New Treatment Options (new + treatment_option)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Type 2 Diabetes: RENAAL and IDNT,The Emergence of New Treatment Options

Domenic A. Sica MD
The Reduction in End Points in NIDDM with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) study and the Irbesartan Diabetic Nephropathy Trial (IDNT) are two recently reported trials with hard end points, conducted in patients in advanced stages of diabetic nephropathy. Two other studies,the Irbesartan Microalbuminuria Study (IRMA)-2 and the Microalbuminuria Reduction with Valsartan study (MARVAL),were trials conducted in patients with type 2 diabetes with microalbuminuria, a cardiovascular risk factor associated with early-stage diabetic nephropathy. These trials all had a common theme,that is, does an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) interfere with the natural history of diabetic nephropathy in a blood pressure-independent fashion? Without question, the results of these trials legitimatize the use of the ARB class in forestalling the deterioration in renal function, which is almost inevitable in the patient with untreated diabetic nephropathy. These data can now be added to the vast array of evidence supporting angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use in patients with nephropathy associated with type 1 diabetes. It now appears a safe conclusion that the patient with diabetic nephropathy should receive therapy with an agent that interrupts the renin-angiotensin system. These studies have not resolved the question as to whether an ACE inhibitor or an ARB is the preferred agent in people with nephropathy from type 1 diabetes, though the optimal doses of these drugs remain to be determined. Head-to-head studies comparing ACE inhibitors to ARBs in diabetic nephropathy are not likely to occur, so it is unlikely that comparable information will be forthcoming with ACE inhibitors. An evidence-based therapeutic approach derived from these trials would argue for ARBs to be the foundation of therapy in the patient with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. [source]

Consensus conference on chronic viral hepatitis and HIV infection: updated Spanish recommendations

V. Soriano
Summary., Chronic hepatitis B and C represent a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients worldwide. New treatment options against both hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses have prompted us to update previous recommendations for the management of coinfected individuals. Fifteen topics (nine related to HCV, five to HBV and one to both viruses) were selected for this purpose. A panel of Spanish experts in the field was invited to review these areas and propose specific recommendations, which were scored according to the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) grading system. These guidelines represent a comprehensive and updated overview on the management of hepatitis B and C in HIV-infected patients. [source]

Emergency Use of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Cardiopulmonary Failure

Matthias Arlt
Abstract Severe pulmonary and cardiopulmonary failure resistant to critical care treatment leads to hypoxemia and hypoxia-dependent organ failure. New treatment options for cardiopulmonary failure are necessary even for patients in outlying medical facilities. If these patients are in need of specialized center treatment, additional emergency medical service has to be carried out quick and safely. We describe our experiences with a pumpless extracorporeal lung assist (PECLA/iLA) for out-of-center emergency treatment of hypercapnic respiratory failure and the use of a newly developed hand-held extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) system in cardiac, pulmonary, and cardiopulmonary failure (EMERGENCY-LIFE Support System, ELS System, MAQUET Cardiopulmonary AG, Hechingen, Germany). Between March 2000 and April 2009, we used the PECLA System (n = 20) and the ELS System (n = 33) in adult patients. Cannulation was employed using percutaneous vessel access. The new hand-held ELS System consists of a centrifugal pump and a membrane oxygenator, both mounted on a special holder system for storing on a standard patient gurney for air or ground ambulance transfer. Bedside cannulation processes were uneventful. The PECLA System resulted in sufficient CO2 removal. In all ECMO patients, oxygen delivery and systemic blood flow could be restored and vasopressor support was markedly down. Hospital survival rate in the PECLA group was 50%, and 61% in the ECMO group. Out-of-center emergency treatment of hypercapnic pulmonary failure with pumpless extracorporeal gas exchange and treatment of cardiac, pulmonary, and cardiopulmonary failure with this new hand-held ECMO device is safe and highlyeffective. Patient outcome in cardiopulmonary organ failure could be improved. [source]

Active immunization with IL-1 displayed on virus-like particles protects from autoimmune arthritis

Gunther Spohn
Abstract IL-1 is an important mediator of inflammation and a major cause of tissue damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Therapeutic administration of recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is efficacious in reducing clinical symptoms of disease, but suffers from several drawbacks, including the need for frequent administrations of large amounts. Here, we show that immunization of mice with either IL-1, or IL-1, chemically cross-linked to virus-like particles (VLP) of the bacteriophage Q, elicited a rapid and long-lasting autoantibody response. The induced Ab efficiently neutralized the binding of the respective IL-1 molecules to their receptors in vitro and their pro-inflammatory activities in vivo. In the collagen-induced arthritis model, both vaccines strongly protected mice from inflammation and degradation of bone and cartilage. Moreover, immunization with either vaccine showed superior efficacy than daily administrations of high amounts of IL-1Ra. In the T and B cell-independent collagen Ab transfer model, immunization with the IL-1, vaccine strongly protected from arthritis, whereas immunization with the IL-1, vaccine had no effect. Our results suggest that active immunization with IL-1,, and especially IL-1, conjugated to Q, VLP, might become an efficacious and cost-effective new treatment option for RA and other systemic IL-1-dependent inflammatory disorders. [source]

Penile Enhancement Using Autologous Tissue Engineering with Biodegradable Scaffold: A Clinical and Histomorphometric Study

Sava V. Perovic PhD
ABSTRACT Introduction., Autologous tissue engineering with biodegradable scaffolds is a new treatment option for real penile girth enhancement. Aim., The aim of this article is to evaluate tissue remodeling after penile girth enhancement using this technique. Methods., Between June 2005 and May 2007, a group of 12 patients underwent repeated penile widening using biodegradable scaffolds enriched with expanded autologous scrotal dartos cells. Clinical monitoring was parallel to histological investigation of tissue remodeling. During second surgical procedure, biopsies were obtained 10,14 months after first surgery (mean 12 months, N = 6) and compared with those obtained after 22,24 months (mean 23 months, N = 6), and control biopsies from patients who underwent circumcision (N = 5). Blind evaluation of histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical finding was performed in paraffin sections. Main Outcome Measurements., Penile girth gain in a flaccid state ranged between 1.5 and 3.8 cm (mean 2.1 ± 0.28 cm) and in full erection between 1.2 and 4 cm (mean 1.9 ± 0.28 cm). Patients' satisfaction, defined by a questionnaire, was good (25%) and very good (75%). Results., In biopsies obtained 10,14 months after first surgery, highly vascularized loose tissue with collagen deposition associated with small foci of mild chronic and granulomatous inflammation surrounding residual amorphous material was observed. Fibroblast-like hyperplasia and small vessel neoangiogenesis occurred intimately associated with the progressive growth of vascular-like structures from accumulation of CD34 and alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive cells surrounding residual scaffold-like amorphous material. Capillary neoangiogenesis occurred inside residual amorphous material. In biopsies obtained after 22,24 months, inflammation almost disappeared and tissue closely resembled that of the dartos fascia of control group. Conclusions., Autologous tissue engineering using expanded scrotal dartos cells with biodegradable scaffolds is a new and promising method for penile widening that generates progressive accumulation of stable collagen-rich, highly vascularized tissue matrix that closely resemble deep dartos fascia. Perovic SV, Sansalone S, Djinovic R, Ferlosio A, Vespasiani G, and Orlandi A. Penile enhancement using autologous tissue engineering with biodegradable scaffold: A clinical and histomorphometric study. J Sex Med 2010;7:3206,3215. [source]

Management of chronic hand eczema

Thomas L. Diepgen
Hand eczema (HE) is one of the most frequent skin diseases and has often a chronically relapsing course with a poor prognosis resulting in a high social and economic impact for the individual and the society. In this article, we highlight the results of an expert workshop on the ,management of severe chronic hand eczema' with the focus on the epidemiology, the burden of severe HE, its classification and diagnostic procedures, and the current status of treatment options according to an evidence-based approach (randomized controlled clinical trials, RCTs). We conclude that despite the abundance of topical and systemic treatment options, disease management in patients with severe chronic HE is frequently inadequate. There is a strong need for RCTs of existing and new treatment options based on clearly diagnosed subtypes of HE and its severity. [source]

Human antibody response during sepsis against targets expressed by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Udo Lorenz
Abstract The identification of target structures is a prerequisite for the development of new treatment options, like antibody based therapy, against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In this study we identified immunodominant structures which were expressed in vivo during sepsis caused by MRSA. Using human sera we compared the immune response of humans with MRSA sepsis with the immune response of normal individuals and asymptomatically colonized individuals. We identified and characterized four staphylococcal specific antigenic structures. One target is a staphylococcal protein of 29 kDa that exhibited 29% identity to secreted protein SceA precursor of Staphylococcus carnosus. The putative function of this protein, which was designated IsaA (immunodominant staphylococcal antigen), is unknown. The second target is an immunodominant protein of 17 kDa that showed no homology to any currently known protein. This immunodominant protein was designated IsaB. The third and fourth antigens are both immunodominant proteins of 10 kDa. One of these proteins showed 100% identity to major cold shock protein CspA of S. aureus and the other protein was identified as the phosphocarrier protein Hpr of S. aureus. The identified immunodominant proteins may serve as potential targets for the development of antibody based therapy against MRSA. [source]

Update on treatment guidelines for acute bacterial sinusitis

J. M. Klossek
Summary Acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) is a common complication of viral upper respiratory tract infections and represents a considerable social burden both in terms of diminished quality of life for the patient and the economic implications of decreased productivity and treatment costs. Several national health authorities have developed guidelines for the management of ABS, which aim to promote rational selection of anti-bacterial therapy to optimise clinical outcomes while minimising the potential for selection of anti-bacterial resistance as a result of inappropriate anti-bacterial usage. This article provides an overview of current guidelines, with particular focus on the clinical significance of variations in treatment recommendations and new treatment options, such as the ketolide telithromycin, which was recently added to a number of national treatment guidelines. [source]

Once-daily desloratadine improves the signs and symptoms of chronic idiopathic urticaria: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

Johannes Ring MD
Background Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is the most common type of chronic urticaria, and pruritus is the most prominent symptom. Antihistamines are the first-line treatment for CIU. Sedation and anticholinergic adverse effects are often experienced with the first-generation antihistamines and there is a risk of cardiovascular adverse effects and drug interactions with some second-generation agents. Hence, new treatment options are needed. Desloratadine is a new, potent, nonsedating antihistamine that has an excellent cardiovascular safety profile. Methods This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study designed to determine the efficacy and safety of desloratadine in the treatment of moderate-to-severe CIU. A total of 190 patients, aged 12,79 years, with at least a 6-week history of CIU and who were currently experiencing a flare of at least moderate severity, were randomly assigned to therapy with desloratadine 5 mg or placebo once daily for 6 weeks. Twice daily, patients rated the severity of CIU symptoms (pruritus, number of hives, and size of largest hive), as well as the impact of CIU symptoms on sleep and daily activity. Patients and investigators jointly evaluated therapeutic response and overall condition. Safety evaluations included the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events, discontinuations due to adverse events, and changes from baseline in vital signs, laboratory parameters, and ECG intervals. Results Desloratadine was superior to placebo in controlling pruritus and total symptoms after the first dose and maintained this superiority to the end of the study. Measures of sleep, daily activity, therapeutic response, and global CIU status were also significantly better with desloratadine after the first dose; these clinical benefits were also maintained throughout the 6-week study. No significant adverse events occured. Conclusions Desloratadine 5 mg daily is a safe and effective treatment for CIU with significant benefits within 24 h and maintained through the treatment period. [source]

Insight Into the Relationship Between Impulsivity and Substance Abuse From Studies Using Animal Models

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2010
Catharine A. Winstanley
Drug use disorders are often accompanied by deficits in the capacity to efficiently process reward-related information and to monitor, suppress, or override reward-controlled behavior when goals are in conflict with aversive or immediate outcomes. This emerging deficit in behavioral flexibility and impulse control may be a central component of the progression to addiction, as behavior becomes increasingly driven by drugs and drug-associated cues at the expense of more advantageous activities. Understanding how neural mechanisms implicated in impulse control are affected by addictive drugs may therefore prove a useful strategy in the search for new treatment options. Animal models of impulsivity and addiction could make a significant contribution to this endeavor. Here, some of the more common behavioral paradigms used to measure different aspects of impulsivity across species are outlined, and the importance of the response to reward-paired cues in such paradigms is discussed. Naturally occurring differences in forms of impulsivity have been found to be predictive of future drug self-administration, but drug exposure can also increase impulsive responding. Such data are in keeping with the suggestion that impulsivity may contribute to multiple stages within the spiral of addiction. From a neurobiological perspective, converging evidence from rat, monkey, and human studies suggest that compromised functioning within the orbitofrontal cortex may critically contribute to the cognitive sequelae of drug abuse. Changes in gene transcription and protein expression within this region may provide insight into the mechanism underlying drug-induced cortical hypofunction, reflecting new molecular targets for the treatment of uncontrolled drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. [source]

A primary care provider's guide to preventive and acute care management of adults and children with sickle cell disease

Ardie Pack-Mabien RNC, CRNP (Clinical Nurse Practitioner & Nurse Manager)
Abstract Purpose: To familiarize primary care providers (PCPs) with the pathophysiological processes, diagnostic evaluation, and medical management of sickle hemoglobinopathies and their complications. Current standards of care, clinical research advances, and new treatment options will also be addressed to assist PCPs in the management of sickle cell disease (SCD). Data sources: A selective search and review of the current literature on SCD and the authors' experience. Conclusions: Management of individuals with SCD is very complex, requiring a multidisciplinary approach that includes the patient or parent, PCP, specialist, nurse, and social worker. More patients living with SCD are relying on PCPs in nonspecialty practices for comprehensive disease management. Implications for practice: Newborn screening detects new cases of SCD annually. The median life expectancy has more than doubled for individuals with sickle cell anemia. Healthcare providers are now in an era of increased routine screening, assessment, and management of chronic complications from this illness not previously seen in the care of adults with SCD. [source]

Current issues for nurse practitioners: Hyponatremia

Ruth Haskal NP-C (Adult Nurse Practitioner)
Abstract Purpose: To review the assessment, diagnosis, and management of hyponatremia (serum sodium <135 mEq/L), the most common electrolyte disturbance as a result of dysregulation of water balance in hospitalized or institutionalized patients. Data sources: Comprehensive search using keywords AVP receptor antagonists, hyponatremia, SIADH, conivaptan, tolvaptan, lixivaptan, nurse practitioner, and others was carried out using the National Library of Medicine (PubMed) Web site from which full-text articles were obtained. Meeting abstracts were obtained from scientific sessions including the American Society of Nephrology Renal Week 2004 and the Endocrine Society,s 87th Annual Meeting (2005). The Vaprisol (conivaptan hydrochloride injection) package insert was referenced and obtained from Conclusions: A diagnosis of hyponatremia requires thorough investigation for underlying causes and prompt treatment to prevent poor patient outcomes. In clinical trials, a new class of drugs called the arginine vasopressin (AVP) receptor antagonists or aquaretics has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of hyponatremia. Among this class of agents, intravenous conivaptan hydrochloride, indicated for the treatment of euvolemic hyponatremia in hospitalized patients, is the first drug in class approved for use. Implications for practice: Elderly patients, and those with certain conditions such as heart failure, tuberculosis, cirrhosis, and head injury, may be at increased risk for hyponatremia. In hospitalized patients following surgery and the use of certain medications, hyponatremia is a common condition. A thorough understanding of the physiology of water balance and the risk factors associated with hyponatremia is essential for prompt and effective intervention. Awareness of the limitations of conventional therapies and the availability of new treatment options for hyponatremia allows clinicians to optimize patient care. [source]

Recent failures of new potential symptomatic treatments for parkinson's disease: Causes and solutions

Gurutz Linazasoro MD
Abstract One major goal of current research in Parkinson's disease (PD) is the discovery of novel agents to improve symptomatic management. The object of these new treatments should be to provide effective symptom control throughout the course of the disease without the development of side effects such as motor and psychiatric complications. Results of several clinical trials of new treatment options reported in the past 2 years have shown negative or unsatisfactory results. Most of the drugs and surgical procedures used in these studies had been tested previously in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) monkeys as well as in the classic 6-hydroxydopamine,lesioned rat model. They raise several questions about the true reliability of animal studies, the adequacy of the working hypotheses and design of clinical trials, the validity of tools in current use to evaluate a specific effect, and the selectivity of the drugs used. All these factors may explain failure. This review focuses on pharmacological and surgical treatments tested to improve the management of patients with motor fluctuations and dyskinesias. Some of the recent trials and possible reasons for their lack of success are critically analysed. Finally, some suggestions to avoid further failures and improve results are proposed. © 2004 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Treatment of invasive candidiasis with echinocandins

MYCOSES, Issue 6 2009
Andreas Glöckner
Summary Blood stream infections by Candida spp. represent the majority of invasive fungal infections in intensive care patients. The high crude mortality of invasive candidiasis remained essentially unchanged during the last two decades despite new treatment options that became available. The echinocandins, the latest class of antifungals introduced since 2001, exhibit potent activity against clinically relevant fungi including most Candida spp. In several randomised multicentre phase III trials, anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin showed convincing efficacy when compared with standard treatment regimens. In all trials, echinocandins were at least non-inferior to standard treatments. Anidulafungin was shown to be superior to fluconazole. Echinocandins have a favourable tolerability profile and exhibit a minimal potential for drug interactions since their pharmacokinetics is independent of renal and , largely , hepatic function. As a result of these properties, echinocandins are appropriate drugs of choice for invasive candidiasis in intensive care where many patients experience organ failure and receive multiple drugs with complex interactions. [source]

Botulinum toxin for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms: A review

A. Sahai
Abstract Aims To review the available literature on the application of botulinum toxin in the urinary tract, with particular reference to its use in treating detrusor overactivity (DO). Methods Botulinum toxin, overactive bladder (OAB), detrusor instability, DO, detrusor sphincter dyssynergia (DSD), and lower urinary tract dysfunction were used on Medline Services as a source of articles for the review process. Results DO poses a significant burden on patients and their quality of life. Traditionally patients have been treated with anti-cholinergic drugs if symptomatic, however, a significant number find this treatment either ineffective or intolerable due to side effects. Recent developments in this field have instigated new treatment options, including botulinum toxin, for patients' refractory to first line medication. Botulinum toxin, one of the most poisonous substances known to man, is a neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botulinum toxin injections into the external urethral sphincter to treat detrusor sphincter dyssynergia has been successfully used for some years but recently its use has expanded to include voiding dysfunction. Intradetrusal injections of botulinum toxin into patients with detrusor overactivity and symptons of the overactive bladder have resulted in significant increases in mean maximum cystometric capacity and detrusor compliance with a reduction in mean maximum detrusor pressures. Subjective and objective assessments in these patients has shown significant improvements that last for 9,12 months. Repeated injections have had the same sustained benefits. Conclusions Application of botulinum toxin in the lower urinary tract has produced promising results in treating lower urinary tract dysfunction, which needs further evaluation with randomised, placebo-controlled trials. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Stem cells and regenerative medicine for the treatment of type 1 diabetes: the challenges lying ahead

Andreas Lechner
Abstract:, The differentiation of insulin-producing cells in vitro from embryonic or adult stem cells offers potential new treatment options for type 1 diabetes. Progress toward this goal has been made in the recent years, but substantial obstacles still remain. In order to be advantageous over the current standard regimens with exogenous insulin, any stem cell-based therapy would have to restore normal or near normal metabolic control. To achieve this, many of the complex regulatory mechanisms that control physiologic insulin secretion would have to be recreated with in vitro -generated tissue. An alternative approach would be to use the insights gained through stem cell research to develop pharmacologic agents that can induce regeneration of endogenous pancreatic islets in patients with type 1 diabetes. Such a therapy also requires extensive further research, but it could have principal advantages over tissue transplantation. [source]

Proteomic profiling of animal models mimicking skeletal muscle disorders

Philip Doran
Abstract Over the last few decades of biomedical research, animal models of neuromuscular diseases have been widely used for determining pathological mechanisms and for testing new therapeutic strategies. With the emergence of high-throughput proteomics technology, the identification of novel protein factors involved in disease processes has been decisively improved. This review outlines the usefulness of the proteomic profiling of animal disease models for the discovery of new reliable biomarkers, for the optimization of diagnostic procedures and the development of new treatment options for skeletal muscle disorders. Since inbred animal strains show genetically much less interindividual differences as compared to human patients, considerably lower experimental repeats are capable of producing meaningful proteomic data. Thus, animal model proteomics can be conveniently employed for both studying basic mechanisms of molecular pathogenesis and the effects of drugs, genetic modifications or cell-based therapies on disease progression. Based on the results from comparative animal proteomics, a more informed decision on the design of clinical proteomics studies could be reached. Since no one animal model represents a perfect pathobiochemical replica of all of the symptoms seen in complex human disorders, the proteomic screening of novel animal models can also be employed for swift and enhanced protein biochemical phenotyping. [source]

Roflumilast: clinical benefit in patients suffering from COPD

Charlotte Suppli Ulrik
Abstract Background and aims:, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality and is characterised by persistent airway inflammation, which leads to impaired airway function, quality of life and intermittent exacerbations. In spite of recent advances in the treatment of COPD, new treatment options for COPD are clearly necessary. The oral phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor roflumilast represents a new class of drugs that has shown efficacy and acceptable tolerability in preclinical and short-term clinical studies in patients with COPD. Methods and results:, The available long-term clinical studies reviewed here suggest that the clinical efficacy of roflumilast is likely because of the suppression of airway inflammation and not through bronchodilation. Furthermore, the clinical studies have shown a modest improvement in airway function, including FEV1, and a reduction in frequency and severity of COPD exacerbations, as well as a positive effect on several patient-reported outcomes. The clinical benefit of roflumilast appears to be greatest in patients with more symptomatic and severe disease who experience exacerbations. The most common adverse effects are gastrointestinal events, primarily diarrhoea, nauseas and weight loss. Conclusion:, Roflumilast is beneficial for maintenance treatment of patients with severe and symptomatic COPD and with a history of frequent acute exacerbations as an add-on to treatment with long-acting bronchodilators. It may have a role as an alternative to inhaled corticosteroids in more symptomatic COPD patients with frequent exacerbations, although direct comparisons are currently lacking. Please cite this paper as: Ulrik CS and Calverley PMA. Roflumilast: clinical benefit in patients suffering from COPD. Clin Respir J 2010; 4: 197,201. [source]

Recurrent aphthous ulcerative disease: presentation and management

V Vucicevic Boras
Abstract Recurrent aphthous ulceration (RAU) is the second most common type of ulceration seen in the oral cavity. Notwithstanding an extensive literature and numerous proposed aetiologies, the cause of the disease remains obscure. In addition to the current conservative management of RAU lesions with corticosteroids, new treatment options are available and some have proven successful in open trials. This paper reviews patient work-up and management. [source]

Anthracycline-fludarabine-containing regimens with or without rituximab in the treatment of patients with advanced follicular lymphoma,

CANCER, Issue 9 2009
Stefano Luminari MD
Abstract BACKGROUND: Recent experience has suggested that there has been a stepwise improvement in the survival outcomes of patients who have follicular lymphoma with the introduction of new treatment options. In the current study, the authors report the results of 2 subsequent phase 2 trials of 238 previously untreated patients. METHODS: In a trial of bleomycin, epidoxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (BACOP) plus fludarabine, mitoxantrone, and dexamethasone (FND), 144 patients received 2 BACOP treatments followed by 4 FND treatments. In a trial of BACOP plus fludarabine and rituximab (FR), 94 patients received 3 BACOP treatments followed by 4 FR treatments. RESULTS: The complete remission (CR) rate for BACOP/FND was 62%. After a median follow-up of 60 months, the failure-free survival (FFS) and overall survival (OS) rates at 4 years were 53% and 77%, respectively. The CR rate for BACOP/FR was 79%. After a median follow-up of 36 months, the FFS and OS rates at 4 years were 56% and 97%, respectively, which were significant compared with the CR and OS rates achieved with BACOP/FND. Twenty-five of 42 bcl -2-positive patients attained a molecularly negative CR and had improved FFS. No significant differences were observed between the 2 trials in the percentage of infections or neutropenia. CONCLUSIONS: The CR and OS rates achieved with BACOP/FR were better, and overall toxicity did not increase. Furthermore, patients who received rituximab had a better FFS compared with patients who received chemotherapy alone. Finally, although conclusions between nonrandomized groups may depend on differences in observed and unobserved prognostic features, the current results suggested that the addition of rituximab to anthracycline-fludarabine,containing regimens have a favorable effect on the prognosis of patients with advanced follicular lymphoma. Cancer 2009. © 2009 American Cancer Society. [source]

Diabetic macular oedema: physical, physiological and molecular factors contribute to this pathological process

Rita Ehrlich
Abstract. Diabetic macular oedema (DMO) is an important cause of vision loss in patients with diabetes mellitus. The underlying mechanisms of DMO, on both macrocellular and microcellular levels, are discussed in this review. The pathophysiology of DMO can be described as a process whereby hyperglycaemia leads to overlapping and inter-related pathways that play a role not only in the initial vascular events, but also in the continued tissue insult that leads to chronic DMO. On a macrocellular level, DMO is believed to be in part caused by alterations in hydrostatic pressure, oxygen tension, oncotic pressure and shear stress. Three key components of the microvascular pathways include angiogenic factor expression, inflammation and oxidative stress. These molecular mediators, acting in conjunction with macrocellular factors, which are all stimulated in part by the hyperglycaemia and hypoxia, can have a direct endothelial effect leading to hyperpermeability, disruption of vascular endothelial cell junctions, and leukostasis. The interactions, signalling events and feedback loops between the various molecules are complicated and are not completely understood. However, by attempting to understand the pathways involved in DMO, we can help guide new treatment options targeted towards specific factors or mediators. [source]

The effectiveness of intranasal corticosteroids in combined allergic rhinitis and asthma syndrome

P. Taramarcaz
Summary Background Allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma often coexist and may represent two manifestations of the same disease recently named combined AR and asthma syndrome (CARAS). Aim To review the common pathophysiology of combined AR and asthma and to investigate the efficacy of intranasal corticosteroids (INCS). Methods Medline was used to identify articles relevant to mechanisms. A Cochrane systematic review was performed to assess the efficacy of INCS in CARAS. Results There is cross-talk, evidence of a common inflammatory response in both sites, linked by a systemic component. The efficacy of anti-inflammatory INCS on asthma outcomes was assessed in a systematic review of 12 randomized controlled trials involving 425 subjects. After INCS there were non-significant trends for improvement in asthma symptom score (standardized mean difference (SMD) of 0.61; P=0.07), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (SMD of 0.31; P=0.08), and morning peak expiratory flow (weighted mean difference of 36.51; P=0.06). There was no impact on methacholine airways responsiveness (SMD of ,0.20; P=0.4). The review identified two promising new treatment options in united airway disease such as INCS as monotherapy in rhinitis and mild asthma, and a combined intranasal and intrabronchial corticosteroid (IBCS) deposition technique. Conclusion Common mucosal inflammatory responses occur in CARAS. This systematic review shows trends for a benefit of INCS in CARAS, but recognizes that more research is needed. At this stage, the current best practice is to treat asthma conventionally with IBCS with or without ,2 -agonist and to add INCS to improve specific rhinitis symptoms. [source]

Cysteinyl leukotrienes as common mediators of asthma and allergic disease

S-E. Dahlén
Summary The cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) induce a number of pro-inflammatory effects including smooth muscle contraction, an increase in blood flow, plasma exudation, mucous secretion, and activation of inflammatory cells. They play a key role in asthma and allergy, and can be recovered from different body fluids (e.g. bronchoaleveolar or nasal lavage and urine) during allergen-induced hypersensitivity reactions. The advent of antileukotriene agents (i.e. leukotriene receptor antagonists or leukotriene synthesis inhibitors) has helped clarify how the different mechanisms contribute to inflammation, as well as offer new treatment options for both asthma and allergy. It is now clear that the release of leukotrienes is the final common path for the many different factors causing airway obstruction and inflammation. In asthma, clinical studies have shown that treatment with antileukotrienes can improve pulmonary function, alleviate symptoms, reduce asthma exacerbations, and decrease the need for bronchodilator therapy. Similarly, in patients with allergic rhinitis, improvements have been seen in nasal symptoms, eye symptoms and quality of life. Antileukotrienes provide a new opportunity for simultaneous management of allergic diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and are a rational treatment approach to the concept of ,one airway' disease. In future, their utility may also extend to inflammatory disorders of other organ systems (e.g. skin). [source]