New Zealand Adults (new + zealand_adult)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Findings from the International Adult Literacy Survey on the incidence and correlates of learning disabilities in New Zealand: Is something rotten in the state of New Zealand?,

DYSLEXIA, Issue 2 2003
James W. Chapman
Abstract New Zealand data from the International Adult Literacy Survey were analysed to examine the incidence and correlates of self-reported specific reading learning disability (SRLD). The results showed that 7.7% of New Zealand adults reported having had a learning disability. The ratio of males to females with SRLD was 3:2. Between 40% and 50% of New Zealand adults performed below the minimum level of proficiency required for meeting the complex demands of everyday life in knowledge-based societies. For adults with SRLD, around 80% performed below the minimum level, and the literacy proficiency of adults with SRLD in younger age bands appears to have declined since the early 1960s. Almost 100% of adults with SRLD in the 16,20 years age range performed below the minimum level for document and quantitative literacy and 92% for prose literacy. Compared to non-SRLD adults, those with SRLD were found to leave school earlier, engage more often in manual occupations, are more frequently unemployed, and rely on more state assistance to bring their income levels closer to the levels enjoyed by non-SRLD adults. The results are discussed in terms of SRLD not being officially recognised or provided for in New Zealand, the lack of appropriate remedial provisions for children who experience difficulties with reading, and the effects of a strong whole language orientated approach to literacy instruction in schools that has been in place since 1963. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Physical activity advice in the primary care setting: results of a population study in New Zealand

Karen Croteau
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of physical activity advice, including the Green Prescription (a physical activity scripting scheme), given in the primary care setting, and the characteristics of New Zealanders who receive such advice. Method: Questions from a 2003 national postal survey (n=8,291), ,Obstacles to Action', were examined. The survey was designed to identify population segments to target for physical activity interventions. Binary logistic regression was used to examine independent factors associated with receiving a physician or practice nurse recommendation to increase physical activity and receiving a Green Prescription. Results: Overall, 13.3% of the sample reported receiving physical activity advice while 3.0% reported receiving a Green Prescription from their general practitioner or practice nurse in the last year. Those more likely to receive physical activity advice were Maori or Pacific, overweight or obese, sedentary, or suffering chronic disease. Results were similar for Green Prescription advice. When controlling for these and other demographics, physical inactivity was not related to the odds of receiving a Green Prescription. Conclusions: One out of every eight New Zealanders reported being given general physical activity advice in the primary care setting. While the physically inactive but otherwise healthy were not specifically targeted, the Green Prescription was more likely to be given on the basis of existing chronic conditions related to physical inactivity and other high-risk populations. Implications: Primary care settings provide an important opportunity to promote physical activity for New Zealand adults. While those most at risk are more likely to receive such advice, there are many more that may benefit. [source]

Debunking the ,only 50%' myth: prevalence of established risk factors in New Zealanders with self-reported ischaemic heart disease

Martin Tobias
Objective: To estimate the prevalence of established risk factors for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in New Zealand adults and compare the prevalence in adults with and without this disease. Design: Data were obtained from the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey. Risk factor prevalence was determined by: selfreported doctor diagnosis of high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes; self-report of smoking and physical inactivity; and measurement of obesity. Presence of IHD was based on self-report of heart disease (doctor diagnosed at age 25 years or over) together with current medical or past surgical treatment for this disease. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine prevalence rate ratios (PRRs) for males and females separately, adjusting for age, ethnicity and deprivation. Results: The overall prevalence of IHD was 8%. Overall risk factor prevalences were in the range of 20,25% for each of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, obesity and physical inactivity, and approximately 5% for diabetes. Overall, 94,97% of adults with IHD had at least one risk factor (depending on how smoking was defined). The PRRs of IHD were highest for cholesterol (about 4.5), followed by blood pressure (about 2.3), with all other risk factors around 1.5. PAF estimates indicate that 80,85% of IHD was attributable to the presence of at least one risk factor for all age, gender and ethnic groups. Conclusions: Established risk factors account for 80,85% of the non-fatal burden of IHD in New Zealand. Limited research resources would be better used to evaluate which interventions are effective and efficient at reducing exposure of all population groups to known risk factors, rather than on identification of additional risk factors. [source]

Oral health-related quality of life in a birth cohort of 32-year olds

Herenia P. Lawrence
Abstract,,, Objectives:, To describe oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among New Zealand adults and assess the relationship between clinical measures of oral health status and a well-established OHRQoL measure, controlling for sex, socioeconomic status (SES) and use of dental services. Methods:, A birth cohort of 924 dentate adults (participants in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study) was systematically examined for dental caries, tooth loss, and periodontal attachment loss (CAL) at age 32 years. OHRQoL was measured using the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaire (OHIP-14). The questionnaire also collected data on each study member's occupation, self-rated oral health and reasons for seeing a dental care provider. SES was determined from each individual's occupation at age 32 years. Results:, The mean total OHIP-14 score was 8.0 (SD 8.1); 23.4% of the cohort reported one or more OHIP problems ,fairly often' or ,very often'. When the prevalence of impacts ,fairly/very often' was modeled using logistic regression, having untreated caries, two or more sites with CAL of 4+ mm and 1 or more teeth missing by age 32 years remained significantly associated with OHRQoL, after adjusting for sex and ,episodic' dental care. Multivariate analysis using Poisson regression determined that being in the low SES group was also associated with the mean number of impacts (extent) and the rated severity of impacts. Conclusions:, OHIP-14 scores were significantly associated with clinical oral health status indicators, independently of sex and socioeconomic inequalities in oral health. The prevalence of impacts (23.4%) in the cohort was significantly greater than age- and sex-standardized estimates from Australia (18.2%) and the UK (15.9%). [source]