No Differences (no + difference)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Mismatch Negativity: No Difference Between Controls and Abstinent Alcoholics

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 1 2004
George Fein
Abstract: Background: A number of studies have examined the amplitude of the mismatch negativity (MMN) evoked potential as a measure of a brain inhibitory deficit in alcoholics or those at risk for alcoholism. The current study examined MMN in alcoholics abstinent an average of 6.7 years (with a minimum of six months abstinence) compared to controls. This study examined the association of MMN with alcoholism family history density, with indices of the presence and severity of externalizing disorders (a risk-factor for alcoholism), and with alcohol use variables. Methods: Electroencephalograms were gathered on 76 subjects (38 controls, 38 abstinent alcoholics) during a nonattending mismatch negativity experiment. Measures of alcoholism family history density, disinhibited personality traits, and antisocial symptoms served as measures of risk-factors known to be associated with a genetic liability to alcoholism. Alcohol use variables were used as measures of alcoholism severity. Results: There were no differences in MMN amplitude or latency between controls and abstinent alcoholics. There also were no significant associations between MMN measures and the measures of risk for alcoholism or with the severity of alcohol use or duration of abstinence. Conclusions: The results suggest that MMN is neither affected in chronic alcoholics nor associated with alcoholism vulnerability, and thus does not reflect a trait marker of alcoholism or alcoholism risk. The current results do not address effects on MMN of acute alcohol ingestion or withdrawal from alcohol. [source]

AMP-activated protein kinase signalling pathways are down regulated and skeletal muscle development impaired in fetuses of obese, over-nourished sheep

Mei J. Zhu
Maternal obesity and over-nutrition give rise to both obstetric problems and neonatal morbidity. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of maternal obesity and over-nutrition on signalling of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway in fetal skeletal muscle in an obese pregnant sheep model. Non-pregnant ewes were assigned to a control group (Con, fed 100% of NRC nutrient recommendations, n= 7) or obesogenic group (OB, fed 150% of National Research Council (NRC) recommendations, n= 7) diet from 60 days before to 75 days after conception (term 150 days) when fetal semitendinosus skeletal muscle (St) was sampled. OB mothers developed severe obesity accompanied by higher maternal and fetal plasma glucose and insulin levels. In fetal St, activity of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) associated with insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) was attenuated (P < 0.05), in agreement with the increased phophorylation of IRS-1 at serine 1011. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) at Thr 172, acetyl-CoA carboxylase at Ser 79, tuberous sclerosis 2 at Thr 1462 and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 at Thr 37/46 were reduced in OB compared to Con fetal St. No difference in energy status (AMP/ATP ratio) was observed. The expression of protein phosphatase 2C was increased in OB compared to Con fetal St. Plasma tumour necrosis factor , (TNF,) was increased in OB fetuses indicating an increased inflammatory state. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor , (PPAR,) was higher in OB St, indicating enhanced adipogenesis. The glutathione: glutathione disulphide ratio was also lower, showing increased oxidative stress in OB fetal St. In summary, we have demonstrated decreased signalling of the AMPK system in skeletal muscle of fetuses of OB mothers, which may play a role in altered muscle development and development of insulin resistance in the offspring. [source]

Serum and 24-hour Urine Analysis in Adult Cyanotic and Noncyanotic Congenital Heart Disease Patients

Efrén Martínez-Quintana MD
ABSTRACT Introduction., Glomerulopathy is a complication of congenital heart disease patients. The risk of developing renal impairment is particularly high in cyanotic patients. Objective., The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of renal dysfunction and microalbumiuria in adult cyanotic and non cyanotic congenital heart disease patients. Methods., Fourteen cyanotic and 22 noncyanotic congenital heart disease patients were studied in the Adult Congenital Heart Disease Unit at the Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular-Materno Infantil. Demographic characteristics, complete blood count, and 24-hour urianalysis were obtained, including abdominal ultrasound in those with cyanosis. Results., No differences were seen between age (years) (27.4 ± 8.2; 26.4 ± 8.3; P = .71), sex, size, weight, or glomerular filtration rate (mL/min/1.73 m2) (81.1 ± 22.9 vs. 84.9 ± 9.2, P = .482) between cyanotic and noncyanotic patients. However, Eisenmenger patients had significantly impaired renal function when compared with noncyanotic patients (73.0 ± 17.3 vs. 84.9 ± 9.2 mL/min/1.73 m2, P = .023). Significant differences were obtained in oxygen saturation (%) (83.8 ± 5.8 vs. 97.8 ± 0.8; P = .000), hematocrit (%) (59.3 ± 8.1 vs. 40.9 ± 8.5; P = .000), platelets (103/µL) (161.5 ± 70.5 vs. 277.9 ± 57.6; P = .000), serum uric acid (mg/dL) (7.5 ± 2.3 vs. 5.6 ± 1.5; P = .008) and microalbuminuria (mg/24 hours) (12.8 [0, 700.2] vs. 2.4 [0, 18.9]; P = .000) between cyanotic and noncyanotic patients. Five cyanotic patients (35.7%) had microalbuminuria (>30 mg/24 hours) and three of them (21.4%) proteinuria (>1 g/24 hours). No significant differences were seen between serum and urine parameters between cyanotic patients who had microalbuminuria (>30 mg/24 hours) and those cyanotic patients who did not have it (<30 mg/24 hours). Conclusions., Renal impairment is frequently seen in congenital heart disease patients, being associated occasionally with proteinuria and microalbuminuria in cyanotic ones. [source]

Endothelial Function in Patients With Migraine During the Interictal Period

HEADACHE, Issue 1 2007
Federico A. Silva MD
Objectives.,The aim of this study is to evaluate endothelial function in migraineur subjects during the asymptomatic period. Background.,Migraine has been proposed as a risk factor for cerebrovascular events. The underlying mechanisms that relate these 2 pathologies are unknown. Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed as the final causative molecule of migraine. Increased NO metabolites concentrations have been reported in migraineur subjects during acute migraine attacks, but there is no evidence indicating alterations in endothelial NO release during the symptom free period in theses subjects. Design and Methods.,Fifty migraineur subjects and 25 healthy subjects matched by gender and age were included. Every subject underwent a complete examination that included medical history, physical examination, resting electrocardiogram, forearm flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), blood determinations of fasting nitrates and nitrites (NO2,+ NO3,), glucose, lipid profile, creatinine, C-reactive protein, and blood cell count. Results.,No differences in FMD or NO2,+ NO3, were detected among groups. The only difference between migraineurs and control subjects was a higher mean blood pressure 92.1 (8.8) mmHg versus 86.7 (8.2) mmHg P= .01. Conclusion.,The endothelial function is not altered during the interictal period in migraineur subjects. [source]