New Values (new + value)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The half-life of hepatitis B virions,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 5 2006
John M. Murray
The virion half-life of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is currently estimated at approximately 1 day. This estimate has been obtained from drug perturbation experiments with reverse transcriptase inhibitors. However, the analyses of those experiments have not considered the export of virions produced from preformed mature DNA-containing HBV capsids in infected cells. Data from 3 acutely infected chimpanzees indicates that there is approximately 10-fold more total intracellular HBV DNA than HBV DNA in blood, and therefore the half-life of virions for chimpanzees during acute infection is 10-fold shorter at 3.8 hours than the half-life associated with export of total intracellular HBV DNA. Mathematical model simulations duplicating the viral dynamics observed in drug perturbation experiments suggest a half-life of at most 4.4 hours for HBV virions in chronically infected humans, significantly shorter than current estimates, but consistent with the half-lives of virions for hepatitis C virus and HIV. This faster turnover of HBV in blood indicates a correspondingly higher replication rate and risk of mutation against hepatitis B antiviral therapy. In conclusion, we find the half-life of HBV virions is approximately 4 hours, significantly shorter than current estimates of 1 day. This new value is consistent with virion half-life estimates for HIV and hepatitis C virus. (HEPATOLOGY 2006;44:1117,1121.) [source]

Inorganic reactions of iodine(+1) in acidic solutions

Guy Schmitz
We present a thorough analysis of the former works concerning the hydrolysis of iodine and its mechanism in acidic or neutral solutions and recommend values of equilibrium and kinetic constants. Since the literature value for the reaction H2OI+ , HOI + H+ appeared questionable, we have measured it by titration of acidic iodine solutions with AgNO3. Our new value, K(H2OI+ , HOI + H+) , 2 M at 25°C, is much larger than accepted before. It decreases slowly with the temperature. We have also measured the rate of the reaction 3HOI , IO3, + 2I, + 3H+ in perchloric acid solutions from 5 × 10,2 M to 0.5 M. It is a second order reaction with a rate constant nearly independent on the acidity. Its value is 25 M,1 s,1 at 25°C and decreases slightly when the temperature increases, indicating that the disproportionation mechanism is more complicated than believed before. An analysis of the studies of this disproportionation in acidic and slightly basic solutions strongly supports the importance of a dimeric intermediate 2HOI , I2O·H2O in the mechanism. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Chem Kinet 36:480,493, 2004 [source]

NGOSS-based convergent OSS framework toward business agility: KT case

Cheol-Seong Kim
Recently, most wireline telecom service providers have confronted a decrease of subscribers because wireless service providers are making inroads into traditional telecom markets and gaining tangible net earnings. To overcome a severely competitive business environment, wireline service providers strive to change their service infrastructure from a network-focused service to a value-added and customer-focused one that can create new value and markets. This also entails a paradigm shift in operations and management, and now most service providers are rushing to build a new converged OSS to efficiently accommodate the network and service evolution. KT has driven the NeOSS (New OSS) project to build a convergent OSS for the past 3 years. This paper presents three NGOSS-based architectural core principles that are the foundation of NeOSS, which are business process integration by using BPM technology, distributed application integration by using EAI technology, and building a consolidated inventory DB based on a standard information model. Lastly, we present KT's operational improvement through the use of NeOSS. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

New value partnerships: the lessons of Denny's/Save the Children partnership for building high-yielding cross-sector alliances

Shirley Sagawa
While business and nonprofit organisations have long used alliances within their own sectors to address specific needs, increasingly they are turning to cross-sector partnerships that benefit both parties while they serve the common good. In the last decade, marketing alliances between businesses and social sector organisations have become increasingly common as ways for companies to achieve business objectives and for social sector organisations to raise their visibility and attract new resources. The alliance between Denny's and Save the Children provides an example of a noteworthy marketing partnership that shows how a cross-sector alliance can assist a company with a damaged public image to build a new public identity while enabling an international nonprofit organisation to create an ambitious programme for US children. As a new value partnership, a long-term, high yielding alliance between businesses and social sector organisations, this relationship is characterised by several elements: communication, opportunity, mutuality, multiple levels, open-endedness, and new value, forming the acronym COMMON. Copyright © 2001 Henry Stewart Publications [source]

Computer-based endoscopic image-processing technology for endourology and laparoscopic surgery

Tatsuo Igarashi
Abstract Endourology and laparoscopic surgery are evolving in accordance with developments in instrumentation and progress in surgical technique. Recent advances in computer and image-processing technology have enabled novel images to be created from conventional endoscopic and laparoscopic video images. Such technology harbors the potential to advance endourology and laparoscopic surgery by adding new value and function to the endoscope. The panoramic and three-dimensional images created by computer processing are two outstanding features that can address the shortcomings of conventional endoscopy and laparoscopy, such as narrow field of view, lack of depth cue, and discontinuous information. The wide panoramic images show an anatomical ,map' of the abdominal cavity and hollow organs with high brightness and resolution, as the images are collected from video images taken in a close-up manner. To assist in laparoscopic surgery, especially in suturing, a three-dimensional movie can be obtained by enhancing movement parallax using a conventional monocular laparoscope. In tubular organs such as the prostatic urethra, reconstruction of three-dimensional structure can be achieved, implying the possibility of a liquid dynamic model for assessing local urethral resistance in urination. Computer-based processing of endoscopic images will establish new tools for endourology and laparoscopic surgery in the near future. [source]

Nuclear magnetic moments from NMR spectra,Experimental gas phase studies and nuclear shielding calculations

Karol Jackowski
Abstract NMR spectra of gaseous compounds and quantum chemical calculations are combined to determine new accurate values of magnetic dipole moments for a series of nuclei. We have analyzed shielding constants, resonance frequencies, and nuclear magnetic moments for a group of simple molecules. The chemical shifts and resonance frequencies are measured at 300 K and extrapolated to the zero-density limit in order to remove all the intermolecular effects from the experimental parameters. The absolute shielding constants in the studied molecules are obtained from ab initio calculations. Assuming the proton magnetic moment as the reference, we determine the nuclear magnetic moments of 13C, 14N, 15N, 17O, 19F, 29Si, 31P, 33S, and 73Ge. The new nuclear magnetic moments are consistent with the experimental NMR parameters, and using these new values one can for the first time predict successfully the shielding constant of a nucleus in a molecule when the corresponding resonance frequency is known. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 30A: 246,260, 2007. [source]

Routine Analyses of Trace Elements in Geological Samples using Flow Injection and Low Pressure On-Line Liquid Chromatography Coupled to ICP-MS: A Study of Geochemical Reference Materials BR, DR-N, UB-N, AN-G and GH

Jean Carignan
géostandards; éléments traces; flow injection; chromatographie liquide; ICP-MS We describe analytical procedures for trace element determinations developed at the CNRS Service d'Analyse des Roches et des Minéraux (SARM) and report results obtained for five geochemical reference materials: basalt BR, diorite DR-N, serpentinite UB-N, anorthosite AN-G and granite GH. Results for rare earth elements, U and Th are also reported for other reference materials including dunite DTS-1, peridotite PCC-1 and basalt BIR-1. All rocks were decomposed using alkali fusion. Analyses were done by flow injection ICP-MS and by on-line low pressure liquid chromatography (LC)-ICP-MS for samples containing very low REE, U and Th concentrations. This latter method yielded limits of determination much lower than data by direct introduction and eliminated possible isobaric interference on these elements. Although results agree with most of the working values, when available, results for some elements differed slightly from the recommended concentrations. In these cases, we propose new values for Co, Y and Zn in basalt BR, Zr in diorite DR-N, Sr and U in granite GH, and Ga and Y in anorthosite AN-G. Furthermore, although the Sb concentration measured in AN-G was very close to our limit of determination, our value (0.3 ± 0.1 ,g g,1) is much lower than the reported working value of 1.4 ± 0.2 ,g g,1. These new values would need to be confirmed by a new inter-laboratory programme to further characterise these reference materials. Results obtained for REE, Th and U concentrations using the on-line low pressure LC-ICP-MS yielded good limits of determination (ng g,1to sub-ng g,1for rocks and ng l,1to sub-ng l,1for natural waters) and accurate results. The efficiency of the matrix separation allowed accurate measurements of Eu without the need to correct the BaO isobaric interference for samples having Ba/Eu ratios as high as 27700. For REE concentrations in PCC-1 and DTS-1, differences with values reported in the literature are interpreted as resulting from possible heterogeneity of the reference materials. Thorium and U values are proposed for these two samples, as well as for AN-G and UB-N. Nous rapportons les procédures d'analyse pour les éléments traces développées au Service d'Analyse des Roches et des Minéraux (SARM) du CNRS et les résultats obtenus pour 5 géostandards: le basalte BR, la diorite DR-N, la serpentinite UB-N, l'anorthosite AN-G et le granite GH. Des résultats obtenus pour les Terres Rares (REE), l'uranium et le thorium sont aussi rapportés pour d'autres matériaux de référence tels que la dunite DTS-1, la péridotite PCC-1 et le basalte BIR-1. Les roches ont été décomposées par fusion alcaline. Les analyses ont été faites par Flow Injection ICP-MS et par chromatographie liquide basse pression en ligne sur un ICP-MS pour les très faibles teneurs en REE, U et Th. Cette dernière méthode permet d'avoir une meilleure limite de détermination que celle par introduction directe et d'éliminer certaines interférences isobariques sur ces éléments. Bien que, dans la majorité des cas, nous ayons mesuré les valeurs de référence telles que rapportées dans la littérature, certaines concentrations mesurées diffèrent légèrement des valeurs recommandées. Ainsi, nous proposons de nouvelles valeurs de Co, Y et Zn pour le basalte BR, de Zr pour la diorite DR-N, de Sr et U pour le granite GH et de Ga et Y pour l'anorthosite AN-G. De plus, bien que la concentration en Sb mesurée pour AN-G soit très proche de notre limite de détermination, notre valeur (0.3 ± 0.1 ,g g,1) est bien inférieure à celle rapportée dans la littérature (1.4 ± 0.2 ,g g,1). Ces nouvelles valeurs devraient être confirmées par une nouvelle campagne de caractérisation inter laboratoire pour ces géostandards. Les résultats obtenus pour les REE, U et Th par chromatographie liquide basse pression en ligne sur un ICP-MS sont justes et livrent des limites de détermination faibles au niveau du ng g,1à sub-ng g,1pour les roches et ng l,1à sub-ng l,1pour les eaux naturelles. La séparation de la matrice est efficace et permet une mesure juste de Eu sans correction d'interférence générée par l'oxyde de Ba, et ce même pour des échantillons possédant des rapports Ba/Eu très élevés, de l'ordre de 27700. Les concentrations en REE mesurées pour les échantillons PCC-1 et DTS-1 peuvent être significativement différentes de celle rapportées dans la littérature, probablement à cause d'une hétérogénéité de ces échantillons. Des valeurs de concentrations en U et Th sont proposées pour ces deux échantillons ainsi que pour AN-G et UB-N. [source]

Bone weight: new reference values based on a modern Portuguese identified skeletal collection

A. M. Silva
Abstract Skeletal weight and/or weight of the different bones of the human skeleton are currently used in a wide range of applications such as archaeological cremations and forensics. Still, few reference values are available that compare the mean weights for the different skeletal parts. In this paper we present new reference values for total skeletal weight, including the weight of the different skeletal bones based on a modern Portuguese Identified Skeletal Collection (CEI) curated in the Museum of Anthropology of the University of Coimbra (Portugal). The mean weight of the entire skeleton for the CEI pooled sample is 3323.8,±,779.6,g. Sex and age differences were investigated. As expected, males display heavier bones, at a statistically significant level. The mean weight of the male skeletons is 3850,g, and 2797.6,g for the female sample. Age differences were found, especially for the female samples in the 29,39 versus 50,59,and/or >60 age groups, probably as a consequence of age-related bone loss in post-menopausal women. For the male sample, no clear age-related trend was observed but for the unexpected result that the second highest bone weight recorded is in the oldest age group (>60 years). This could result from high mechanical loadings and thus greater bone robusticy and amount of cortical bone. The percentage of weight of the different parts of the skeleton was also calculated. These new values can be quite useful in the study of very fragmentary and/or commingled human remains, recovered from historic or forensic contexts, since the complete identification, by side, of the remains is not necessary. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Complete graph conjecture for inner-core electrons: Homogeneous index case

Lionello Pogliani
Abstract The complete graph conjecture that encodes the inner-core electrons of atoms with principal quantum number n , 2 with complete graphs, and especially with odd complete graphs, is discussed. This conjecture is used to derive new values for the molecular connectivity and pseudoconnectivity basis indices of hydrogen-suppressed chemical pseudographs. For atoms with n = 2 the new values derived with this conjecture are coincident with the old ones. The modeling ability of the new homogeneous basis indices, and of the higher-order terms, is tested and compared with previous modeling studies, which are centered on basis indices that are either based on quantum concepts or partially based on this new conjecture for the inner-core electrons. Two similar algorithms have been proposed with this conjecture, and they parallel the two "quantum" algorithms put forward by molecular connectivity for atoms with n > 2. Nine properties of five classes of compounds have been tested: the molecular polarizabilities of a class of organic compounds, the dipole moment, molar refraction, boiling points, ionization energies, and parachor of a series of halomethanes, the lattice enthalpy of metal halides, the rates of hydrogen abstraction of chlorofluorocarbons, and the pED50 of phenylalkylamines. The two tested algorithms based on the odd complete graph conjecture give rise to a highly interesting model of the nine properties, and three of them can even be modeled by the same set of basis indices. Interesting is the role of some basis indices all along the model. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 9: 1097,1109, 2003 [source]

The stellar mass ratio of GK Persei

L. Morales-Rueda
We study the absorption lines present in the spectra of the long-period cataclysmic variable GK Per during its quiescent state, which are associated with the secondary star. By comparing quiescent data with outburst spectra we infer that the donor star appears identical during the two states and the inner face of the secondary star is not noticeably irradiated by flux from the accreting regions. We obtain new values for the radial velocity semi-amplitude of the secondary star, , a projected rotational velocity, and consequently a measurement of the stellar mass ratio of GK Per, . The inferred white dwarf radial velocities are greater than those measured traditionally using the wings of Doppler-broadened emission lines suspected to originate in an accretion disc, highlighting the unsuitability of emission lines for mass determinations in cataclysmic variables. We determine mass limits for both components in the binary, and . [source]

Childhood, adolescence, and longevity: A multilevel model of the evolution of reserve capacity in human life history

Barry Bogin
The grandmother hypothesis (GH) of Hawkes et al. ([1998]: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 1336,1339) finds that selection for lower adult mortality and greater longevity allow for the evolution of prolonged growth in human beings. In contrast, other researchers propose that the evolution of the human childhood and adolescent stages of life history prolonged the growth period and allowed for greater biological resilience and longevity compared with apes. In this article, the GH model is reanalyzed using new values for some of its key variables. The original GH set the age at human feeding independence at 2.8 years of age (weaning) and used demographic data from living foragers to estimate average adult lifespan after first birth at 32.9 years. The reanalysis of the GH uses age 7.0 years (end of the childhood stage) as the minimum for human feeding independence and uses data from healthier populations, rather than foragers, to derive an estimate of 48.9 years for average adult life span. Doing so finds that selection operated to first shorten the infancy stage (wean early compared with apes), then prolong the growth period, and finally result in greater longevity. The reanalysis provides a test of the reserve capacity hypothesis as part of a multilevel model of human life history evolution. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]