more satisfying than home toward finding home a haven. Moreover, were it not for women's growing labor force participation and the changing distribution of marital status, the shift would have been even larger. Men's relative work,home satisfaction has been stable. Finally, finding work a haven is unrelated to weekly working hours, and it has not contributed to any increases in working hours over time. [source]

GABRA2 and Alcohol Use Disorders: No Evidence of an Association in an Italian Case,Control Study

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 4 2010
Nicoletta Onori
Background:, Alcoholism is a major health and social issue, a highly frequent disease and a cause of premature death. It is also the most expensive addictive disorder being related to high morbidity and mortality, violence, accidents, and social and legal problems. It is a quantitative disorder, where the combined incidence of environmental and multiple genetic factors varies from 1 subject to another. Recent association studies have identified several genes as candidates for alcoholism, including GABAA receptor genes, due to their role in mediating several behavioral effects of alcohol, such as motor incoordination, anxiolysis, sedation, and withdrawal. The proposed association between the 3, half of the gene encoding the alpha-2 subunit of GABA receptor (3,-GABRA2) and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) has received several independent confirmations. Methods:, In this study, 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the 3,-GABRA2 gene, previously reported to be implicated in alcohol dependence, were used to evaluate the linkage between selected SNPs and AUDs in an Italian sample and to compare findings with those of previous studies. Results:, No evidence of an association was found at the allele, genotype, haplotype, or diplotype levels between the 3,-GABRA2 polymorphisms investigated and alcoholism in 149 Italian alcoholics (98 alcohol dependents and 51 alcohol abusers) and 278 controls. Conclusions:, Despite previous reports, we did not find an association between AUDs and 3,-GABRA2 polymorphisms. This is probably due to the minimal comorbidity of our Italian sample suggesting that this gene is implicated in polysubstance dependence rather than in alcoholism alone. [source]

Fluorouracil, Doxorubicin, and Cyclophosphamide Followed by Tamoxifen as Adjuvant Treatment for Patients with Stage IV Breast Cancer with No Evidence of Disease

Edgardo Rivera MD
We conducted a single-institution study to determine whether local therapy plus six cycles of chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FAC) followed by 5 years of tamoxifen is superior to local treatment alone in terms of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with stage IV breast cancer with no evidence of disease (stage IV-NED breast cancer). Patients with breast cancer were eligible if they had histologic proof of a locoregional or distant recurrence that had been curatively resected, irradiated, or both and had no other evidence of disease. Patients who had received prior anthracycline therapy were not eligible. All patients received six cycles of intravenous FAC, with cycles repeated every 3 weeks. After completion of chemotherapy, patients whose tumors had not previously demonstrated resistance to tamoxifen and had positive or unknown estrogen receptor status received tamoxifen 20 mg by mouth daily for 5 years. Patients in this study were compared with a historical control population (patients with stage IV-NED breast cancer who never received systemic therapy) as well as with the patients in two previously reported trials of chemotherapy for stage IV-NED disease. Forty-seven patients were registered, but only 45 were evaluable. There was a highly statistically significant difference ( p < 0.001) in OS and DFS among the four groups, with patients in our most recent study having the best OS and DFS at 3 years compared with the control group (84% vs. 55% and 66% vs. 11%, respectively). When patients in all four groups were analyzed together in search of prognostic factors, we found that patients whose primary tumors had negative axillary lymph nodes had a statistically significant improvement in OS and DFS ( p < 0.01) compared with patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. No survival differences were found between patients with positive and those with negative hormone receptor status. This study demonstrates a benefit in terms of OS and DFS for patients with stage IV-NED breast cancer who receive doxorubicin-based adjuvant chemotherapy. The benefit was greater on patients with node-negative primary tumors. In patients with stage IV-NED disease, doxorubicin-based chemotherapy should be considered standard treatment after adequate local control is achieved. [source]

Bonding in Tropolone, 2-Aminotropone, and Aminotroponimine: No Evidence of Resonance-Assisted Hydrogen-Bond Effects

Pablo Sanz Dr.
Abstract The properties of the intramolecular hydrogen bond (IMHB) in tropolone, aminotropone, and aminotroponimine have been compared with those in the corresponding saturated analogues at the B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2p)//B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory. In general, all those compounds in which the seven-membered ring is unsaturated exhibit a stronger IMHB than their saturated counterparts. Nevertheless, this enhanced strength is not primarily due to resonance-assisted hydrogen-bond effects, but to the much higher intrinsic basicity and acidity of the hydrogen-bond acceptor and donor groups, respectively, in the unsaturated compounds. These acidity and basicity enhancements have a double origin: 1),the unsaturated nature of the moiety to which the hydrogen-bond donor and acceptor are attached and 2),the cyclic nature of the compounds under scrutiny. As has been found for hydroxymethylene and aminomethylene cyclobutanones, and cyclobutenones and their nitrogen-containing analogues, the IMHB strength follows the [donor, acceptor] trend: [OH, CNH]>[OH, CO]>[NH2, CNH]>[NH2, CO] and fulfills a Steiner,Limbach correlation similar to that followed by intermolecular hydrogen bonds. [source]

No evidence for switching the antidepressant: systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs of a common therapeutic strategy

T. Bschor
Bschor T, Baethge C. No evidence for switching the antidepressant: systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs of a common therapeutic strategy. Objective:, Switching antidepressants is a common strategy for managing treatment-resistant depressed patients. However, no systematic reviews have been conducted to date. Method:, We systematically searched MEDLINE/EMBASE/Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and additional sources. We included double-blind studies of patients with depressive symptomatology who were not responding to initial antidepressant monotherapy and were subsequently randomized to another antidepressant or to continue the same antidepressant. Results were pooled for meta-analysis of response + remission rates using a fixed-effects model. Results:, A total of three studies were included. Switching to another antidepressant was not superior to continuing the initial antidepressant in any of these studies. Our meta-analysis showed no significant advantages to either strategy and no significant heterogeneity of results [OR for response rates: 0.85 (95% CI: 0.55,1.30) favoring continuing]. Conclusion:, There is a discrepancy between the published evidence and the frequent decision to switch antidepressants, indicating an urgent need for more controlled studies. Pending such studies we recommend that physicians rely on more thoroughly evaluated strategies. [source]