Arched-back Nursing (arched-back + nursing)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Maternal care affects the development of maternal behavior in inbred mice

Hirotaka Shoji
Abstract The present study investigated the effects of variations in maternal behavior on the development of maternal behavior of female offspring in BALB/c and CBA/Ca inbred mice. In Experiment 1, we conducted fostering within or between the two strains and observed the maternal behaviors of mothers and female offspring for 2 weeks postpartum. Although fostering changed the maternal behavior of mothers in both strains, CBA mothers generally showed greater frequency of nursing posture and pup licking than BALB mothers. BALB female offspring reared by CBA mothers showed more body licking than those reared by BALB mothers, whereas fostering did not affect the maternal behavior of CBA female offspring. In Experiment 2, we examined the maternal behavior of females of F1 hybrids derived from reciprocal crosses between the two strains to confirm the maternal effect demonstrated in Experiment 1. Female F1 hybrids from CBA mothers showed more arched-back nursing, body licking, and nest building than those from BALB mothers. These results suggested that maternal care affect the development of maternal behavior in inbred mice, though the contributions of genetic and prenatal factors cannot be ignored. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev. Psychobiol 51: 345,357, 2009. [source]

Comparison of the effects of early handling and early deprivation on maternal care in the rat

Christopher R. Pryce
Abstract It has been reported in the rat that postnatal manipulations can induce robust and persistent effects on offspring neurobiology and behavior, mediated in part via effects on maternal care. There have, however, been few studies of the effects of postnatal manipulations on maternal care. Here, we describe and compare the effects on maternal behavior on postnatal days 1,12 of two manipulations, early handling (EH, 15-min isolation per day) and early deprivation (ED, 4-hr isolation per day), relative to our normal postnatal husbandry procedure. Maternal behavior was measured at five time points across the dark phase of the reversed L:D cycle. EH yielded an increase in arched-back nursing across several time points but did not affect any other behavior. ED stimulated a bout of maternal behavior such that licking and arched-back nursing were increased at the time of dam,litter reunion, although not at any other time point. Neither EH nor ED affected weaning weight significantly. Importantly, within-treatment variation was high relative to these between-treatment effects. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 38: 239,251, 2001 [source]

Strain differences in the behavioural outcome of neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions are determined by the postnatal environment and not genetic factors

Graham K. Wood
Abstract It has been demonstrated that not only do rats neonatally lesioned in the ventral hippocampus (VH) develop behavioural hypersensitivity to amphetamine postpubertally, but also that the expression of the sensitivity is strain specific. For example, excitotoxic VH lesions at postnatal day (PD) 7 lead to significant increases in amphetamine-induced locomotion in postpubertal Fischer rats, but not in Lewis rats. However, as it is likely that the effect of strain differences are due to a combination of genetics and environment, we examined the contributions of the environment of the pups in determining the behavioural outcome following neonatal VH lesions. Fisher and Lewis rat pups were cross-fostered at birth, and then at PD7 lesioned bilaterally in the VH with ibotenic acid. anova analysis of postpubertal amphetamine-induced locomotor data revealed a significant effect of the strain of the dams raising the pups but no effect of the strain of the pup. In addition, a post hoc analysis revealed that lesioned Fisher or Lewis rats raised by Fisher, but not those raised by Lewis, dams demonstrated amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion relative to nonlesioned controls. Observations of the maternal behaviour of Fischer and Lewis dams revealed significant differences in the frequency of arched-back nursing between the two strains. Interestingly, a correlation of the frequency of arched back nursing vs novelty- or amphetamine-induced locomotion revealed that the lesioned rats were significantly more affected by increases in arched-back nursing compared to the controls. The results suggest that the genetic background of the pups does not significantly affect the behavioural outcome following neonatal VH lesions; however, the results do suggest an important role of early environmental variables on the behavioural outcome of neonatal VH lesions. [source]

Evidence for non-genomic transmission of ecological information via maternal behavior in female rats

J. McLeod
Maternal behavior is flexible and programs offspring development. Using a novel manipulation, we demonstrate that rat maternal behavior is sensitive to ecologically relevant stimuli. Long-Evans hooded rat dams (F0) and pups were exposed to a predator condition (cat odor) or a control condition (no odor) for 1 h on the day of parturition. Predator-exposed F0 dams displayed significantly more maternal behavior (licking/grooming, arched-back nursing) relative to control-exposed dams across five subsequent observation days. Female offspring (F1) were raised to adulthood, bred and maternal behavior was observed. F1 dams reared by a predator-exposed F0 dam displayed significantly higher maternal behavior relative to F1 dams reared by a control-exposed F0 dam across 5 days of observation. Increased levels of maternal behavior in predator-reared (PR) F1 dams were evident even in F1 females that had been cross-fostered (CF) from a control-exposed F0 dam, suggesting a non-genomic transmission of increased levels of maternal behavior. Lactating PR F1 dams had significantly elevated estrogen receptor , and , mRNA in the medial preoptic area relative to control-reared (CR) F1 dams. Furthermore, among CR F1 dams, there was no significant difference between those dams that had been CF from predator-exposed F0 dams and those that had been sham CF. These results support the hypothesis that flexible rat maternal behavior can shape offspring development according to current environmental conditions. The results also suggest that estrogen signaling may be part of an epigenetic mechanism by which changes in maternal behavior are passed from F0 to F1 dams. [source]