New Venues (new + venue)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Genetic modification of mesenchymal stem cells to express a single-chain antibody against EGFRvIII on the cell surface

Irina V. Balyasnikova
Abstract Human adult mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are under active investigation as cellular carriers for gene therapy. hMSCs possess natural tropism toward tumours; however, the targeting of hMSCs to specific cell populations within tumours is unexplored. In the case of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), at least half of the tumours express EGFRvIII on the cell surface, an ideal target for antibody-mediated gene/drug delivery. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of genetically modifying hMSCs to express a single-chain antibody (scFv) to EGFRvIII on their surfaces. Nucleofection was used to transfect hMSCs with cDNA encoding scFv EGFRvIII fused with PDGFR or human B7-1 transmembrane domains. The expression of scFv EGFRvIII on the cell surface was assessed by FACS. A stable population of scFv EGFRvIII-expressing hMSCs was selected, based on antibiotic resistance, and enriched using FACS. We found that nucleofection allows the efficient expression of scFv EGFRvIII on the cell surface of hMSCs. hMSCs transfected with the construct encoding scFv EGFRvIII as a fusion with PDGFRtm showed scFv EGFRvIII expression in up to 86% of cells. Most importantly, human MSCs expressing scFv against EGFRvIII demonstrated enhanced binding to U87-EGFRvIII cells in vitro and significantly increased retention in human U87-EGFRvIII-expressing tumours in vivo. In summary, we provide the first conclusive evidence of genetic modification of hMSCs with a single-chain antibody against an antigen expressed on the surface of tumour cells, thereby opening up a new venue for enhanced delivery of gene therapy applications in the context of malignant brain cancer. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The capsid protein of human immunodeficiency virus: designing inhibitors of capsid assembly

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 21 2009
Josť L. Neira
The mature capsid of human immunodeficiency virus, HIV-1, is formed by the assembly of copies of a capsid protein (CA). The C-terminal domain of CA, CTD, is able to homodimerize and most of the dimerization interface is formed by a single ,-helix from each monomer. Assembly of the HIV-1 capsid critically depends on CA,CA interactions, including CTD interaction with itself and with the CA N-terminal domain, NTD. This minireview reports on the search and the design of peptides and small organic compounds that are able to interact with the CTD and/or CA of HIV-1. Such molecules aim to disrupt and/or alter the oligomerization capability of CTD. The different peptides designed so far interact with CTD mainly via hydrophobic contacts with residues close or belonging to the interface between the dimerization helices. A CTD-binding organic compound also establishes hydrophobic contacts with regions involved in the interface between the NTD and CTD. These results open new venues for the development of new antiviral drugs that are able to interact with CA and/or its domains, hampering HIV-1 assembly and infection. [source]

Role of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric cancer pathogenesis: A chance for prevention

Gastric cancer in the absence of strategies implemented for early detection continues to have a dismal prognosis. There are limited options for a curative therapy once patients present with clinical manifestations of this malignant disease. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection plays a key role in gastric carcinogenesis, supported by epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies. The recognition of H. pylori infection as a critical risk factor in the development of gastric cancer opens the chance for new venues in prevention strategies. [source]

Effects of weak static magnetic fields on endothelial cells

Carlos F. Martino
Abstract Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) have been used extensively in bone fracture repairs and wound healing. It is accepted that the induced electric field is the dose metric. The mechanisms of interaction between weak magnetic fields and biological systems present more ambiguity than that of PEMFs since weak electric currents induced by PEMFs are believed to mediate the healing process, which are absent in magnetic fields. The present study examines the response of human umbilical vein endothelial cells to weak static magnetic fields. We investigated proliferation, viability, and the expression of functional parameters such as eNOS, NO, and also gene expression of VEGF under the influence of different doses of weak magnetic fields. Applications of weak magnetic fields in tissue engineering are also discussed. Static magnetic fields may open new venues of research in the field of vascular therapies by promoting endothelial cell growth and by enhancing the healing response of the endothelium. Bioelectromagnetics 31:296,301, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]