NO Availability (no + availability)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Vascular NO availability is an important determinant of impaired skeletal muscle microvascular PO2 in chronic heart failure

Michael C. Hogan
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Contribution of Nitric Oxide Synthase to Improved Early Graft Patency in Human Saphenous Vein Graft Harvested by a Novel ,No-Touch' Technique

JCS Tsui
Aim: Saphenous vein (SV) is the most commonly used conduit in bypass procedures but has a one-year occlusion rate of 15-30%. A new ,no-touch' technique where the SV is harvested with a cushion of surrounding tissue with no distension has led to improved early patency rates of 5% at 18-months. Nitric oxide (NO), synthesised by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has properties beneficial to graft patency. Our aim was to study the distribution of NOS in SV harvested by this technique and the effect of distension and removal of perivascular tissue on NOS content of SV. Methods: Following ethical committee approval and patients' informed consent, SVs were harvested from ten patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. A segment of vein was harvested by the conventional technique (surrounding tissue stripped and vein distended with saline); another part was stripped but not distended (,control') and the remaining parts harvested by the ,no-touch' technique. Samples of each segment were taken and transverse sections prepared for NOS identification using 3[H]L-NG nitroarginine (NO Arg) autoradiography and NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry. NOS isoforms were studied using standard immunohistochemistry. Endothelial cells and nerves were also identified using immunohistochemistry with CD31 and NF200 respecitvely, to confirm sources of NOS. Morphometric analysis of NADPH-diaphorase staining was carried out to study tissue NOS content. Results: NO Arg binding representing NOS was preserved on the lumen of ,no-touch' vessels whilst that on conventional and control vessels was reduced. NOS was also localised to the medial smooth muscle cells of all vein segments and to the intact adventitia of ,no-touch' segments. This was confirmed by NADPH-diaphorase staining, which revealed a mean reduction of NOS by 19.5% (p < 0.05, ANOVA) in control segments due to stripping of surrounding tissue alone and a reduction of 35.5% (p < 0.01, AVNOVA) in conventional segments due to stripping and distension, compared to ,no-touch' segments. Adventitial NOS sources in ,no-touch' vessels corresponded to vasa vasorum and paravascular nerves. All three NOS isoforms contributed to the preserved NOS in ,no-touch' vessels. Conclusions: Apart from preserved lumenal NOS, NOS sources are also located in the media and adventitia of SV grafts. These are reduced by both adventitial damage and vein distension during conventional vein harvesting. The ,no-touch' technique avoids these procedures, preserving NOS sources. This may result in improved NO availability in SV harvested by this technique, contributing to the improved patency rates reported. [source]

Potential roles of melatonin and chronotherapy among the new trends in hypertension treatment

Fedor Simko
Abstract:, The number of well-controlled hypertensives is unacceptably low worldwide. Respecting the circadian variation of blood pressure, nontraditional antihypertensives, and treatment in early stages of hypertension are potential ways to improve hypertension therapy. First, prominent variations in circadian rhythm are characteristic for blood pressure. The revolutionary MAPEC (Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring and Cardiovascular Events) study, in 3000 adult hypertensives investigates, whether chronotherapy influences the cardiovascular prognosis beyond blood pressure reduction per se. Second, melatonin, statins and aliskiren are hopeful drugs for hypertension treatment. Melatonin, through its scavenging and antioxidant effects, preservation of NO availability, sympatholytic effect or specific melatonin receptor activation exerts antihypertensive and anti-remodeling effects and may be useful especially in patients with nondipping nighttime blood pressure pattern or with nocturnal hypertension and in hypertensives with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Owing to its multifunctional physiological actions, this indolamine may offer cardiovascular protection far beyond its hemodynamic benefit. Statins exert several pleiotropic effects through inhibition of small guanosine triphosphate-binding proteins such as Ras and Rho. Remarkably, statins reduce blood pressure in hypertensive patients and more importantly they attenuate LVH. Addition of statins should be considered for high-risk hypertensives, for hypertensives with LVH, and possibly for high-risk prehypertensive patients. The direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, inhibits catalytic activity of renin molecules in circulation and in the kidney, thus lowering angiotensin II levels. Furthermore, aliskiren by modifying the prorenin conformation may prevent prorenin activation. At present, aliskiren should be considered in hypertensive patients not sufficiently controlled or intolerant to other inhibitors of renin,angiotensin system. Third, TROPHY (Trial of Preventing Hypertension) is the first pharmacological intervention for prehypertensive patients revealing that treatment with angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker attenuates hypertension development and thus decreases the risk of cardiovascular events. [source]

Rosiglitazone treatment attenuates renal tissue inflammation generated by urinary tract obstruction

NEPHROLOGY, Issue 2 2009
SUMMARY Aim: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-, activation by rosiglitazone decreases manifestation of intrarenal inflammatory hallmarks. Inflammation significantly aggravates renal injury following urinary tract obstruction. The effect of rosiglitazone on renal inflammation following unilateral ureteral obstruction was investigated. Methods: Ninety-six Srague,Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral ureteral ligation, or to sham operation. Half of each group received rosiglitazone, 5 mg/kg bodyweight per day. The animals were killed and their kidneys allocated following 1 h, 24 h or 2 weeks, for pathological examination or for intrarenal transforming growth factor (TGF)-,, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10 and nitric oxide (NO) assessment by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Apoptosis rates, extracellular matrix deposition, PPAR-,, ,-smooth muscle actin (,-SMA) expression and macrophage infiltration were assessed by specific immunohistological stainings. Results: PPAR-, receptor expression was downregulated, and infiltration of macrophages decreased, in all rosiglitazone-treated kidneys. Rosiglitazone significantly decreased apoptosis, TGF-,, IL-6, ,-SMA expression and NO availability in obstructed kidneys. Synthesis of IL-10 was unaltered, while IL-4 augmented by Rosiglitazone. Rosiglitazone also affected NO and IL-4 production in sham-operated controls. Conclusion: (i) Rosiglitazone attenuates profibrotic and pro-inflammatory responses in a rat model of ureteral obstruction-induced renal inflammation; (ii) rosiglitazone stimulates counteractive anti-inflammatory responses in the damaged kidneys; (iii) in part, rosiglitazone exerts comparable anti-inflammatory effects on obstructed kidneys and unobstructed healthy controls. Taken together, this ascertains the importance of the anti-inflammatory role of rosiglitazone treatment in amelioration of ureteral obstruction-induced renal damage. [source]