NO Bioavailability (no + bioavailability)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Nitric oxide bioavailability modulates the dynamics of microvascular oxygen exchange during recovery from contractions

D. M. Hirai
Abstract Aim:, Lowered microvascular PO2 (PO2mv) during the exercise off-transient likely impairs muscle metabolic recovery and limits the capacity to perform repetitive tasks. The current investigation explored the impact of altered nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability on PO2mv during recovery from contractions in healthy skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that increased NO bioavailability (sodium nitroprusside: SNP) would enhance PO2mv and speed its recovery kinetics while decreased NO bioavailability (l -nitro arginine methyl ester: l -NAME) would reduce PO2mv and slow its recovery kinetics. Methods:,PO2mv was measured by phosphorescence quenching during transitions (rest,1 Hz twitch-contractions for 3 min,recovery) in the spinotrapezius muscle of Sprague,Dawley rats under SNP (300 ,m), Krebs-Henseleit (Control) and l -NAME (1.5 mm) superfusion conditions. Results:, Relative to recovery in Control, SNP resulted in greater overall microvascular oxygenation as assessed by the area under the PO2mv curve (PO2 AREA; Control: 3471 ± 292 mmHg s; SNP: 4307 ± 282 mmHg s; P < 0.05) and faster off-kinetics as evidenced by the mean response time (MRToff; Control: 60.2 ± 6.9 s; SNP: 34.8 ± 5.7 s; P < 0.05), whereas l -NAME produced lower PO2 AREA (2339 ± 444 mmHg s; P < 0.05) and slower MRToff (86.6 ± 14.5 s; P < 0.05). Conclusion:, NO bioavailability plays a key role in determining the matching of O2 delivery-to-O2 uptake and thus the upstream O2 pressure driving capillary-myocyte O2 flux (i.e. PO2mv) following cessation of contractions in healthy skeletal muscle. Additionally, these data support a mechanistic link between reduced NO bioavailability and prolonged muscle metabolic recovery commonly observed in ageing and diseased populations. [source]

Assessment of endothelial function and blood metabolite status following acute ingestion of a fructose-containing beverage

A. J. Bidwell
Abstract Aim:, Fructose intake has increased concurrent with sugar intake and this increase has been implicated in contributing to the development of metabolic syndrome risk factors. Recent evidence suggests a role for uric acid (UA) as a potential mediator via suppression of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. The aim of this study was to explore this hypothesis by measuring changes in UA concentration and systemic NO bioavailability as well as endothelial function in response to acute ingestion of a glucose-fructose beverage. Methods:, Ten young (26.80 ± 4.80 years), non-obese (body mass index: 25.1 ± 2.55 kg m,2; percent body fat: 13.5 ± 6.9%) male subjects ingested either a glucose (100 g dextrose in 300 mL) or isocaloric glucose-fructose (glucose : fructose; 45 : 55 g in 300 mL) beverage. Blood was sampled pre- and every 15-min post-ingestion per 90 min and assayed for glucose, lactate, fructose, total nitrate/nitrate, UA and blood lipids. Forearm blood flow and pulse-wave velocity were recorded prior to and at 30 and 45 min time intervals post-ingestion, respectively, while heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were recorded every 15 min. Results:, The glucose-fructose ingestion was associated with a significant (P < 0.05) increase in plasma lactate concentration and altered free fatty acid levels when compared with glucose-only ingestion. However, UA was not significantly different (P = 0.08) between conditions (AUC: ,1018 ± 1675 vs. 2171 ± 1270 ,mol L,1 per 90 min for glucose and glucose-fructose conditions respectively). Consequently, no significant (P < 0.05) difference in endothelial function or systemic NO bioavailability was observed. Conclusion:, Acute consumption of a fructose-containing beverage was not associated with significantly altered UA concentration, endothelial function or systemic NO bioavailability. [source]

CPU-86017 improves the compromised blood,brain barrier permeability mediated by impaired endothelial no system and oxidative stress caused by L -thyroxine

Rong-Hui Du
Abstract Impaired endothelial cell (EC) function leads to alterations in the permeability of the blood,brain barrier (BBB). There are two aspects of the transport through the BBB: from the blood to the brain (influx) and from the brain to the blood (efflux). An impaired EC model induced by L -thyroxine that compromises the influx and efflux properties of the BBB was used to assess responses to the intervention of CPU-86017 (an antioxidant and calcium channel blocker) and propranolol. CPU-86017 (t1/2=1.5 h) was also used as a target drug, leaving no traces in the brain and blood 24 h after administration. The permeability of the BBB was evaluated by using CPU-86017 after iv and icv injection and concentrations in the blood and brain being measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The bidirectional permeability of CPU-86017 was impaired and associated with a reduced NO bioavailability assessed functionally by the vasoactivity in the model. Partial relief of NO bioavailability and oxidative stress induced by propranolol was consistent with a recovery of BBB efflux alone. Complete recovery in the efflux and influx of the BBB by CPU-86017 was a result of the complete restoration of NO bioavailability and reduction in oxidative stress. Normal BBB influx is dependent on an intact endothelial NO system, and efflux could be restored easily by partial improvement of NO bioavailability. CPU-86017 is thus more effective than propranolol in protecting the endothelium from damage produced by L -thyroxine through oxidative stress. Drug Dev. Res. 64:145,156, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Short-term calorie restriction reverses vascular endothelial dysfunction in old mice by increasing nitric oxide and reducing oxidative stress

AGING CELL, Issue 3 2010
Catarina Rippe
Summary To determine if short-term calorie restriction reverses vascular endothelial dysfunction in old mice, old (O, n = 30) and young (Y, n = 10) male B6D2F1 mice were fed ad libitum (AL) or calorie restricted (CR, approximately 30%) for 8 weeks. Ex vivo carotid artery endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) was impaired in old ad libitum (OAL) vs. young ad libitum (YAL) (74 ± 5 vs. 95 ± 2% of maximum dilation, P < 0.05), whereas old calorie-restricted (OCR) and YCR did not differ (96 ± 1 vs. 94 ± 3%). Impaired EDD in OAL was mediated by reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability associated with decreased endothelial NO synthase expression (aorta) (P < 0.05), both of which were restored in OCR. Nitrotyrosine, a cellular marker of oxidant modification, was markedly elevated in OAL (P < 0.05), whereas OCR was similar to Y. Aortic superoxide production was 150% greater in OAL vs. YAL (P < 0.05), but normalized in OCR, and TEMPOL, a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic that restored EDD in OAL (to 97 ± 2%), had no effect in Y or OCR. OAL had increased expression and activity of the oxidant enzyme, NADPH oxidase, and its inhibition (apocynin) improved EDD, whereas NADPH oxidase in OCR was similar to Y. Manganese SOD activity and sirtuin1 expression were reduced in OAL (P < 0.05), but restored to Y in OCR. Inflammatory cytokines were greater in OAL vs. YAL (P < 0.05), but unaffected by CR. Carotid artery endothelium-independent dilation did not differ among groups. Short-term CR initiated in old age reverses age-associated vascular endothelial dysfunction by restoring NO bioavailability, reducing oxidative stress (via reduced NADPH oxidase,mediated superoxide production and stimulation of anti-oxidant enzyme activity), and upregulation of sirtuin-1. [source]

Impact of Chronic Anticholesterol Therapy on Development of Microvascular Rarefaction in the Metabolic Syndrome

Adam G. Goodwill
ABSTRACT Objective: The obese Zucker rat (OZR) model of the metabolic syndrome is partly characterized by moderate hypercholesterolemia, in addition to other contributing comorbidities. Previous results suggest that vascular dysfunction in OZR is associated with chronic reduction in vascular nitric-oxide (NO) bioavailability and chronic inflammation, both frequently associated with hypercholesterolemia. As such, we evaluated the impact of chronic cholesterol-reducing therapy on the development of impaired skeletal muscle arteriolar reactivity and microvessel density in OZR and its impact on chronic inflammation and NO bioavailability. Materials and Methods: Beginning at seven weeks of age, male OZR were treated with gemfibrozil, probucol, atorvastatin, or simvastatin (in chow) for 10 weeks. Subsequently, plasma and vascular samples were collected for biochemical/molecular analyses, while arteriolar reactivity and microvessel network structure were assessed by using established methodologies after 3, 6, and 10 weeks of drug therapy. Results: All interventions were equally effective at reducing total cholesterol, although only the statins also blunted the progressive reductions to vascular NO bioavailability, evidenced by greater maintenance of acetylcholine-induced dilator responses, an attenuation of adrenergic constrictor reactivity, and an improvement in agonist-induced NO production. Comparably, while minimal improvements to arteriolar wall mechanics were identified with any of the interventions, chronic statin treatment reduced the rate of microvessel rarefaction in OZR. Associated with these improvements was a striking statin-induced reduction in inflammation in OZR, such that numerous markers of inflammation were correlated with improved microvascular reactivity and density. However, using multivariate discriminant analyses, plasma RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted), interleukin-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were determined to be the strongest contributors to differences between groups, although their relative importance varied with time. Conclusions: While the positive impact of chronic statin treatment on vascular outcomes in the metabolic syndrome are independent of changes to total cholesterol, and are more strongly associated with improvements to vascular NO bioavailability and attenuated inflammation, these results provide both a spatial and temporal framework for targeted investigation into mechanistic determinants of vasculopathy in the metabolic syndrome. [source]

Asymmetric dimethylarginine may be a missing link between cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (Review Article)

NEPHROLOGY, Issue 6 2007
SUMMARY: Decreased nitric oxide (NO) production and/or impaired NO bioavailability may occur in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and could contribute to the elevation of blood pressure, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the progression of renal injury in these patients. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for reduced NO action in patients with CKD remains to be elucidated. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a naturally occurring l -arginine analogue found in plasma and various types of tissues, acting as an endogenous NO synthase inhibitor in vivo. Further, plasma level of ADMA is elevated in patients with CKD and found to be a strong biomarker or predictor for future cardiovascular events. In addition, plasma level of ADMA could predict the progression of renal injury in these patients as well. These findings suggest that elevation of ADMA may be a missing link between CVD and CKD. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms for the elevation of ADMA and its pathophysiological role for CVD in high-risk patients, especially focusing on patients with CKD. [source]

Post-translational Regulation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) by Estrogens in the Rat Vagina

Biljana Musicki PhD
ABSTRACT Introduction., Estrogens control vaginal blood flow during female sexual arousal mostly through nitric oxide (NO). Although vascular effects of estrogens are attributed to an increase in endothelial NO production, the mechanisms of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) regulation by estrogens in the vagina are largely unknown. Aims., Our hypothesis was that estrogens regulate eNOS post-translationally in the vagina, providing a mechanism to affect NO bioavailability without changes in eNOS protein expression. Methods., We measured eNOS phosphorylation and eNOS interaction with caveolin-1 and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) in the distal and proximal vagina of female rats at diestrus, 7 days after ovariectomy and 2 days after replacement of ovariectomized rats with estradiol-17, (15 µg). Main Outcome Measures., Molecular mechanisms of eNOS regulation by estrogen in the rat vagina. Results., We localized phospho-eNOS (Ser-1177) immunohistochemically to the endothelium lining blood vessels and vaginal sinusoids. Estrogen withdrawal decreased phosphorylation of eNOS on its positive regulatory site (Ser-1177) and increased eNOS binding to its negative regulator caveolin-1 (without affecting eNOS/HSP90 interaction), and they were both normalized by estradiol replacement. Protein expressions of phosphorylated Akt (protein kinase B) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) were not affected by estrogen status, suggesting that the effect of estrogens on eNOS (Ser-1177) phosphorylation was not mediated by activated AKT or ERK1/2. eNOS phosphorylation on its negative regulatory site (Ser-114) was increased in the vagina by estrogen withdrawal and normalized by estradiol replacement, implying that the maintenance of low phosphorylation of eNOS on this site by estradiol may limit eNOS interaction with caveolin-1 and preserve the enzyme's activity. Total eNOS, inducible NOS, caveolin-1, and HSP90 protein expressions were not affected by ovariectomy or estradiol replacement in the distal or proximal vagina. Conclusions., These results define novel estrogen signaling mechanisms in the vagina which involve eNOS phosphorylation and eNOS,caveolin-1 interaction. Musicki B, Liu T, Strong TD, Lagoda GA, Bivalacqua TJ, and Burnett AL. Post-translational regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by estrogens in the rat vagina. J Sex Med 2010;7:1768,1777. [source]

Calcium-activated potassium channels and endothelial dysfunction: therapeutic options?

Michel Félétou
The three subtypes of calcium-activated potassium channels (KCa) of large, intermediate and small conductance (BKCa, IKCa and SKCa) are present in the vascular wall. In healthy arteries, BKCa channels are preferentially expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells, while IKCa and SKCa are preferentially located in endothelial cells. The activation of endothelial IKCa and SKCa contributes to nitric oxide (NO) generation and is required to elicit endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizations. In the latter responses, the hyperpolarization of the smooth muscle cells is evoked either via electrical coupling through myo-endothelial gap junctions or by potassium ions, which by accumulating in the intercellular space activate the inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir2.1 and/or the Na+/K+ -ATPase. Additionally, endothelium-derived factors such as cytochrome P450-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and under some circumstances NO, prostacyclin, lipoxygenase products and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) hyperpolarize and relax the underlying smooth muscle cells by activating BKCa. In contrast, cytochrome P450-derived 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and various endothelium-derived contracting factors inhibit BKCa. Aging and cardiovascular diseases are associated with endothelial dysfunctions that can involve a decrease in NO bioavailability, alterations of EDHF-mediated responses and/or enhanced production of endothelium-derived contracting factors. Because potassium channels are involved in these endothelium-dependent responses, activation of endothelial and/or smooth muscle KCa could prevent the occurrence of endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, direct activators of these potassium channels or compounds that regulate their activity or their expression may be of some therapeutic interest. Conversely, blockers of IKCa may prevent restenosis and that of BKCa channels sepsis-dependent hypotension. Mandarin translation of abstract [source]

The vascular effects of different arginase inhibitors in rat isolated aorta and mesenteric arteries

NN Huynh
Background and purpose:, Arginase and nitric oxide (NO) synthase share the common substrate L-arginine, and arginase inhibition is proposed to increase NO production by increasing intracellular levels of L-arginine. Many different inhibitors are used, and here we have examined the effects of these inhibitors on vascular tissue. Experimental approach:, Each arginase inhibitor was assessed by its effects on isolated rings of aorta and mesenteric arteries from rats by: (i) their ability to preserve the tolerance to repeated applications of the endothelium-dependent agonist acetylcholine (ACh); and (ii) their direct vasorelaxant effect. Key results:, In both vessel types, tolerance (defined as a reduced response upon second application) to ACh was reversed with addition of L-arginine, (S)-(2-boronethyl)-L-cysteine HCl (BEC) or NG -Hydroxy-L-arginine (L-NOHA). On the other hand, N, -hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA) significantly augmented the response to ACh, an effect that was partially reversed with L-arginine. No effect on tolerance to ACh was observed with L-valine, nor-valine or D,L, ,-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). BEC, L-NOHA and nor-NOHA elicited endothelium-independent vasorelaxation in both endothelium intact and denuded aorta while L-valine, DFMO and nor-valine did not. Conclusions and implications:, BEC and L-NOHA, but not nor-NOHA, L-valine, DFMO or nor-valine, significantly reversed tolerance to ACh possibly conserving L-arginine levels and therefore increasing NO bioavailability. However, both BEC and L-NOHA caused endothelium-independent vasorelaxation in rat aorta, suggesting that these inhibitors have a role beyond arginase inhibition alone. Our data thus questions the interpretation of many studies using these antagonists as specific arginase inhibitors in the vasculature, without verification with other methods. [source]


Wei Su
SUMMARY 1The aims of the present study were to examine whether: (i) upregulation of the endothelin (ET) pathway is involved in impairment of vascular relaxation and early retinopathy in diabetic rats; and (ii) vascular and retinal abnormalities respond to the total triterpene acid (TTA) isolated from Fructus Corni compared with responses to the novel endothelin receptor antagonist CPU0213 and aminoguanidine (AMG), a special antagonist for advanced glycation end-products (AGE) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). 2Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into five groups, namely a normal control and four diabetic groups, which included an untreated diabetic group and groups treated with AMG (100 mg/kg, i.g.), CPU0213 (30 mg/kg, s.c.) or TTA (50 mg/kg, i.g.). Diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, i.p.) on the 1st day. The mRNA expression of prepro-endothelin-1 (ppET-1), endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE) and iNOS in the thoracic aorta and mRNA for ETA receptors and iNOS in the retina were detected by reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction. Vasorelaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) and functional assessment of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability was determined in the thoracic aorta. 3We observed upregulated mRNA expression of iNOS, ppET-1 and ECE in the thoracic aorta and upregulated mRNA for the ETA receptor and iNOS in the retina in the untreated diabetic group. Vasodilatation mediated by ACh and NO bioavailability were markedly reduced in the thoracic aorta compared with the normal control group. These abnormalities were essentially reversed by TTA, CPU0213 or AMG, with the exception with that AMG did not modify vasodilatation to ACh. 4These data suggest that upregulation of gene transcription of the ET system mediates depressed vasorelaxation, NO bioavailability and changes in iNOS and ETA receptors that reflect early retinopathy in diabetic rats. Total triterpene acid, in terms of pharmacological properties resembling the endothelin receptor antagonist CPU0213, is effective in normalizing expression of the ET system and iNOS in early diabetic retinopathy and vasculaopathy. [source]


Kazushi Tsuda
SUMMARY 1The purpose of the present study was to assess the possible link between plasma homocysteine and membrane fluidity in normotensive and hypertensive men. 2The membrane fluidity (a reciprocal value of membrane microviscosity) of red blood cells (RBC) was measured using an electron paramagnetic resonance and spin-labelling method. The membrane fluidity of RBC was decreased in hypertensive compared with normotensive men. 3Total plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in hypertensive men than normotensive men. In contrast, plasma levels of nitric oxide (NO) metabolites were significantly lower in hypertensive men than in normotensive men. The decreased membrane fluidity of RBC was associated with hyperhomocysteinaemia and reduced plasma levels of NO metabolites. 4The results of the present study suggest that hyperhomocysteinaemia may have a role in modulating the rheological behaviour of RBC and microcirculation in men by, at least in part, reducing NO bioavailability. [source]