Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Newman

  • henry newman
  • john henry newman

  • Terms modified by Newman

  • newman theory

  • Selected Abstracts

    Dentin surface treatment using a non-thermal argon plasma brush for interfacial bonding improvement in composite restoration

    Andy C. Ritts
    Ritts AC, Li H, Yu Q, Xu C, Yao X, Hong L, Wang Y. Dentin surface treatment using a non-thermal argon plasma brush for interfacial bonding improvement in composite restoration. Eur J Oral Sci 2010; 118: 510,516. © 2010 Eur J Oral Sci The objective of this study was to investigate the treatment effects of non-thermal atmospheric gas plasmas on dentin surfaces used for composite restoration. Extracted unerupted human third molars were prepared by removing the crowns and etching the exposed dentin surfaces with 35% phosphoric acid gel. The dentin surfaces were treated using a non-thermal atmospheric argon plasma brush for various periods of time. The molecular changes of the dentin surfaces were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry/attenuated total reflectance (FTIR/ATR), and an increase in the amount of carbonyl groups was detected on plasma-treated dentin surfaces. Adper Single Bond Plus adhesive and Filtek Z250 dental composite were applied as directed. To evaluate the dentin/composite interfacial bonding, the teeth thus prepared were sectioned into micro-bars and analyzed using tensile testing. Student,Newman,Keuls tests showed that the bonding strength of the composite restoration to peripheral dentin was significantly increased (by 64%) after 30 s of plasma treatment. However, the bonding strength to plasma-treated inner dentin did not show any improvement. It was found that plasma treatment of the peripheral dentin surface for up to 100 s resulted in an increase in the interfacial bonding strength, while prolonged plasma treatment of dentin surfaces (e.g. 5 min) resulted in a decrease in the interfacial bonding strength. [source]

    Differential activity in left inferior frontal gyrus for pseudowords and real words: An event-related fMRI study on auditory lexical decision

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 2 2005
    Zhuangwei Xiao
    Abstract After Newman and Twieg ([2001]: Hum Brain Mapp 14:39,47) and others, we used a fast event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design and contrasted the lexical processing of pseudowords and real words. Participants carried out an auditory lexical decision task on a list of randomly intermixed real and pseudo Chinese two-character (or two-syllable) words. The pseudowords were constructed by recombining constituent characters of the real words to control for sublexical code properties. Processing of pseudowords and real words activated a highly comparable network of brain regions, including bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, superior, middle temporal gyrus, calcarine and lingual gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus. Mirroring a behavioral lexical effect, left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was significantly more activated for pseudowords than for real words. This result disconfirms a popular view that this area plays a role in grapheme-to-phoneme conversion, as such a conversion process was unnecessary in our task with auditory stimulus presentation. An alternative view was supported that attributes increased activity in left IFG for pseudowords to general processes in decision making, specifically in making positive versus negative responses. Activation in left supramarginal gyrus was of a much larger volume for real words than for pseudowords, suggesting a role of this region in the representation of phonological or semantic information for two-character Chinese words at the lexical level. Hum Brain Mapp 25:212,221, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    In vivo astaxanthin treatment partially prevents antioxidant alterations in dental pulp from alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    M. F. Leite
    Leite MF, de Lima A, Massuyama MM, Otton R.In vivo astaxanthin treatment partially prevents antioxidant alterations in dental pulp from alloxan-induced diabetic rats. International Endodontic Journal, 43, 959,967, 2010. Abstract Aim, To evaluate the effect of astaxanthin on antioxidant parameters of dental pulp from diabetic rats. The hypothesis tested was that supplementation of diabetic rats with astaxanthin might eliminate, or at least attenuate, the defect in their antioxidative status. Methodology, Wistar rats (n = 32) were divided into four groups: untreated control, treated control, untreated diabetic and treated diabetic rats. A prophylactic dose of astaxanthin (20 mg kg,1 body weight) was administered daily by gavage for 30 days. On day 23, diabetes was induced by injection of alloxan (60 mg kg,1 body weight). After 7 days of diabetes induction, the rats were killed, and pulp tissue from incisor teeth removed. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reductase activities were determined. Data were compared by anova and the Newman,Keuls test (P < 0.05). Results, Diabetes caused a reduction in SOD, GPx and reductase activity in dental pulp tissue. Astaxanthin had no effect on SOD and catalase activities; however, it stimulated GPx in control and diabetic rats. Conclusions, Diabetes altered the antioxidant system in dental pulp tissue; astaxanthin partially improved the diabetic complications. [source]

    Effectiveness of different gutta-percha techniques when filling experimental internal resorptive cavities

    N. Gencoglu
    Abstract Aim, To determine the quality of root fillings in teeth with artificial internal resorptive cavities filled with Thermafil, JS Quick-Fill, Soft Core, System B and Microseal, and by cold lateral compaction (LC) technique. Methodology, Sixty maxillary incisor teeth were selected. After access cavity preparation and root canal instrumentation, the roots were sectioned horizontally and artificial internal resorption cavities were prepared on the canal walls. The tooth sections were cemented together and the root canals were filled using one of six different techniques: Thermafil, JS Quick-Fill, Soft Core, System B and Microseal, and by LC. The roots were then divided at the level of the previous section and each root surface was photographed. Image analysis program was used to calculate the percentage of sealer, gutta-percha and void in the internal resorptive cavities. All measurements were analysed statistically using One-way anova and Newman,Keuls tests. Results, The Microseal technique filled 99% of the artificial resorptive area followed by LC (92%), SystemB (89%), Quick-Fill (88%), Thermafil (74%) and Soft-Core (73%). Warm gutta-percha compaction techniques filled the resorption areas with more gutta-percha than sealer (Microseal 68%, System B 62%) compared to the other techniques (LC 48%, Quick Fill 41%, Soft Core 34%, Thermafil 35%). In addition, core techniques left a considerable volume of voids in the resorptive areas (Quick-Fill 12%, Thermafil 26%, Soft Core 27%). Conclusions, Warm gutta techniques filled artificial resorption cavities significantly better than the other gutta-percha techniques. [source]

    Solubility of root-canal sealers in water and artificial saliva

    E. Schäfer
    Abstract Aim, To compare the weight loss of eight different root-canal sealers in water and in artificial saliva with different pH values. Methodology, For standardized samples (n = 12 per group), ring moulds were filled with epoxy resin (AH 26, AH Plus)-, silicone (RSA RoekoSeal)-, calcium hydroxide (Apexit, Sealapex)-, zinc oxide,eugenol (Aptal-Harz)-, glass-ionomer (Ketac Endo)- and polyketone (Diaket)-based sealers. These samples were immersed in double-distilled water or artificial saliva with different pH values (7.0, 5.7 and 4.5) for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, 5 min, 10 min, 20 min, 1 h, 2 h, 10 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 14 days and 28 days. Mean loss of weight was determined and analysed statistically using a one-way anova and Student,Newman,Keuls test for all pairwise comparisons. Results, Most sealers were of low solubility, although Sealapex, Aptal-Harz and Ketac Endo showed a marked weight loss in all liquids. Even after 28 days of storage in water, AH 26, AH Plus, RSA RoekoSeal, and Diaket showed less than 3% weight loss. At exposure times greater than 14 days, Sealapex showed the significantly greatest weight loss of all sealers tested (P < 0.05). Aptal-Harz and Ketac Endo were significantly more soluble in saliva (pH 4.5) than in water (P < 0.05). Conclusions, Under the conditions of the present study, AH Plus showed the least weight loss of all sealers tested, independent of the solubility medium used. Sealapex, Aptal-Harz and Ketac Endo had a marked weight loss in all liquids. [source]

    Visuospatial impairment in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease: a process analysis approach

    Martine Simard
    Abstract Background Reports of differential impairments on visual-construction tasks in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are sometimes controversial, whereas visual-perceptual data are lacking. The existence of different clinical sub-groups of DLB has been hypothesized to explain the discrepancies among the cognitive results. The goal of this study was to compare the visual-perceptual performance of subjects with DLB with predominant psychosis, DLB with predominant parkinsonian features and AD. Methods This is a cross-sectional neuropsychological study with between diagnostic group comparisons. The Benton Judgement Line Orientation (BJLO) test was administered to four DLB patients with predominant psychosis (DLB-psy), four DLB subjects with predominant parkinsonian features (DLB-PD), and 13 patients with AD. An analysis of error types was applied to the results of the BJLO with QO1, QO2, QO3, QO4 (visual attention) errors, as well as VH, IQO, IQOV, and IQOH (visual-spatial perception) errors. Results A MANOVA showed significant differences between the DLB, and AD groups on the number of VH (F,=,6.049, df,=,1,19, p,=,0.024), IQOH (F,=,4.645, df,=,1,19, p,=,0.044) and QO1 (F,=,4.491, df,=,1,19, p,=,0.047) errors, but no difference on the total score of the BJLO. Another MANOVA and post hoc Student,Newman,Keuls analyses demonstrated that the DLB-psy sub-group made significantly more VH and IQOH errors than AD and the DLB-PD subjects. Conclusions Subjects with DLB and psychosis have more severe visual-perception (VH errors) impairments than subjects with DLB and predominant parkinsonian features, and AD subjects. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Hematological parameters and anaerobic threshold in Brazilian soccer players throughout a training program

    A. S. R. SILVA
    Summary We assessed the responses of hematological parameters and their relationship to the anaerobic threshold of Brazilian soccer players during a training program. Twelve athletes were evaluated at the beginning (week 0, T1), in the middle (week 6, T2), and at the end (week 12, T3) of the soccer training program. On the first day at 7:30 am, before collecting the blood sample at rest for the determination of the hematological parameters, the athletes were conducted to the anthropometric evaluation. On the second day at 8:30 am, the athletes had their anaerobic threshold measured. Analysis of variance with Newman,Keuls'post hoc was used for statistical comparisons between the parameters measured during the soccer training program. Correlations between the parameters analyzed were determined using the Pearson's correlation coefficient. Erythrocytes concentration, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were significantly increased from T1 to T2. The specific soccer training program led to a rise in erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and hematocrit from T1 to T2. We assumed that these results occurred due to the plasma volume reduction and may be explained by the soccer training program characteristics. Furthermore, we did not observe any correlation between the anaerobic threshold and the hematological parameters. [source]

    Activated monocytes and platelet-monocyte aggregates in patients with sickle cell disease*

    Tumour necrosis factor-, (TNF-,) and interleukin-1, (IL-1,) increase endothelial surface receptors that mediate the adherence of sickle erythrocytes to the endothelium. Increased circulating levels of these cytokines have been found in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Monocytes are a source of both of these inflammatory mediators; we therefore determined whether circulating monocytes were activated in SCD, as defined by intracellular expression of these cytokines. Blood was also assayed for the presence of platelet,monocyte aggregates (PMAs), as platelet adherence is one possible mechanism for monocyte activation. The median percentages of monocytes expressing intracellular TNF-, and IL-1, in SCD patients were 6.8 (2.8,17.3) [median (range)] and 14.1 (1.3,44.8), respectively. In African-American controls the corresponding percentages were 0.3 (0.1,0.5) and 0.4 (0.1,3.0), and in Caucasians 0.2 (0.1,0.5) and 0.8 (0.8,1.9) (P < 0.001, Kruskal,Wallis). The mean percentage (± SD) of PMA was 14.0 ± 8.3 for Caucasian controls, 25.7 ± 7.3 for African-American controls, and 45.7 ± 21.6 for patients with SCD (P < 0.001, RM ANOVA; P < 0.05, Newman,Keuls posthoc test). We conclude that there are increased circulating PMAs and monocyte activation in patients with SCD. [source]

    Development of Doctrine, or Denial?

    Balthasar's Holy Saturday, Newman's Essay
    Edward Oakes generalized Newman's seven tests for doctrinal development as ,internal logic' and ,developmental consistency'. Using this reduction, he claimed Newman's support for Balthasar's theology of Christ's descent into hell. In fairness to Newman and for a more adequate evaluation of Balthasar, I let Newman speak for himself. His norms are applied to both the traditional doctrine and Balthasar's. Since Balthasar's lacks all seven, it follows it is not a development of doctrine, but a corruption. Oakes' other arguments insufficiently counterbalance this deduction, while the traditional doctrine offers insights into the questions of pluralism and the salvation of the non-baptized. [source]

    Tradition and Reason: Two Uses of Reason, Critical and Contemplative

    Fergus Kerr
    This twofold appropriation of reason sets the stage for this article, a stage occupied in turn by Newman and by Aquinas. The critical function of theological work is expressed via the 1877 preface which Newman wrote for his Lectures on the Prophetic Office of the Church. The critical office of theology is vital not only to the practice of theology itself but to the liturgical and spiritual life of the church, and to the exercise of church leadership if that leadership is not to descend into tyranny. For the theologian, reason is not antithetical to contemplation; rather, contemplation includes a form of reasoning. Theology is ,a schooling in the discipline of contemplating the self-revealing God', a discipline of ,metaphysical ascesis' which compels both intellectual conversion and moral practice. Such an ascesis was practised well by Aquinas, and Kerr reflects on the Summa Theologiae as ,a training in a form of metaphysical reasoning', being schooled in the knowledge of God which strips away our ,idolatorous inclinations'. [source]

    Effect of disinfection by microwave irradiation on the strength of intact and relined denture bases and the water sorption and solubility of denture base and reline materials

    Rosangela Seiko Seó
    Abstract This study evaluated the influence of microwave disinfection on the strength of intact and relined denture bases. Water sorption and solubility were also evaluated. A heat-polymerized acrylic resin (Lucitone 550) was used to construct 4-mm-thick (n = 40) and 2-mm-thick (n = 160) denture bases. Denture bases (2-mm) were relined with an autopolymerizing resin (Tokuso Rebase Fast, Ufi Gel Hard, Kooliner, or New Truliner). Specimens were divided into four groups (n = 10): without treatment, one or seven cycles of microwave disinfection (650 W for 6 min), and water storage at 37°C for 7 days. Specimens were vertically loaded (5 mm/min) until failure. Disc-shaped specimens (50 mm × 0.5 mm) were fabricated (n = 10) to evaluate water sorption and solubility. Data on maximum fracture load (N), deflection at fracture (mm), fracture energy (N mm), water sorption (%), and solubility (%) were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Student,Newman,Keuls tests (, = 0.05). One cycle of microwave disinfection decreased the deflection at fracture and fracture energy of Tokuso Rebase Fast and New Truliner specimens. The strength of denture bases microwaved daily for 7 days was similar to the strength of those immersed in water for 7 days. Microwave disinfection increased the water sorption of all materials and affected the solubility of the reline materials. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Antibiotics, arsenate and H2O2 induce the promoter of Staphylococcus aureus cspC gene more strongly than cold

    Palas Kumar Chanda
    Abstract Proteins expressed by the bacterial cold shock genes are highly conserved at sequence level and perform various biological functions in both the cold-stressed and normal cells. To study the effects of various agents on the cold shock genes of Staphylococcus aureus, we have cloned the upstream region of cspC from S. aureus Newman and found that the above region possesses appreciable promoter (Pc) activity even at 37 °C. A reporter S. aureus strain CHANDA2, constructed by inserting the Pc - lacZ transcriptional fusion into S. aureus RN4220 genome, was found to express very low level of , -galactosidase after cold shock, indicating that low temperature induces Pc very weakly. Interestingly, transcription from Pc was induced very strongly by several antibiotics, hydrogen peroxide and arsenate salt. Cold shock proteins expressed by S. aureus are highly identical at sequence level and bear single-strand nucleic acid binding motifs. A 16 nt downstream box and a 13 nt upstream box were identified at the downstream of initiation codon and at the upstream of ribosome binding site of csp transcripts. Their roles in S. aureus cold shock gene expression have been discussed elaborately. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Biocompatibility of various formula root filling materials for primary teeth

    Tsui-Hsien Huang
    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different materials used in primary root canal fillings on the cell viability of human osteosarcoma cell lines. The experimental group contained six different types of root canal filling materials, including zinc oxide (ZnO) + eugenol + formocresol (FC), Ca(OH)2 + FC, Ca(OH)2 + Iodoform, Ca(OH)2 + Iodoform + camphorated parachlorophenol (CPC), Ca(OH)2 + CPC, and Vitapex. Cell viability tests were performed using tetrazolium bromide colorimetric (MTT) assay on human osteosacorma cell lines (U2OS). The results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student,Newman,Keul's test with p < 0.05 showed statistical differences. The ZnO + eugenol + FC group and Ca(OH)2 + FC group showed the lowest survival rates (p < 0.05). The Ca(OH)2 + Iodoform + CPC group and Ca(OH)2 + CPC group showed significantly lower survival rates at concentrations above 6 ,L/mL (p < 0.05). The Ca(OH)2 + Iodoform group and Vitapex group showed the highest survival rates (p < 0.05). We concluded that the use of calcium hydroxide with iodoform as a root filling base material is a better option than other medications. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2007 [source]

    Sorption and solubility testing of orthodontic bonding cements in different solutions

    Manuel Toledano
    Abstract To evaluate and compare the solubility and sorption of orthodontic bonding cements after immersion in different solutions, five different cements were used: a fluoride-containing resin composite, a light-cured glass ionomer cement, a light-cured resin composite, a paste,paste chemically cured resin composite, and a liquid,paste chemically cured resin composite. Five different solutions were employed: distilled water, artificial saliva, an alcohol-free mouthrinse solution (Orthokin), a 5% alcohol mouthrinse solution (Perioaid), and a 75% ethanol/water solution. Five disc specimens (15 mm × 0.85 mm) were used for each experimental condition. Materials were handled following manufacturers' instructions and were ground wet with silicon carbide paper. Solubility and sorption of the materials were calculated by means of weighing the samples before and after immersion and desiccation. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Student,Newman,Keuls test (p < 0.05). The light-cured glass ionomer cement showed the lowest solubility and the highest sorption values. When using alcohol-containing solutions as storage media, solubility of the paste,paste chemically cured resin composite increased, and sorption values for the tested chemically cured resin composites were also increased. The use of alcohol-free mouthrinses does not affect sorption and solubility of orthodontic cements. The chemically cured (paste,paste) composite resin cement, requiring a mixing procedure, was the most affected by immersion in alcohol-containing solutions. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2006 [source]

    Strategic Auditing: An Incomplete Information Model

    Peter Cheng
    This paper presents a stylized model of the strategy game between the auditor and the client. The client is assumed to have either good or bad inherent risk in her reporting system. She chooses a reporting effort level to maintain the accounting records and data management depending on her type of inherent risk. The auditor chooses a high or low level of audit procedures. A high level of auditing procedures will reveal the client's type and effort from which the auditor can decide either to qualify the financial statements or to issue a clean report. The client and the auditor are assumed to move simultaneously. Pure strategy equilibria are derived for all the undominated strategies between the auditor and the client in the region of the model that is more similar to the Fellingham and Newman (1985) model. Unlike their model in which a high auditing level is never a pure strategy in equilibrium, we obtain pure strategy equilibria for high auditing levels. [source]

    Interpersonal process and outcome in variants of cognitive,behavioral psychotherapy

    Kenneth L. Critchfield
    Early sessions from three variants of cognitive,behavioral therapy (CBT) were examined to replicate work done in psychodynamic-interpersonal treatments linking interpersonal process to outcome (W. P. Henry, T. E. Schacht, & H. H. Strupp, 1986, 1990). Cases were available from a component study of CBT for generalized anxiety disorder (T. D. Borkovec, M. G. Newman, A. L. Pincus, & R. Lytle, 2002) and were selected to form good and poor outcome groups maintained through a 1-year follow-up. A third group was also examined that had initial positive outcomes and marked decline by follow-up (n = 8 for each). Structural analysis of social behavior (SASB) was used to identify interpersonal behaviors. Contrary to the authors' expectation, SASB variables were not strong predictors of outcome, and lower levels of interpersonal hostility were found than was the case in previous work. Findings are discussed in light of differences observed between treatment variants and the role that manuals may have in standardizing some aspects of the therapeutic relationship. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 63: 31,51, 2007. [source]

    Therapeutic factors in treating anxiety disorders

    Michelle G. Newman
    This article is a condensation of several chapters from Principles of Therapeutic Change That Work edited by L.G. Castonguay and L.E. Beutler. The authors present the work of M.G. Newman, W.B. Stiles, A. Janeck, and S.R. Woody (2006), who outline an integrative model for effective psychotherapy of anxiety disorders. The authors also summarize, review, and extend several chapters on the current knowledge about therapeutic technique factors (S.R. Woody & T.H. Ollendick, 2006), participant factors (M.G. Newman, P. Crits-Christoph, M.B. Connelly Gibbons, & T.M. Erickson, 2006), and relationship factors (W.B. Stiles & B.E. Wolfe, 2006), which are related to anxiety disorder treatment outcome. The authors then place these factors and their practice implications within a common framework. Their integration is based on (a) the concept of appropriate responsiveness, and (b) a distinction between actions and achievements. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 62: 649,659, 2006. [source]

    Co-Authorship in Management and Organizational Studies: An Empirical and Network Analysis*

    Francisco José Acedo
    In recent decades there has been growing interest in the nature and scale of scientific collaboration. Studies into co-authorship have taken two different approaches. The first one attempts to analyse the reasons why authors collaborate and the consequences of such decision (Laband and Tollison, 2000). The second approach is based on the idea that co-authorship creates a social network of researchers (Barabįsi et al., 2002; Moody, 2004; Newman, 2001). In this study we have carried out an exploratory analysis of co-authorships in the field of management from the two aforementioned approaches. The results obtained show a growing tendency of the co-authored papers in the field of management, similar to what can be observed in other disciplines. Our study analyses some of the underpinning factors, which have been highlighted in the literature, explaining this tendency. Thus, the progressive quantitative character of research and the influence of the collaboration on the articles' impact are enhanced. The network analysis permits the exploration of the peculiarities of the management in comparison with other fields of knowledge, as well as the existing linkages between the most central and prominent authors within this discipline. [source]

    The effect of Coca-Cola and fruit juices on the surface hardness of glass,ionomers and ,compomers'

    M. Aliping-McKenzie
    summary, The interaction of tooth-coloured dental restorative materials (a conventional glass,ionomer, two resin-modified glass,ionomers and two compomers) with acidic beverages has been studied with the aim of investigating how long-term contact affects solution pH and specimen surface hardness. For each material (ChemFil Superior, ChemFlex, Vitremer Core Build-Up/Restorative, Fuji II LC, Dyract AP and F2000) disc-shaped specimens were prepared and stored in sets of six in the following storage media: 0·9% NaCl (control), Coca-Cola, apple juice and orange juice. After time intervals of 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 4 months, 6 months and 1 year, solution pH and Vickers Hardness Number were determined for each individual specimen. Differences were analysed by anova followed by Student,Newman,Keuls post hoc analysis. All materials were found to reduce the pH of the 0·9% NaCl, but to increase the pH of the acidic beverages. The conventional glass,ionomers dissolved completely in apple juice and orange juice, but survived in Coca-Cola, albeit with a significantly reduced hardness after 1 year. The other materials survived in apple juice and orange juice, but showed greater reductions in surface hardness in these beverages than in Coca-Cola. Fruit juices were thus shown to pose a greater erosive threat to tooth coloured materials than Coca-Cola, a finding which is similar to those concerning dentine and enamel towards these drinks. [source]

    Gliding characteristics of tendon repair in canine flexor digitorum profundus tendons

    Chunfeng Zhao
    The gliding resistance between the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon and the proximal pulley system was measured using the method of S. Uchiyama, J.H. Coert, L. Berglund, P.C. Amadio, K.N. An (J. Orthop. Res. 13 (1995) 83) in 108 adult dog digits in vitro. The FDP tendons were then lacerated to 80% of their transverse section. Each tendon was repaired with one of the following six suture techniques: Kessler, modified Kessler, Savage, Lee, Becker and simple running suture alone. Each repaired tendon was then tested again using the same method. The Student,Newman,Keuls test for multiple comparisons was performed for statistical analysis. The average gliding resistances of the Kessler, Savage, and Becker repairs were significantly greater than the resistances of the Lee, modified Kessler, and running suture alone repairs (P < 0.05). The Lee suture technique had a significantly greater resistance than the modified Kessler repair and the running suture (P < 0.05). The results of the peak gliding resistance followed the same trends, except that the modified Kessler repair was significantly higher than the running suture alone (P < 0.05). Suture techniques with a multi-strand core suture, with knots located outside the tendon surface, and with multiple-loops on the tendon surface may result in increased gliding resistance between the tendon and pulley system after tendon repair. © 2001 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]

    Newman's Theory of a Liberal Education: A Reassessment and its Implications

    John Henry Newman provided the basic vocabulary and guiding rationale sustaining the ideal of a liberal education up to our day. He highlighted its central focus on the cultivation of the intellect, its reliance upon broadly based theoretical knowledge, its independence of moral and religious stipulations, and its being its own end. As new interpretations enter the debate on liberal education further educational possibilities emanate from Newman's thought beyond those contained in his theory of a liberal education. These are found in Newman's broader idea of a university education, incorporating social, moral, and spiritual formation and in his philosophical thought where he develops a theory of knowledge at odds with the Idea of a University. There are, in addition, intriguing possibilities that arise from Newman's theory of reasoning in concrete affairs both because of their implicit challenge to inherited theories of a liberal education and because of the educational possibilities they hold out in their own right and in actual educational developments to which they may lend support. [source]

    Newman and his Audiences: 1825,1845

    W. F. Mandle
    This article examines Newman's communication with others in a variety of modes. It suggests there was a deliberate underlying theme of preaching in whatever he did, not only from the pulpit, where his skills were famous, but in virtually all his other forms of discourse, from letter-writing to his setting up of the "retreat" at Littlemore. He used whatever means were available, including marketing and journalism as well as scholarly work, to bring a concept of public witness to his mission. His social life, as evidenced in his generally scrupulously kept appointments diaries, is analysed to demonstrate that it too was part of his holistic approach. The suggestion is that Newman was much more aggressive and publicly aware than is generally recognized and that he combined an intense personal internalizing with active public performance in a wide range of spheres. [source]

    Teaching & Learning Guide for: Victorian Life Writing

    Valerie Sanders
    Author's Introduction The Victorian period was one of the great ages for life-writing. Though traditionally renowned for its monumental ,lives and letters', mainly of great men, this was also a time of self-conscious anxiety about the genre. Critics and practitioners alike were unsure who should be writing autobiography, and whether its inherent assertiveness ruled out all but public men as appropriate subjects. It was also a period of experimentation in the different genres of life-writing , whether autobiography, journals, letters, autobiographical novels, and narratives of lives combined with extracts from correspondence and diaries. Victorian life-writing therefore provides rich and complex insights into the relationship between narrative, identity, and the definition of the self. Recent advances in criticism have highlighted the more radical and non-canonical aspects of life-writing. Already a latecomer to the literary-critical tradition (life-writing was for a long time the ,poor relation' of critical theory), auto/biography stresses the hidden and silent as much as the mainstream and vocal. For that reason, study of Victorian life-writing appeals to those with an interest in gender issues, postcolonialism, ethnicity, working-class culture, the history of religion, and family and childhood studies , to name but a few of the fields with which the genre has a natural connection. Author Recommends A good place to start is the two canonical texts for Victorian life-writing: George P. Landow's edited collection, Approaches to Victorian Autobiography (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1979) and Avrom Fleishman's Figures of Autobiography: The Language of Self-Writing in Victorian and Modern England (Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1983). These two re-ignited interest in Victorian life-writing and in effect opened the debate about extending the canon, though both focus on the firmly canonical Ruskin and Newman, among others. By contrast, David Amigoni's recently edited collection of essays, Life-Writing and Victorian Culture (Aldershot: Ashgate 2006) shows how far the canon has exploded and expanded: it begins with a useful overview of the relationship between lives, life-writing, and literary genres, while subsequent chapters by different authors focus on a particular individual or family and their cultural interaction with the tensions of life-writing. As this volume is fairly male-dominated, readers with an interest in women's life-writing might prefer to start with Linda Peterson's chapter, ,Women Writers and Self-Writing' in Women and Literature in Britain 1800,1900, ed. Joanne Shattock (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 209,230. This examines the shift from the eighteenth-century tradition of the chroniques scandaleuses to the professional artist's life, domestic memoir, and spiritual autobiography. Mary Jean Corbett's Representing Femininity: Middle-Class Subjectivity in Victorian and Edwardian Women's Autobiographies (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1992) begins with material on Wordsworth and Carlyle, but ,aims to contest the boundaries of genre, gender, and the autobiographical tradition by piecing together a partial history of middle-class women's subjectivities in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries' (3). Corbett is particularly interested in the life-writing of actresses and suffragettes as well as Martineau and Oliphant, the first two women autobiographers to be welcomed into the canon in the 1980s and 90s. Laura Marcus's Auto/biographical Discourses, Theory, Criticism, Practice (Manchester and New York, NY: Manchester University Press, 1994) revises and updates the theoretical approaches to the study of life-writing, stressing both the genre's hybrid qualities, and its inherent instability: in her view, it ,comes into being as a category to be questioned' (37). Another of her fruitful suggestions is that autobiography functions as a ,site of struggle' (9), an idea that can be applied to aesthetic or ideological issues. Her book is divided between specific textual examples (such as the debate about autobiography in Victorian periodicals), and an overview of developments in critical approaches to life-writing. Her second chapter includes material on Leslie Stephen, who is also the first subject of Trev Lynn Broughton's Men of Letters, Writing Lives: Masculinity and Literary Auto/biography in the Late Victorian Period (London: Routledge, 1999) , her other being Froude's controversial Life of Carlyle. With the advent of gender studies and masculinities, there is now a return to male forms of life-writing, of which Martin A. Danahay's A Community of One: Masculine Autobiography and Autonomy in Nineteenth-Century Britain (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1993) is a good example. Danahay argues that nineteenth-century male autobiographers present themselves as ,autonomous individuals' free of the constraints of social and familial contexts, thus emphasizing the autonomy of the self at the expense of family and community. Online Materials My impression is that Victorian life-writing is currently better served by books than by online resources. There seem to be few general Web sites other than University module outlines and reading lists; for specific authors, on the other hand, there are too many to list here. So the only site I'd recommend is The Victorian Web: This Web site has a section called ,Autobiography Overview', which begins with an essay, ,Autobiography, Autobiographicality and Self-Representation', by George P. Landow. There are sections on other aspects of Victorian autobiography, including ,Childhood as a Personal Myth', autobiography in Dickens and Elizabeth Barrett Browning, and a list of ,Suggested Readings'. Each section is quite short, but summarizes the core issues succinctly. Sample Syllabus This sample syllabus takes students through the landmarks of Victorian life-writing, and demonstrates the development of a counter-culture away from the mainstream ,classic male life' (if there ever was such a thing) , culminating in the paired diaries of Arthur Munby (civil servant) and Hannah Cullwick (servant). Numerous other examples could have been chosen, but for those new to the genre, this is a fairly classic syllabus. One week only could be spent on the ,classic male texts' if students are more interested in pursuing other areas. Opening Session Open debate about the definition of Victorian ,life-writing' and its many varieties; differences between autobiography, autobiographical fiction, diary, letters, biography, collective biography, and memoir; the class could discuss samples of selected types, such as David Copperfield, Father and Son, Ruskin's Praeterita, and Gaskell's Life of Charlotte Brontė. Alternatively, why not just begin with Stave Two of Dickens's A Christmas Carol (1843), in which the First Spirit takes Scrooge back through his childhood and youth? This is a pretty unique type of life-writing, with Scrooge ,laughing and crying' as his childhood and youth are revealed to him in a series of flashbacks (a Victorian version of ,This is Your Life?'). The dual emotions are important to note at this stage and will prompt subsequent discussions of sentimentality and writing for comic effect later in the course. Week 2 Critical landmarks: discussion of important stages in the evolution of critical approaches to life-writing, including classics such as Georges Gusdorf's ,Conditions and Limits of Autobiography', in Autobiography: Essays Theoretical and Critical, ed. James Olney (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1980), 28,47; Philippe Lejeune's ,The Autobiographical Pact', in On Autobiography, ed. Paul John Eakin, trans. Katherine Leary (original essay 1973; Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989), 3,30; and Paul De Man's ,Autobiography as De-Facement', Modern Language Notes 94 (1979): 919,30. This will provide a critical framework for the rest of the course. Weeks 3,4 Extracts from the ,male classics' of Victorian life-writing: J. S. Mill's Autobiography (1873), Ruskin's Praeterita (1885,89), and Newman's Apologia pro Vita Sua (1864). What do they think is important and what do they miss out? How open or otherwise are they about their family and personal lives? Are these essentially ,lives of the mind'? How self-aware are they of autobiographical structures? Are there already signs that the ,classic male life' is fissured and unconventional? An option here would be to spend the first week focusing on male childhoods, and the second on career trajectories. Perhaps use Martin Danahay's theory of the ,autonomous individual' (see above) to provide a critical framework here: how is the ,Other' (parents, Harriet Taylor) treated in these texts? Weeks 5,6 Victorian women's autobiography: Harriet Martineau's Autobiography (1877) and Margaret Oliphant's Autobiography (1899): in many ways these are completely unalike, Martineau's being ordered around the idea of steady mental growth and public recognition, while Oliphant's is deeply emotional and disordered. Can we therefore generalize about ,women's autobiography'? What impact did they have on Victorian theories of life-writing? Students might like to reconsider Jane Eyre as an ,autobiography' alongside these and compare scenes of outright rebellion. The way each text handles time and chronology is also fascinating: Martineau's arranged to highlight stages of philosophical development, while Oliphant's switches back and forth in a series of ,flashbacks' to her happier youth as her surviving two sons die ,in the text', interrupting her story. Week 7 Black women's autobiography: how does Wonderful Adventures of Mrs Seacole in Many Lands (1857) differ from the Martineau and Oliphant autobiographies? What new issues and genre influences are introduced by a Caribbean/travelogue perspective? Another key text would be Harriet Jacobs's Incidents in the Life of a Slave-Girl (1861). How representative and how individual are these texts? Do these authors see themselves as representing their race as well as their class and sex? Week 8 Working-class autobiography: Possible texts here could be John Burnett's Useful Toil (Allen Lane, 1974, Penguin reprint); Carolyn Steedman's edition of John Pearman's The Radical Soldier's Tale (Routledge, 1988) and the mini oral biographies in Henry Mayhew's London Labour and the London Poor (1861,62) (e.g., the Water-Cress Seller). There is also a new Broadview edition of Factory Lives (2007) edited by James R. Simmons, with an introduction by Janice Carlisle. This contains four substantial autobiographical texts (three male, one female) from the mid-nineteenth century, with supportive materials. Samuel Bamford's Passages in the Life of a Radical (1839,42; 1844) and Early Days (1847,48) are further options. Students should also read Regenia Gagnier's Subjectivities: A History of Self-Representation in Britain 1832,1910 (Oxford University Press, 1991). Week 9 Biography: Victorian Scandal: focus on two scandals emerging from Victorian life-writing: Gaskell's Life of Charlotte Brontė (1857) (the Branwell Brontė/Lady Scott adultery scandal), and Froude's allegations of impotence in his Life of Carlyle (1884). See Trev Broughton's ,Impotence, Biography, and the Froude-Carlyle Controversy: ,Revelations on Ticklish Topics', Journal of the History of Sexuality, 7.4 (Apr. 1997): 502,36 (in addition to her Men of Letters cited above). The biographies of the Benson family written about and by each other, especially E. F. Benson's Our Family Affairs 1867,1896 (London: Cassell, 1920) reveal the domestic unhappiness of the family of Gladstone's Archbishop of Canterbury, Edward White Benson, whose children and wife were all to some extent homosexual or lesbian. Another option would be Edmund Gosse's Father and Son (1907) in which the son's critical stance towards his father is uneasy and complex in its mixture of comedy, pity, shame, and resentment. Week 10 Diaries: Arthur Munby's and Hannah Cullwick's relationship (they were secretly married, but lived as master and servant) and diaries, Munby: Man of Two Worlds: The Life and Diaries of Arthur Munby, ed. Derek Hudson (John Murray, 1972), and The Diaries of Hannah Cullwick: Victorian Maidservant, ed. Liz Stanley (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1984): issues of gender and class identity; the idealization of the working woman; the two diaries compared. Half the class could read one diary and half the other and engage in a debate about the social and sexual fantasies adopted by each diarist. It would also be sensible to leave time for an overview debate about the key issues of Victorian life-writing which have emerged from this module, future directions for research, and current critical developments. Focus Questions 1To what extent does Victorian autobiography tell an individual success story? Discuss with reference to two or three contrasting examples. 2,All life writing is time writing' (Jens Brockmeier). Examine the way in which Victorian life-writers handle the interplay of narrative, memory, and time. 3To what extent do you agree with the view that Victorian life-writing was ,a form of communication that appeared intimate and confessional, but which was in fact distant and controlled' (Donna Loftus)? 4,Bamford was an autobiographer who did not write an autobiography' (Martin Hewitt). If autobiography is unshaped and uninterpreted, what alternative purposes does it have in narrating a life to the reader? 5,Victorian life-writing is essentially experimental, unstable, and unpredictable.' How helpful is this comment in helping you to understand the genre? [source]

    Gesture and Creating Zones of Proximal Development for Second Language Learning

    Steven G. McCafferty
    This study investigated the role of gesture in and of itself and in conjunction with speech in creating zones of proximal development (ZPD) for second language learning and teaching. A university student of English, newly arrived in the United States, was videorecorded once a week in conversational interaction with an American graduate student, an ESL/EFL teacher, over two different periods lasting 15 weeks altogether. The view taken in the study of Vygotsky's concept of the ZPD follows that of Newman and Holtzman (1993), who argued that it primarily concerns revolutionary activity, that learning and teaching transforms as a consequence of interacting in the ZPD, and that this affects all participants. Findings indicate the important role that gesture played both in promoting language learning and in facilitating positive interaction between the two participants, helping to create a sense of shared social, symbolic, physical, and mental space. [source]

    Prophages of Staphylococcus aureus Newman and their contribution to virulence

    Taeok Bae
    Summary Four prophages (,NM1,4) were identified in the genome of Staphylococcus aureus Newman, a human clinical isolate. ,NM1, ,NM2 and ,NM4, members of the siphoviridae family, insert at different sites (poiA, downstream of isdB and geh) in the staphylococcal chromosome. ,NM3, a ,-haemolysin (hlb) converting phage, encodes modulators of innate immune responses (sea, sak, chp and scn) in addition to other virulence genes. Replication of ,NM1, ,NM2 and ,NM4 occurs in culture and during animal infection, whereas ,NM3 prophage replication was not observed. Prophages were excised from the chromosome and S. aureus variants lacking ,NM3 or ,NM1, ,NM2 and ,NM4 displayed organ specific virulence defects in a murine model of abscess formation. S. aureus Newman lacking all four prophages was unable to cause disease, thereby revealing essential contributions of prophages to the pathogenesis of staphylococcal infections. [source]

    Poverty and Downward Mobility in the Land of Opportunity

    Catherine Kingfisher
    Falling from Grace: Downward Mobility in the Age of Affluence. Katherine S. Newman. Berkeley; University of California Press, 1999. 328 pp. "So You Think. Drive. Cadillac?": Welfare Recipients' Perspectives on the System and Its Reform. Karen Seccombe. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1999. 246 PP. Braving the Street: The Anthropology of Homelessness. Irene Glasser and Rae Bridgman. New York: Berghahn Books, 1999. 132 pp. [source]

    The Very Idea of a University: Aristotle, Newman and Us,

    NEW BLACKFRIARS, Issue 1031 2010
    Alasdair MacIntyre
    First page of article [source]

    DISCUSSIONS AND ARGUMENTS ON VARIOUS SUBJECTS by John Henry Newman, introduction and notes by Gerard Tracey and James Tolhurst, Gracewing, Leominster & University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame IN, 2004, Pp. xlix + 490, £25.00 hbk.

    NEW BLACKFRIARS, Issue 1002 2005
    Todd C. Ream
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    ,To Live and Die Upon a Dogma': Newman and Post/Modern Faith

    NEW BLACKFRIARS, Issue 986 2003
    Gerard Loughlin
    First page of article [source]

    Newman and a Catholic Arnold

    NEW BLACKFRIARS, Issue 958 2000
    Bernard Bergonzi
    First page of article [source]