New York University (new + york_university)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


Hon. Jonathan Lippman
The William H. Rehnquist Award is one of the most celebrated judicial honors in the country. It is given each year to a state court judge who demonstrates the "highest level of judicial excellence, integrity, fairness, and professional ethics." The 2008 recipient, Jonathan Lippman, was recently appointed and confirmed as Chief Judge of the State of New York. Chief Judge Lippman was previously the Presiding Justice of the Appellate Division of the First Judicial Department of the New York State Supreme Court. He was appointed New York's Chief Administrative Judge by Chief Judge Judith S. Kaye and served from January 1996 to May 2007 and was responsible for the operation of a court system with a $2.4 billion budget, 1300 state-paid judges, 2300 town and village judges, and 16,000 nonjudicial personnel. Among his numerous professional activities, Chief Judge Lippman served as president of the Conference of State Court Administrators from 2005 to 2006 and was the vice-chair of the National Center for State Courts from 2005 to 2006, where he was a member of the Board of Directors from 2003 to 2007. During his tenure, Chief Judge Lippman has been the recipient of numerous awards and recognitions, including the 2006 Fund For Modern Courts Cyrus R. Vance Tribute for Vision, Integrity and Dedication to the Fair Administration of Justice Personified by Cyrus R. Vance (November 27, 2006); the New York County Lawyers' Association Conspicuous Service Award in Recognition of Many Years of Outstanding Public Service (September 28, 2006); and the Award for Excellence in Public Service of the New York State Bar Association's Committee on Attorneys in Public Service (January 24, 2006). Chief Judge Lippman received a Bachelor of Arts in Government and International Relations from New York University, Washington Square College, where he graduated cum laude in 1965. He also received his J.D. from New York University in 1968. Below is the speech he delivered after accepting the William H. Rehnquist Award from U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice John G. Roberts. [source]

Systematic evaluation of rating scales for impairment and disability in Parkinson's disease

Claudia Ramaker MD
Abstract We assessed the clinometric characteristics of rating scales used for the evaluation of motor impairment and disability of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), conducting a systematic review of PD rating scales published from 1960 to the present. Thirty studies describing clinometrics of 11 rating scales used for PD were identified. Outcome measures included validity (including factor structure), reliability (internal consistency, inter-rater, and intrarater) and responsiveness. We traced three impairment scales (Webster, Columbia University Rating Scale [CURS] and Parkinson's Disease Impairment Scale), four disability scales (Schwab and England, Northwestern University Disability Scale [NUDS], Intermediate Scale for Assessment of PD, and Extensive Disability Scale), and four scales evaluating both impairment and disability (New York University, University of California Los Angeles, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS], and Short Parkinson Evaluation Scale). The scales showed large differences in the extent of representation of items related to signs considered responsive to dopaminergic treatment or to those signs that appear late in the disease course and lack responsiveness to treatment. Regardless of the scale, there was a conspicuous lack of consistency concerning inter-rater reliability of bradykinesia, tremor, and rigidity. Overall disability items displayed moderate to good inter-rater reliability. The available evidence shows that CURS, NUDS, and UPDRS have moderate to good reliability and validity. In contrast to their widespread clinical use for assessment of impairment and disability in PD, the majority of the rating scales have either not been subjected to an extensive clinometric evaluation or have demonstrated clinometric shortcomings. The CURS, NUDS, and UPDRS are the most evaluated, valid, and reliable scales currently available. 2002 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Professor Ludwig M. Lachmann (1906-1990): Scholar, Teacher, and Austrian School Critic of Late Classical Formalism in Economics

Stephan Boehm
Ludwig M. Lachmann was born in Berlin in 1906 and died in Johannesburg in 1990. For more than forty years, until his retirement in 1972, Lachmann established himself as a prominent South African economist and for a time served as head of the economics department at the University of Witwatersrand. From 1974 to 1987, he worked with Professor Israel Kirzner in New York City to give new shape and life to the older Austrian school of economics. Lachmann influenced a small army of modern Austrians to discard the elaborate formalisms of orthodox economics for a "radical subjectivism" that had its roots in the teachings of the founder of the Austrian school, Carl Menger. Here a small platoon of scholars offer their thoughts about Lachmann, his contributions to economic reasoning, and his eccentric but engaging character. First hand reports explain what their mentor taught and what his students took away. Lavoie makes the case that Lachmann's "radical subjectivism" took a rhetorical turn toward the end of Lachmann's career in New York City. In addition, Kirzner reports on his long and most productive relationship with Lachmann and provides additional insights about the seminal role of the Austrian Economics Seminar at New York University from 1985 to 1987 in giving shape to the modern Austrian revival. This article is the written version of a "Remembrance and Appreciation Session" held on June 28, 1999 at the History of Economics Society meeting at the University of North Carolina in Greensboro. It is one of an ongoing series that appears in the July issues of this journal. [source]

Latest news and product developments

PRESCRIBER, Issue 3 2007
Article first published online: 14 MAR 200
PPIs and hip fracture Treatment with a PPI may increase the risk of hip fracture, with longer use associated with higher risk according to a study in UK patients (J Am Med Assoc 2006;297:2947-53). The case control study compared use of PPIs by 13 556 patients with hip fracture and 135 386 controls in the UK General Practice Research Database. Use of a PPI for more than one year was associated with an increase of 44 per cent in the odds of hip fracture. The risk was higher for longer- term use (59 per cent after four years) and at higher doses (more than doubled with long-term high doses). The mechanism for this possible effect may be impaired calcium absorption associated with hypochlorhydria and reduced bone resorption. CHD NSF Statin prescribing has increased by 30 per cent every year since the publication of the Coronary Heart Disease NSF, the Department of Health says. The estimated number of lives saved attributable to statins had risen to 9700 in 2005. The proportion of patients with acute MI who were given thrombolysis within 30 minutes of admission has increased to 83 per cent. Flu jabs cut pneumonia deaths A US study suggests that flu vaccine protects against death during the flu season in patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia (Arch Intern Med 2007;167:53-9). Nineteen per cent of patients admitted with pneumonia during the winters of 1999-2003 were known to have been vaccinated against flu. Their risk of death during their hospital stay was 70 per cent lower than that of nonvaccinated individuals. After adjustment for antipneumococcal vaccination and comorbidity, the odds of death were still 39 per cent lower. Model to predict admissions The King's Fund, together with New York University and Health Dialog, has published a model that predicts the risk of emergency hospital admission (see The model is intended for use by PCTs and draws on data from secondary and primary care to define clinical profiles, allowing patients whose condition is deteriorating to be identified before they need admission. Problem drinking The National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse (NTA), a special authority within the NHS, has published a critical appraisal of the evidence for various treatments for alcohol problems ( The 212-page document estimates that over seven million hazardous or harmful drinkers may benefit from brief interventions by any health workers, and over one million dependent drinkers may benefit from specialist intervention. It concludes that cognitive behavioural approaches to specialist treatment are most effective and that treatment probably accounts for about one-third of improvements made in problem drinking. of patients remained on the same treatment after one year, falling to half at two years and about 40 per cent at three years. Treatment was more frequently stopped for lack of efficacy than for adverse effects. Stopping anti-TNFs Discontinuation of treatment with anti-TNF agents is more common in clinical practice than in clinical trial populations, a French study has found (J Rheumatol 2006;33:2372-5). The retrospective analysis of a single centre's experience of treating 770 patients with etanercept (Enbrel), infliximab (Remicade) or adalimumab (Humira) found that fewer than two-thirds of patients remained on the same treatment after one year, falling to half at two years and about 40 per cent at three years. Treatment was more frequently stopped for lack of efficacy than for adverse effects. There were no statistically significant differences between the three agents but there was a trend for infliximab to be least well tolerated. Generic statin savings The Department of Health has estimated that prescribing simvastatin and pravastatin generically would save 85 million per year. Its analysis of the ,Better care, better value' indicators (see shows that statin prescribing has increased by 150 per cent in the past five years, with costs totalling 600 million in 2005. The Department says that if every PCT prescribed pravastatin and simvastatin by generic name in only 69 per cent of cases ,the level achieved by the top quarter of trusts ,the savings would be over 85 million a year. Herceptin reporting Press reports of a two-year trial of trastuzumab (Herceptin) were generally accurate in reporting its effectiveness but few reported an increased risk of adverse effects, according to the NHS National Library for Health ( The Herceptin Adjuvant (HERA) trial (Lancet 2007;369:29-36) found that, after an average follow-up of two years, 3 per cent of women treated with trastuzumab died compared with 5 per cent of controls; estimated three-year survival rates were 92.4 and 89.7 per cent respectively. All four press articles reported these findings accurately, but only two mentioned the increased risk of adverse effects. Updated guidance on CDs The Department of Health has published updated guidance on the strengthened governance requirements for managing controlled drugs, taking into account new regulations that came into force on 1 January ( Root/04/14/16/67/04141667.pdf). Statin adherence lowers MI mortality Patients with acute myocar- dial infarction (MI) who take their statins as prescribed are significantly more likely to survive for two to three years than those with low adherence (J Am Med Assoc 2007;297: 177-86). The four-year observational study of 31 455 patients with acute MI found that, compared with those who had taken at least 80 per cent of prescribed daily doses, the risk of death in those with less than 40 per cent adherence was 25 per cent greater over 2.4 years. For individuals with intermediate adherence (40-79 per cent), the risk was 12 per cent greater. Both differences were statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounding factors. The authors believe their finding is explained by differences in adherence rather than healthier behaviour because the excess risk of low adherence was less marked with beta-blockers and not significant for calcium-channel blockers. Improving community medicines management Mental health trusts need to improve medicines management by their community teams and improve information sharing with GPs, the Healthcare Commission has found ( Its national report revealed limited evidence of pharmacist involvement in community mental health teams, even though 90 per cent of patients were cared for in the community. Only 11 per cent of assertive outreach patients had the tests necessary to ensure safe use of their medicines. Medication reviews found that 46 per cent of patients in mental health trusts and 12 per cent of those in acute trusts were not taking their medication appropriately. The Commission also reported that acute trusts received a complete drug history from GPs for fewer than half of audited patients when they were admitted to hospital, and only 30 per cent of PCTs reported that GPs received adequate information on patients' medicines on discharge. Copyright 2007 Wiley Interface Ltd [source]

Learning to Live with Our Children

Henrietta Fleck
ABSTRACT As the title suggests, being perplexed by one's children is not unique to the 21st century. In her paper, published in the original Public Health Nursing, Henrietta Fleck (1949), chair of Home Economics at New York University, addressed this persistent problem by providing advice on parent education methods for public health nurses. The materials,films, newspapers, cartoons, posters,are all within the nurse's arsenal today, supplemented by television, and the Internet. More interesting was Fleck's philosophy about parenting and family life. The excerpt omits the dated description of resources, focusing instead on her point of view. It reflects post-World War II optimism about the meaning and power of democracy in shaping familial behavior. The United States was readjusting to civilian life following World War II, fathers were returning home from military fields of action overseas, women were gradually being displaced from the industrial workplace,the country was expanding into suburbia and baby boomers were making their first appearances in the world. Fleck's assumptions include belief in the value of individualism, the importance of sharing both privilege and obligation, and the nature of maturity evidenced in an ability to make reasoned and reasonable choices and to hold oneself accountable for them. The limitations of her view are left to us to ponder. [source]

The Use of Stereotaxic Core Biopsy and Stereotaxic Aspiration Biopsy as Diagnostic Tools in the Evaluation of Mammary Calcification

Joan F. Cangiarella MD
Abstract: We compared stereotaxic fine needle aspiration biopsy (SFNA) with stereotaxic core needle biopsy (SCB) in the evaluation of radiographically clustered mammary microcalcification, a common finding at screening mammography. Over a 4-year period, 181 specimens were obtained from 175 patients who underwent both SFNA and SCB of clustered microcalcification. Aspiration and core biopsies were performed by radiologists at a community-based diagnostic radiology facility. All aspiration smears were air dried, stained on site, and assessed for adequacy by the radiologists, then sent to the cytopathologists at New York University for interpretation. Core biopsy specimens were formalin fixed, paraffin embedded, hematoxylin and eosin stained, and interpreted by surgical pathologists at a community hospital. Of 181 SFNA specimens, 133 (74%) were benign, 18 (10%) were atypical, 13 (7%) were suspicious, and 16 (9%) were malignant. One (0.5%) aspiration biopsy was nondiagnostic. Excisional biopsies were performed after 12 benign SFNAs and in 46 of the 47 cases with an atypical, suspicious, or malignant diagnosis on SFNA. Mammographic follow-up in 111 of the 133 cases (92%) diagnosed as benign showed no radiologic change (mean 29.2 months, range 6,60 months). The false-negative rate for cancer was 4% (6 cases) for SFNA alone. There were no false-positive diagnoses for SFNA. There was one false-positive diagnosis on core biopsy [focal cribriform ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)], which at excisional biopsy and correlation with the core biopsy was diagnosed as ductal hyperplasia; the false-negative rate for cancer was 8% (13 cases) for SCB alone. Aspiration biopsy identified calcification in 180 procedures, core needle biopsy revealed calcification in 170. SFNA was superior to SCB for the confirmation of clustered mammary microcalcification (99% versus 94%) and in the identification of cancer associated with microcalcification (false negative rate of 4% versus 8%). Patients with benign findings on stereotaxic aspiration and core biopsy can reasonably be followed mammographically. [source]

HISTORY: Adrian Walton Zorgniotti (1925,1994): Renaissance Urologist

Eli F. Lizza MD
Abstract Adrian Zorgniotti was born on March 3, 1925 and died on July 6, 1994. During his 47 years as a physician, he brought innovation and imagination to the field of Urology, especially in the field of erectile dysfunction (ED). Biographical information was obtained from Dr. Zorgniotti's curriculum vitae, his published articles, and his eulogies. Several of his colleagues and peers were also interviewed by telephone. In addition, personal experiences of this author, from the 9 years we spent as associates, and of several other friends were recounted. Dr. Zorgniotti's involvement with the history of Urology began in 1970 when he published his first historical treatise on Rome's first doctor, Arcagathus. He continued his involvement when he served as moderator for the History Forum of the American Urological Association (AUA) from 1975 to 1988 and as Historian for the AUA from 1979 to 1988. This innovator brought vision to the field of ED when he introduced the combination of papaverine and phentolamine as an intracavernous injection for the treatment of ED. He also organized the first International Conference on Corpus Cavernolum Revascularization in 1978 at New York University and published long-term results with this therapy. Adrian Zorgniotti will probably be best remembered by the multitude of Urologists whose lives he has touched for his generosity of spirit and for his ability to help shape our careers with a kind gesture, suggestion, or phone call. I am proud to call him a mentor, a colleague, and a friend. [source]

Monuments and Texts: Antiquarianism and the Beauty of Antiquity

ART HISTORY, Issue 4 2002
Maria Grazia Lolla
Maria Grazia Lolla has published articles in English and Italian on various aspects of antiquarianism, aesthetics and eighteenth,century culture, as well as on Caribbean poetry and literature. She received her PhD from the University of Cambridge, has been awarded fellowships from the British Council and the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and has held research fellowships at the Wesleyan University Center for the Humanities and the Huntington Library. Now at work on Rivers Unknown to Song: Antiquarian Explorations of the East and West Indies, she is an adjunct professor at New York University. From the beginning of the Renaissance antiquaries had been publishing monuments at such a pace that publishing as much as collecting or studying monuments could be counted amongst the defining features of antiquarianism. However widely and routinely practised, the publication of monuments revealed substantial divisions within the world of antiquarianism. Antiquaries were faced with the choice of either textualizing monuments , turning monuments from visual or tactile objects into reading material , or attempting to reproduce their materiality , even if the monument was a text. The paper analyses Johann Joachim Winckelmann's Monumenti antichi inediti (1767) as a significant example of the former and the discussion concerning the publication of Domesday Book that took place in the rooms of the London Society of Antiquaries in 1768 as a compelling example of the latter. Juxtaposed to one another, Monumenti antichi inediti and the projected facsimile of the Domesday Book provide mutually revealing accounts of the aesthetic and intellectual complexities of eighteenth,century antiquarian practice. Where Winckelmann patently sought to rid monuments of their materiality in an effort, perhaps, to nobilitate antiquarianism , while nevertheless keeping it in a suitably ancillary position to literature , the fellows of the Society of Antiquaries chose the facsimile as the vehicle of preservation and transmission best suited to conveying their admiration of texts as material objects, indeed, as non,representational art. As necessarily (and self,consciously) imperfect attempts to reproduce original monuments, facsimiles provide both a marker of deep scepticism about the possibility of ever really knowing the past and a precious trace of past versions of the past , of what could be seen and deemed worthy of preservation, scholarly investigation and aesthetic appreciation. [source]