NICE Guidelines (nice + guideline)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Comments on NICE Guidelines for ,Depression in Children and Young People'

Paul McArdle
The recent NICE depression guidelines recommend that cognitive-behavioural and interpersonal psychotherapies should be the treatments of choice for child or adolescent depression. This paper argues that in so doing, NICE goes beyond the evidence adduced and judges too much relevant data ineligible. This is likely to be due to a methodology developed for biomedicine, where NICE-eligible data are substantial. Consequently, NICE risks distorting practice in a small specialty where randomised controlled trials are comparatively rare and usually involve small samples. [source]

Evidence based secondary prevention following a myocardial infarction (MI): the new NICE guideline

R. Minhas
First page of article [source]

Using Cochrane reviews for oral diseases

ORAL DISEASES, Issue 7 2010
HV Worthington
Oral Diseases (2010) 16, 592,596 Objectives:, To provide readers with information about the Cochrane Oral Health Group and how the reviews on oral diseases have contributed to guideline developments and the commissioning of trials. Materials and methods:, Examples have been selected from the reviews published on The Cochrane Library. Descriptions are given of how these reviews have been used in guideline development and commissioning of trials. Readers are updated on reviews focused on the management of oral cancer and the new venture of diagnostic test reviews. Results:, Reviews on the management of oral diseases due to cancer treatments have been included in guidelines and changed practice in the UK. Cochrane reviews on Bell's Palsy have led to a randomised controlled trial which has changed the evidence base. The Cochrane review on recall intervals between routine appointments has input into the NICE guideline and resulted in a randomised controlled trial to look at different intervals including a risk-based interval. Conclusion:, We hope this article will give readers information on the work of the Cochrane Oral Health Group and insight into the diversity of reviews in oral diseases. The reviews are successfully being used to change practice and as background for the funding of large-scale clinical trials. [source]

Improvement of glycaemic control with rebound following orlistat initiation and cessation associated with minimal weight change

S. González
Abstract A 57-year-old Caucasian woman with Type 2 diabetes treated for seven years with diet and oral combination hypoglycaemic therapy was referred because of the progressive deterioration of glycaemic control. She was obese (77 kg, BMI = 39.9), hypertensive, hypercholesterolaemic with marked osmotic symptoms (HbA1c 12.2%), therefore she was started on insulin (Human Mixtard 30 b.d.) with metformin therapy. Dietary counselling, recommendations to increase physical activity, and supervised self-injection technique with titration of her insulin were also provided. She was routinely followed-up to assess her progress. Two years later, her glycaemic control remained suboptimal. Average HbA1c was 10.4% despite an increasingly high dose of insulin (94 units/day) although it improved when metformin was increased to 1 g t.d.s. (HbA1c = 9.3%). Her BMI progressively rose from 39.9 to 42.1 (77 to 82.5 kg) despite dietary advice. A trial of orlistat (three months) was commenced, after intensive dietary counselling, that reduced her body weight by 1.5 kg (2% reduction, BMI 41.3). However, her HbA1c improved by 0.5% (from 9.3 to 8.8%). Six months after orlistat was stopped her HbA1c rose to 10.5% and weight increased to 81.8 kg (BMI 41.8). Despite the orlistat treatment broaching NICE guidelines should it have been continued? [source]

Use of parenteral nutrition in hospitals in the North of England

S. A. Hearnshaw
Abstract Background, Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a costly technology used widely to provide nutrition to patients who have an inaccessible or nonfunctioning intestine. A prospective survey was designed to collect data on PN for inpatients to study the current use of PN, its complications and outcomes in the north of England. The study objectives were to use the Northern Nutrition Network to collect data from all acute hospital inpatients prospectively receiving PN, for 3 months and to provide evidence for current PN practice, and to establish whether this is in line with recognized published clinical guidelines. Methods, Using a paper-based collection tool information was recorded on aspects of PN including: total inpatient episodes, patient demographics, indications, duration, venous access used, complications, number returning to enteral feeding and mortality. The presence of a nutrition support team was also recorded. Results, Data on 193 patient PN episodes were recorded totalling 1708 patient days. The median age of the patients was 67 years. Of these, 158 (82%) were deemed to have a clear indication for PN using the indications cited in the NICE guidelines ( The median duration of PN was 7 days (range 1,93). Thirty (16%) patients developed complications due to PN, 23 (12%) had catheter infections which were most common on medical wards. Thirty-nine (20%) patients died within 28 days of PN starting; no deaths were attributable to PN. A total of 118 (61%) patients returned to full enteral feeding. Only three hospitals had nutrition support teams, which had no significant effect on outcomes. Conclusions, Parenteral nutrition practice in the north of England is generally in line with current guidelines, however, only three of 15 hospitals had nutrition support teams. Eighteen per cent of patients did not have a clearly documented indication for PN and 15% developed a complication, most often a catheter-related infection. [source]

Guidelines to Practice Gap in the Use of Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors: From ISAR-REACT to Overreact?

Adjunctive use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI) is associated with favorable outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Guidelines for use of GPI have been published by various national societies including National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE), United Kingdom. The latter has not been updated since publication. The impact of contemporary trials such as ISAR-REACT (which showed no benefit of abciximab and 600 mg of clopidogrel compared with 600 mg of clopidogrel alone, in elective patients) on adherence to NICE guidelines is unknown. Methods: We audited use of GPI against NICE guidelines following publication in May 2002. Data were collected from 1,685 patients between September and November in years 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2007. Results: In 2002 and 2003, only 10.2% and 11.8%, respectively, of patients were noncompliant to NICE guidelines. Over time, there was an increase in patients not given GPI despite meeting NICE criteria. After publication of ISAR-REACT, the comparative figures for noncompliance in 2004 and 2007 were 40.0% and 44.5%. A similar pattern was seen in patients with diabetes; in 2002 and 2003 noncompliance was 16.7% and 11.1%, respectively, and in 2004 and 2007 noncompliance was 38.0% and 44.7%, respectively. Qualitatively, similar findings were recorded in patients with NSTE-ACS. The overall noncompliance to NICE guidelines increased from 11.0% to 42.1% (P < 0.0001) after the ISAR-REACT study. Conclusions: We found a decline in compliance to NICE guidelines on GPI usage during PCI. This was likely influenced by contemporary trials demonstrating little or no benefit of GPI in patients undergoing elective PCI who are adequately pretreated with clopidogrel. Our findings suggest the need for a mechanism whereby regular updates to guidelines can be disseminated following new trial evidence. [source]

ABCD position statement on screening for gestational diabetes mellitus

FRCP Consultant Physician, S Robinson MD, Senior Lecturer
Abstract Gestational diabetes mellitus is an increasingly common medical problem seen in pregnancy. A randomised clinical trial, published in 2005, showed improved perinatal morbidity and mortality in pregnancies of women with actively managed gestational diabetes. Prior to 2003 the evidence base for screening and treating all women with gestational diabetes was not strong enough for the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE), in its 2003 antenatal guidelines, to recommend universal screening for gestational diabetes. As we await the review of these original 2003 NICE guidelines we offer a pragmatic approach for the detection of glucose intolerance in pregnancy. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons. [source]

Combination treatment of insulin with oral hypoglycaemic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

AN Dixon MRCP (UK) Clinical Research FellowArticle first published online: 7 DEC 200
Abstract The recently published guidelines from the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) on the management of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes and the NICE guidelines on the use of the long-acting insulin analogue, glargine, have brought to the fore the use of combination therapy of insulin with oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHAs). The NICE guidelines recommend that when a patient with type 2 diabetes is failing to achieve satisfactory glycaemic control with OHAs alone, insulin should be initiated in combination with OHAs. However, evidence for this approach is less than robust and combination treatment of OHAs with insulin remains a controversial area. This article presents the evidence for different insulin regimens in patients who have secondary failure to OHAs, including combination therapy with basal insulin. The evidence and potential drawbacks of such regimens are discussed. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Latest news and product developments

PRESCRIBER, Issue 9 2007
Article first published online: 3 SEP 200
Clinical trials flatter anti-TNFs in RA The efficacy of anti-TNF agents in clinical trials is not matched by experience in daily practice in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, say Dutch investigators (Ann Rheum Dis online: 10 April 2007; doi:10.1136/ard.2007.072447). They compared outcomes from a systematic review of trials of etanercept (Enbrel), infliximab (Remicade) and adalimumab (Humira) and a national postmarketing surveillance scheme (DREAM). In 5 of 11 comparisons, the response rate in DREAM was significantly lower than that in RCTs. Responses among DREAM patients who met the inclusion criteria for clinical trials were significantly greater than among noneligible patients and comparable with those of patients participating in the trials. The authors conclude that patients in trials have more severe disease and therefore a response to treatment that is not matched in daily practice. Methadone prescriptions double in 10 years Methadone treatment for opiate addicts has more than doubled in the past 10 years, according to an audit of opiate substitution in England by the National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse ( The total number of methadone prescriptions increased from 970 900 in 1995 to over 1.8 million in 2004. The introduction of buprenorphine (Subutex) has not reduced methadone prescribing , 96 per cent of responding centres prescribed methadone and 88 per cent prescribed buprenorphine. Seventy-two per cent of centres prescribe benzodiazepines to opiate addicts, causing the NTA some concern. GPs were involved in prescribing management in about 60 per cent of centres. Next NICE guidelines The Department of Health has referred eight topics to NICE for the development of clinical guidelines: preventing venous thromboembolism, acute coronary syndromes, chest pain, social complications during pregnancy (eg drug misuse), benign prostatic hyperplasia, constipation in children, neonatal jaundice and metastatic disease of unknown primary origin. Errors with children , Every step of drug treatment for children, from prescribing to writing notes, is associated with a substantial level of error, say US investigators (Quality and Safety in Health Care 2007;16:116-26). Their systematic review of 31 studies reporting medication errors in paediatrics found that 3-37 per cent were associated with prescribing errors, 5-58 per cent with dispensing errors, 72-75 per cent with errors of administration, and 17-21 per cent with documentation errors. Suggestions for remedial strategies were not evidence based, the authors found. , and transplant patients Errors in medication are common among outpatients who have received liver, kidney or pancreas transplants, a second US study has found (Arch Surg 2007;142:278-83). Twelve months' follow-up of 93 patients revealed a total of 149 errors of drug treatment, with a frequency of 15 in 219 visits over a four-week period. One-third of errors were associated with adverse events including hospital admission and graft rejection. Patients were taking an average of 11 medicines; analysis showed that over half of errors originated with the patients and 13 per cent were associated with prescribing. Paracetamol pack benefit challenged A new study has challenged accepted wisdom that reducing the OTC pack size of paracetamol cut the suicide rate (PLoS Medicine 2007;4:e105). In 1998, pack sizes of paracetamol were limited to 16 in general sale outlets and 32 in pharmacies. Suicide rates subsequently decreased but, though widely assumed, a causal link has not been established. Researchers from London and the Office of National Statistics have now examined mortality trends from suicide associated with antidepressants, aspirin, compound paracetamol preparations and nondrug poisoning. They found that all fatal suicides declined at similar rates after the pack size reductions. While not excluding the possibility that restricting easy access to paracetamol may have helped, these data suggest that other factors were also important. CV risk with ibuprofen among aspirin users Ibuprofen, but not naproxen, is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events and heart failure than lumiracoxib (Prexige) in high-risk patients, according to a new analysis of the TARGET trial (Ann Rheum Dis online: 5 April 2007; doi:10.1136/ard.2006.066001). TARGET comprised two studies comparing naproxen or ibuprofen with lumiracoxib in a total of 18 325 patients with OA. This post-hoc analysis stratified patients by their cardiovascular risk; the primary end-point was a composite of cardiovascular mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke at one year. Among those at high risk who were taking aspirin, ibuprofen was associated with an increased risk of the composite end-point compared with lumiracoxib (2.14 vs 0.25 per cent). The risk was similar for naproxen and lumiracoxib (1.58 vs 1.48 per cent). In high-risk patients not taking aspirin, the risk was similar for ibuprofen and lumiracoxib, but lower for naproxen than lumiracoxib. Congestive heart failure was more common in patients taking ibuprofen than lumiracoxib (1.28 vs 0.14 per cent); the risk was similar with naproxen and lumiracoxib. The authors emphasise that their findings should be considered hypothesis-generating. CVD guidelines criticised The second edition of the guidelines of the Joint British Societies on preventing cardiovascular disease have been harshly criticised for failing to meet international quality standards (Int J Clin Pract online doi: 10.1111/j.1742-1241.2007.01310.x). Kent GP Dr Rubin Minhas evaluated the guidelines against the criteria of the Appraisal of Guidelines and Research (AGREE) Collaboration. He identified areas of weakness including stakeholder involvement, rigour of development, applicability (by not considering cost) and editorial independence from the pharmaceutical industry. The guidelines should not be recommended for clinical practice, he concludes. OTC naproxen? The MHRA is consulting on switching naproxen 250mg to pharmacy-only status for the treatment of period pain in women aged 15-50. The change would offer an alternative to ibuprofen, currently the only other OTC medicine with this indication. Responses should be submitted by 23 May. The Agency is currently considering responses to its consultation on switching tranexamic acid to OTC status for heavy menstrual bleeding. Diabetes costs The total cost of prescribing for diabetes in England has doubled in only five years, official statistics show. The NHS Information Centre ( report shows that spending in primary and secondary care in 2006 was £561 million, up 14 per cent on 2005. Growth was due to increased prescribing of oral hypoglycaemic agents (notably the glitazones , up by one-third over 2005) and the higher costs of insulins. Pharmacists may give flu jabs PCTs may consider using pharmacists to administer flu vaccines to some at-risk groups in the 2007/08 season, according to Department of Health plans. Flu vaccination payment for patients with diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke and TIA is provided under the Quality Outcomes Framework. The Department suggests that PCTs consider contracting a local enhanced service from pharmacists to reach other patients at increased risk, such as those with chronic liver disease, multiple sclerosis and related conditions, hereditary and degenerative disease of the CNS and carers. Copyright © 2007 Wiley Interface Ltd [source]

Primum non nocere , NICE guidelines on venous thromboembolism

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 8 2010
R. G. Davies
First page of article [source]

NICE guidelines for inadvertent peri-operative hypothermia

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 12 2009
D. S. Radauceanu
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Practices and views on fetal heart monitoring: a structured observation and interview study

S Altaf
Objective, To assess and explain deviations from recommended practice in National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines in relation to fetal heart monitoring. Design, Qualitative study. Setting, Large teaching hospital in the UK. Sample, Sixty-six hours of observation of 25 labours and interviews with 20 midwives of varying grades. Methods, Structured observations of labour and semistructured interviews with midwives. Interviews were undertaken using a prompt guide, audiotaped, and transcribed verbatim. Analysis was based on the constant comparative method, assisted by QSR N5 software. Main outcome measures, Deviations from recommended practice in relation to fetal monitoring and insights into why these occur. Results, All babies involved in the study were safely delivered, but 243 deviations from recommended practice in relation to NICE guidelines on fetal monitoring were identified, with the majority (80%) of these occurring in relation to documentation. Other deviations from recommended practice included indications for use of electronic fetal heart monitoring and conduct of fetal heart monitoring. There is evidence of difficulties with availability and maintenance of equipment, and some deficits in staff knowledge and skill. Differing orientations towards fetal monitoring were reported by midwives, which were likely to have impacts on practice. The initiation, management, and interpretation of fetal heart monitoring is complex and distributed across time, space, and professional boundaries, and practices in relation to fetal heart monitoring need to be understood within an organisational and social context. Conclusion, Some deviations from best practice guidelines may be rectified through straightforward interventions including improved systems for managing equipment and training. Other deviations from recommended practice need to be understood as the outcomes of complex processes that are likely to defy easy resolution. [source]

Medication errors: the role of the patient

Nicky Britten
1. Patients and their carers will usually be the first to notice any observable problems resulting from medication errors. They will probably be unable to distinguish between medication errors, adverse drug reactions, or ,side effects'. 2. Little is known about how patients understand drug related problems or how they make attributions of adverse effects. Some research suggests that patients' cognitive models of adverse drug reactions bear a close relationship to models of illness perception. 3. Attributions of adverse drug reactions are related to people's previous experiences and to their level of education. The evidence suggests that on the whole patients' reports of adverse drug reactions are accurate. However, patients do not report all the problems they perceive and are more likely to report those that they do perceive as severe. Patients may not report problems attributed to their medications if they are fearful of doctors' reactions. Doctors may respond inappropriately to patients' concerns, for example by ignoring them. Some authors have proposed the use of a symptom checklist to elicit patients' reports of suspected adverse drug reactions. 4. Many patients want information about adverse drug effects, and the challenge for the professional is to judge how much information to provide and the best way of doing so. Professionals' inappropriate emphasis on adherence may be dangerous when a medication error has occurred. 5. Recent NICE guidelines recommend that professionals should ask patients if they have any concerns about their medicines, and this approach is likely to yield information conducive to the identification of medication errors. [source]