No Child (no + child)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Application of the Levenshtein Distance Metric for the Construction of Longitudinal Data Files

EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT: ISSUES AND PRACTICE, Issue 2 2010
Harold C. Doran
The analysis of longitudinal data in education is becoming more prevalent given the nature of testing systems constructed for No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). However, constructing the longitudinal data files remains a significant challenge. Students move into new schools, but in many cases the unique identifiers (ID) that should remain constant for each student change. As a result, different students frequently share the same ID, and merging records for an ID that is erroneously assigned to different students clearly becomes problematic. In small data sets, quality assurance of the merge can proceed through human reviews of the data to ensure all merged records are properly joined. However, in data sets with hundreds of thousands of cases, quality assurance via human review is impossible. While the record linkage literature has many applications in other disciplines, the educational measurement literature lacks details of formal protocols that can be used for quality assurance procedures for longitudinal data files. This article presents an empirical quality assurance procedure that may be used to verify the integrity of the merges performed for longitudinal analysis. We also discuss possible extensions that would permit merges to occur even when unique identifiers are not available. [source]


The Dependence of Growth-Model Results on Proficiency Cut Scores

EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT: ISSUES AND PRACTICE, Issue 4 2009
Andrew D. Ho
States participating in the Growth Model Pilot Program reference individual student growth against "proficiency" cut scores that conform with the original No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). Although achievement results from conventional NCLB models are also cut-score dependent, the functional relationships between cut-score location and growth results are more complex and are not currently well described. We apply cut-score scenarios to longitudinal data to demonstrate the dependence of state- and school-level growth results on cut-score choice. This dependence is examined along three dimensions: 1) rigor, as states set cut scores largely at their discretion, 2) across-grade articulation, as the rigor of proficiency standards may vary across grades, and 3) the time horizon chosen for growth to proficiency. Results show that the selection of plausible alternative cut scores within a growth model can change the percentage of students "on track to proficiency" by more than 20 percentage points and reverse accountability decisions for more than 40% of schools. We contribute a framework for predicting these dependencies, and we argue that the cut-score dependence of large-scale growth statistics must be made transparent, particularly for comparisons of growth results across states. [source]


Inclusive Achievement Testing for Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Test Takers: Essential Considerations for Test Developers and Decision Makers

EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT: ISSUES AND PRACTICE, Issue 1 2009
Shelley B. Fairbairn
Substantial growth in the numbers of English language learners (ELLs) in the United States and Canada in recent years has significantly affected the educational systems of both countries. This article focuses on critical issues and concerns related to the assessment of ELLs in U.S. and Canadian schools and emphasizes assessment approaches for test developers and decision makers that will facilitate increased equity, meaningfulness, and accuracy in assessment and accountability efforts. It begins by examining the crucial issue of defining ELLs as a group. Next, it examines the impact of testing originating from the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) in the U.S. and government-mandated standards-driven testing in Canada by briefly describing each country's respective legislated testing requirements and outlining their consequences at several levels. Finally, the authors identify key points that test developers and decision makers in both contexts should consider in testing this ever-increasing group of students. [source]


A Guide to Understanding and Developing Performance-Level Descriptors

EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT: ISSUES AND PRACTICE, Issue 4 2008
Marianne Perie
There has been much discussion recently about why the percentage of students scoring Proficient or above varies as much as it does on state assessments across the country. However, most of these discussions center on the leniency or rigor of the cut score. Yet, the cut score is developed in a standard-setting process that depends heavily on the definition for each level of performance. Good performance-level descriptors (PLDs) can be the foundation of an assessment program, driving everything from item development to cut scores to reporting. PLDs should be written using a multistep process. First, policymakers determine the number and names of the levels. Next, they develop policy definitions specifying the level of rigor intended by each level, regardless of the grade or subject to which it is applied. Finally, content experts and education leaders should supplement these policy definitions with specific statements related to the content standards for each assessment. This article describes a process for developing PLDs, contrasts that with current state practice, and discusses the implication for interpreting the word "proficient," which is the keystone of No Child Left Behind. [source]


Instructional Tools in Educational Measurement and Statistics (ITEMS) for School Personnel: Evaluation of Three Web-Based Training Modules

EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT: ISSUES AND PRACTICE, Issue 2 2008
Rebecca Zwick
In the current No Child Left Behind era, K-12 teachers and principals are expected to have a sophisticated understanding of standardized test results, use them to improve instruction, and communicate them to others. The goal of our project, funded by the National Science Foundation, was to develop and evaluate three Web-based instructional modules in educational measurement and statistics to help school personnel acquire the "assessment literacy" required for these roles. Our first module, "What's the Score?" was administered in 2005 to 113 educators who also completed an assessment literacy quiz. Viewing the module had a small but statistically significant positive effect on quiz scores. Our second module, "What Test Scores Do and Don't Tell Us," administered in 2006 to 104 educators, was even more effective, primarily among teacher education students. In evaluating our third module, "What's the Difference?" we were able to recruit only 33 participants. Although those who saw the module before taking the quiz outperformed those who did not, results were not statistically significant. Now that the research phase is complete, all ITEMS instructional materials are freely available on our Website. [source]


Measuring the Impact of State Accountability Programs

EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT: ISSUES AND PRACTICE, Issue 4 2005
Mitchell D. Chester
"No Child Left Behind is a law that makes good people bad and bad people worse." Declaration of the keynote speaker at the public forum on the No Child Left Behind Act in Columbus, Ohio, on November 17, 2004, sponsored by the Kappa Delta Pi International Honor Society in Education, the National Academy of Education, and the National Society for the Study of Education. [source]


Social Studies Education in the Age of Testing and Accountability

EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT: ISSUES AND PRACTICE, Issue 3 2005
Susie Burroughs
With 3 years and counting since its inception, the scope and impact of No Child Left Behind is now being felt in classrooms across the nation. Although some successes have been identified, concerns about the implementation and expectations of the legislation are emerging. As a result of the legislation's emphasis on the development of standards and assessment systems in reading, mathematics, and science, educators of other core and elective subjects are weighing the impact of being left out of the No Child Left Behind formula of testing and accountability. In an attempt to ascertain the perceptions and sentiments of social studies teachers concerning the impact of No Child Left Behind and the concomitant issue of state-level testing and accountability policy, a tristate study was conducted. The findings of this research indicate that although elementary, middle, and high school social studies educators recognize the negative consequences of being left out of No Child Left Behind, they are not convinced that being included would be better for them, their students, or social studies education in general. [source]


Validity of High-Stakes Assessment: Are Students Engaged in Complex Thinking?

EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT: ISSUES AND PRACTICE, Issue 3 2004
Suzanne Lane
The validity of high-stakes assessments and accountability systems is discussed in relation to the requirements of No Child Left Behind (NCLB). The extent to which content standards and assessments are cognitively rich, the challenges in setting performance standards, and the impact of high-stakes assessments on instruction and student learning are addressed. The article argues for quality content standards, cognitively rich assessments, and a cohesive, balanced assessment system. [source]


Teaching for the Test: Validity, Fairness, and Moral Action

EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT: ISSUES AND PRACTICE, Issue 3 2003
Linda Crocker
In response to heightened levels of assessment activity at the K-12 level to meet requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, measurement professionals are called to focus greater attention on four fundamental areas of measurement research and practice: (a) improving the research infrastructure for validation methods involving judgments of test content; (b) expanding the psychometric definition of fairness in achievement testing; (c) developing guidelines for validation studies of test use consequences; and (d) preparing teachers for new roles in instruction and assessment practice. Illustrative strategies for accomplishing these goals are outlined. [source]


Reliability of No Child Left Behind Accountability Designs

EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT: ISSUES AND PRACTICE, Issue 3 2003
Richard K. Hill
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 requires states to establish accountability systems that are both valid and reliable. If one follows the language of the law literally, there is no design that will meet both requirements. If one interprets the law more flexibly, it is possible to create such a design. States will need to approach the problem carefully if they are going to appropriately balance the various probabilities of making incorrect decisions about schools. [source]


Epilepsy Control in the 21st Century: Leave No Child Behind

EPILEPSIA, Issue 3 2003
Deb K. Pal
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Status versus growth: The distributional effects of school accountability policies

JOURNAL OF POLICY ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT, Issue 3 2010
Helen F. Ladd
Although the federal No Child Left Behind program judges the effectiveness of schools based on their students' achievement status, many policy analysts argue that schools should be measured, instead, by their students' achievement growth. Using a 10-year student-level panel data set from North Carolina, we examine how school-specific pressure associated with status and growth approaches to school accountability affect student achievement at different points in the prior-year achievement distribution. Achievement gains for students below the proficiency cut point emerge in schools failing either type of accountability standard, with the effects clearer for math than for reading. In contrast to prior research highlighting the possibility of educational triage, we find little or no evidence that failing schools in North Carolina ignore the students far below proficiency under either approach. Importantly, we find that the status, but not the growth, approach reduces the reading achievement of higher performing students. Our analysis suggests that the distributional effects of accountability pressure depend not only on the type of pressure for which schools are held accountable (status or growth), but also the tested subject. 2010 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management. [source]


Is Response to Intervention Good Policy for Specific Learning Disability?

LEARNING DISABILITIES RESEARCH & PRACTICE, Issue 4 2008
Kenneth A. Kavale
We discuss several policy implications of these new regulations by considering the original construct of SLD, the still "experimental" status and implementation of RTI, the closer alignment of RTI objectives with No Child Left Behind than former IDEA regulations, and the shift in focus from serving as a special education identification procedure to a general education instructional procedure. We conclude by proposing several recommendations for the appropriate inclusion of both RTI and psychometric evaluation within the continuum of SLD identification procedures. [source]


Slaying myths, eliminating excuses: Managing for accountability by putting kids first

NEW DIRECTIONS FOR EVALUATION, Issue 121 2009
Robert J. Rodosky
The authors write about evaluation, testing, and research and their relation to policy, planning, and program in the Jefferson County Public Schools (JCPS) in Louisville, Kentucky. The authors focus on evaluation and testing for accountability and on managing the unit for this purpose. In detail they show the many evaluation demands from both inside and outside JCPS, from the State of Kentucky to No Child Left Behind. Their everyday work context is active, often tumultuous. Managing evaluation in this context is a form of juggling, and the authors succeed in part because they "have seen most of it before." Also contributing to their effectiveness are the leaders' managing styles. This case study gives a good glimpse of the everyday life in a school district evaluation shop. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Consequences of No Child Left Behind on evaluation purpose, design, and impact

NEW DIRECTIONS FOR EVALUATION, Issue 117 2008
Linda Mabry
As an outgrowth of No Child Left Behind's narrow definition of scientifically based research, the priority given to certain quantitative evaluation designs has sparked debate among those in the evaluation community. Federal mandates for particular evaluation methodologies run counter to evaluation practice and to the direction of most evaluation theorists, who advocate for flexibility and adaptability in methods choices. The impact of this mandate for randomized clinical trials as the sine qua non of evaluation methods is not yet discernible, but the potential impact is explored through an analogous example involving the World Bank. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Evaluative thinking and action in the classroom

NEW DIRECTIONS FOR EVALUATION, Issue 117 2008
Meta Nelson
This case study of one middle school focuses on improving teachers' skills in datadriven decision making through analysis of student work and their own professional practice. The expectation that schools will make adequate yearly progress has pushed evaluation practice down to the teacher level, where teachers are asked to analyze and disaggregate standardized test scores to facilitate instructional decision making that will lead to increased student achievement. The authors analyze this change in relation to No Child Left Behind and to the literature on evaluation capacity building within schools. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Using evaluation data to strike a balance between stakeholders and accountability systems

NEW DIRECTIONS FOR EVALUATION, Issue 117 2008
Lisa N. T. Schmitt
A district evaluator in a large Texas district examines new challenges arising since implementation of No Child Left Behind, relating to (1) navigating competing requirements in state and federal accountability systems; (2) evaluating effectiveness of sanctions districts are required to address; (3) using scientifically based research (SBR) to select effective programs and interventions; and (4) initiating SBR given high student mobility, inefficient data-management systems, and competing priorities of local schools. This chapter details these challenges for district-level evaluators and highlights how they can implement processes that strike a balance between supporting decision making and conducting rigorous evaluation. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Classroom processes and positive youth development: Conceptualizing, measuring, and improving the capacity of interactions between teachers and students

NEW DIRECTIONS FOR YOUTH DEVELOPMENT, Issue 121 2009
Robert C. Pianta
The National Research Council's (NRC) statement and description of features of settings that have value for positive youth development have been of great importance in shifting discourse toward creating programs that capitalize on youth motivations toward competence and connections with others. This assets-based approach to promote development is consistent with the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) framework for measuring and improving the quality of teacher-student interactions in classroom settings. This chapter highlights the similarities between the CLASS and NRC systems and describes the CLASS as a tool for standardized measurement and improvement of classrooms and their effects on children. It argues that the next important steps to be taken in extending the CLASS and NRC frameworks involve reengineering assessments of teacher and classroom quality and professional development around observations of teachers' performance. This might include using observations in policies regarding teacher quality or a "highly effective teacher" that may emanate from the reauthorization of No Child Left Behind and moving away from a course or workshop mode of professional development to one that ties supports directly to teachers' practices in classroom settings. [source]


Mastery learning and assessment: Implications for students and teachers in an era of high-stakes testing

PSYCHOLOGY IN THE SCHOOLS, Issue 3 2008
Barry J. Zimmerman
Federal efforts to improve American students' achievement through high-stakes testing have led to significant concerns about the fairness and effectiveness of standardized tests. We attribute these concerns to the use of summative tests to assess academic progress without the benefits of an effective formative model of assessment and instruction, such as mastery learning. Historically, mastery learning models emerged as a reaction to the misuse of psychometric models of assessment for instructional purposes. Differences between these models are discussed along with a more recent form of mastery assessment, curriculum-based measurement. Apprehensions about the summative testing requirements of No Child Left Behind are considered along with efforts to make these tests fairer, such as the inclusion of a growth provision. Finally, we identified a mastery learning intervention program in mathematics in a high school that achieved national recognition, and we interviewed participating teachers and students. They reported the positive academic and motivational outcomes expected of a mastery learning approach and a few concerns about drawbacks associated with high-stakes testing. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Scientifically Debased Research on Learning, 1854,2006

ANTHROPOLOGY & EDUCATION QUARTERLY, Issue 1 2007
Ray Mcdermott
By its emphasis on arbitrary standards and misleading systems of accountability, the No Child Left Behind Act has had deleterious effects on classroom practice, teacher education, and even educational research. The new constraints on educational research, driven by a logic of randomized field tests, are part of a larger and more invidious international managerialism that subordinates individual biographies to state-based bureaucratic control. [source]