No Change (no + change)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Chronologic Changes of Nitric Oxide Concentration in the Cochlear Lateral Wall and Its Role in Noise-Induced Permanent Threshold Shift

Yuh-Shyang Chen MD
Abstract Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the chronologic changes of nitric oxide (NO) concentration in the cochlear lateral wall and to explore its possible role in permanent threshold shift (PTS) after intense noise exposure. Materials and Methods: Seventeen guinea pigs were subjected to a single continuous exposure to broadband white noise at 105 2 dB sound pressure level (SPL) for 40 hours and were divided into four groups according to various postnoise recovery periods. Another 12 guinea pigs were not exposed to noise and served as controls. The hearing status of all animals was evaluated with auditory brainstem responses (ABR) evoked by condensation "click" sounds. ABR were recorded both prior to noise exposure and immediately before killing the animal. After death, NO concentration in the cochlear lateral wall was directly measured with an NO/ozone chemiluminescence technique. Results: An approximately 1.7-fold increase in NO concentration was observed immediately postnoise exposure, which persisted for up to 28 days. The threshold of ABR elevation (mean, 30 dB SPL) peaked immediately after cessation of noise exposure and gradually resolved to a PTS (mean, 14.5 dB SPL) 56 days after noise exposure when NO concentration had returned to its prenoise exposure level. Conclusion: Noise-induced threshold shift, which resolved to a mild PTS, can be partially attributed to NO elevation in the cochlear lateral wall. Our results revealed a nonlinear correlation between ABR recovery and depletion of NO, indicating that the mechanisms of NO changes in the cochlear lateral wall may be more complicated than previously conceived and that other pathophysiologic mechanisms may also play important roles in noise-induced PTS. [source]

Plasma cortisol and metabolite level profiles in two isogenic strains of common carp during confinement

N. M. Ruane
A rapid increase in common carp Cyprinus carpio plasma cortisol levels was noted, in two experiments, after 30 mins of a 3 h net confinement, which was sustained while the fish were held in the nets. After release from the nets, cortisol levels returned to control values in 1 h. Plasma glucose and free fatty acid levels were elevated by the confinement. Glucose was increased after 30 min but returned to basal levels after 22 h of recovery while free fatty acids were not elevated until 3 h of confinement and remained high for the duration of the recovery period. After confinement for 3 h, plasma lactate levels were reduced and remained low for a further 1 h. No change in either plasma triglyceride or cholesterol levels were found during the study. Confinement had no effect on haematocrit levels but blood haemoglobin levels were reduced. In both experiments hypochloraemia occurred in response to confinement. However, values returned to pre-confinement levels 22 h after confinement. These results show that rearing isogenic carp strains, under identical conditions, results in a reproducable response to an acute stressor and that these carp respond in a similar manner to other teleost species. [source]

Ethanol Increases Fetal Human Neurosphere Size and Alters Adhesion Molecule Gene Expression

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2 2008
Sharada D. Vangipuram
Background:, Ethanol (ETOH) consumption by pregnant women can result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). To date, the cellular targets and mechanisms responsible for FASD are not fully characterized. Our aim was to determine if ETOH can affect fetal human brain-derived neural progenitor cells (NPC). Methods:, Neural progenitor cells were isolated by positive selection from normal second trimester fetal human brains (n = 4) and cultured, for up to 72 hours, in mitogenic media containing 0, 1, 10, or 100 mM ETOH. From 48 to 72 hours in culture, neurospheres generated in these conditions were filmed using time-lapse video microscopy. At the end of 72 hours, neurosphere diameter and roundness were measured using videographic software. Mitotic phase analysis of cell-cycle activity and apoptotic cell count were also performed at this time, by flow cytometry using propidium iodide (PI) staining. Real-time PCR was used to estimate expression of genes associated with cell adhesion pathways. Results:, Neurosphere diameter correlated positively (r = 0.87) with increasing ETOH concentrations. There was no significant difference in cell-cycle activity and no significant increase in apoptosis with increasing ETOH concentrations. Time-lapse video microscopy showed that ETOH (100 mM) reduced the time for neurosphere coalescence. Real-time PCR analysis showed that ETOH significantly altered the expression of genes involved in cell adhesion. There was an increase in the expression of , and , Laminins 1, , Integrins 3 and 5, Secreted phosphoprotein1 and Sarcoglycan ,. No change in the expression of , Actin was observed while the expression of , Integrin 2 was significantly suppressed. Conclusions:, ETOH had no effect on NPC apoptosis but, resulted in more rapid coalescence and increased volume of neurospheres. Additionally, the expression of genes associated with cell adhesion was significantly altered. ETOH induced changes in NPC surface adhesion interactions may underlie aspects of neurodevelopmental abnormalities in FASD. [source]

Changes in carotenoid, physicochemical and sensory values of deep-fried carrot chips during storage

Ahmad Sulaeman
Summary Deep-fried carrot chips were packaged in layered film (metallized polyester and linear low-density polyethylene) pouches under a partial vacuum of <1% O2 concentration. Packages containing chips were stored in dark chambers at three conditions: 0,1 C, 94,98% relative humidity (r.h.) (A); 22,23 C, 31,45% r.h. (B); and 29,31 C, 89,93% r.h. (C) for 0,5 months. Retention of , - and , -carotene content and vitamin A activity were >82% over 5 months for all conditions. Colour values (L, a, b) were unchanged over 5 months for A and B, but decreased gradually (P < 0.05) for C. No changes in moisture content, fat content, water activity, texture values and sensory values were observed over time for A and B, but changed (P < 0.05) for C. No sensory differences were observed by condition or time in colour. Carrot chips, packaged in partially vacuumed opaque pouches, can be stored for at least 5 months at 0,1 C, 94,98% r.h. or 22,23 C, 31,45% r.h. [source]

ORIGINAL RESEARCH,PEYRONIE'S DISEASE: Use of Penile Extender Device in the Treatment of Penile Curvature as a Result of Peyronie's Disease.

Results of a Phase II Prospective Study
ABSTRACT Introduction., Pilot experiences have suggested that tension forces exerted by a penile extender may reduce penile curvature as a result of Peyronie's disease. Aim., To test this hypothesis in a Phase II study using a commonly marketed brand of penile extender. Methods., Peyronie's disease patients with a curvature not exceeding 50 with mild or no erectile dysfunction (ED) were eligible. Fifteen patients were required to test the efficacy of the device assuming an effect size of >0.8, consistent with an "important" reduction in penile curvature. Changes in penile length over baseline and erectile function (EF) domain scores of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) constituted secondary end points. Main Outcome Measures., Patients were counselled on the use of the penile extender for at least 5 hours per day for 6 months. Photographic pictures of the erect penis and measurements were carried out at baseline, at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months (end of study). The IIEF-EF domain scores were administered at baseline and at the end of study. Treatment satisfaction was assessed at end of study using a nonvalidated institutional 5-item questionnaire. Results., Penile curvature decreased from an average of 31 to 27 at 6 months without reaching the effect size (P = 0.056). Mean stretched and flaccid penile length increased by 1.3 and 0.83 cm, respectively at 6 months. Results were maintained at 12 months. Overall treatment results were subjectively scored as acceptable in spite of curvature improvements, which varied from "no change" to "mild improvement." Conclusions., In our study, the use of a penile extender device provided only minimal improvements in penile curvature but a reasonable level of patient satisfaction, probably attributable to increased penile length. The selection of patients with a stabilized disease, a penile curvature not exceeding 50, and no severe ED may have led to outcomes underestimating the potential efficacy of the treatment. Gontero P, Di Marco M, Giubilei G, Bartoletti R, Pappagallo G, Tizzani A, and Mondaini N. Use of penile extender device in the treatment of penile curvature as a result of Peyronie's disease. Results of a phase II prospective study. J Sex Med 2009;6:558,566. [source]