New Therapeutic Agents (new + therapeutic_agent)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Methylseleninic acid enhances the effect of etoposide to inhibit prostate cancer growth in vivo

Oscar Gonzalez-Moreno
Abstract New therapeutic agents are needed for the treatment of androgen-independent prostate cancer (PrCa). We have investigated the effect of methylseleninic acid (MSA) on tumor stage-specific prostate cells derived from the C3 (1)/Tag model for PrCa: Pr111, a slow-growing and nontumorigenic cell line isolated from a prostate intraepithelial neoplasia lesion; Pr14, a tumorigenic line derived from a primary tumor; and Pr14C1, a sub-clone of Pr14 explanted from a lung metastasis. We demonstrate that MSA strongly inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in C3 (1)/Tag tumor cells, in a dose-dependent manner. A decrease in phosphorylated ERK1/2 and AKT was also found in tumor cells, but not in Pr111. Microarray analysis using affymetrix showed that the number of genes with an altered expression in tumor cells is significantly higher (p < 0.01) than in nontumoral cells. Pathways analyses revealed a decrease in the expression of genes involved in metabolism (Fabp5, Cyba), signal transduction (ERK, AKT), angiogenesis (neuropilin-1, Flt-4) and transcription (cAMP response element-binding protein) in tumor cells. The expression of neuropilin-1, a protein involved in VEGF signaling and tumor angiogenesis, was 97-fold repressed in Pr14 cells treated with MSA. Combination treatments using low doses of etoposide or taxotere (docetaxel), plus low doses of MSA revealed a strong enhancement of cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in tumor cells. Our in vivo studies using Pr14 cells xenografted into nude mice demonstrated that MSA significantly enhances the chemotherapeutical effect of etoposide, resulting in 78.3% tumor growth inhibition. These results suggest that MSA could be used against PrCa to enhance the effect of etoposide. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Antimicrobial Gallium-Doped Phosphate-Based Glasses,

Sabeel P. Valappil
Abstract Novel quaternary gallium-doped phosphate-based glasses (1, 3, and 5 mol % Ga2O3) were synthesized using a conventional melt quenching technique. The bactericidal activities of the glasses were tested against both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium difficile) bacteria. Results of the solubility and ion release studies showed that these glass systems are unique for controlled delivery of Ga3+. 71Ga NMR measurements showed that the gallium is mostly octahedrally coordinated by oxygen atoms, whilst FTIR spectroscopy provided evidence for the presence of a small proportion of tetrahedral gallium in the samples with the highest gallium content. FTIR and Raman spectra also afford an insight into the correlation between the structure and the observed dissolution behavior via an understanding of the atomic-scale network bonding characteristics. The results confirmed that the net bactericidal effect was due to Ga3+, and a concentration as low as 1 mol % Ga2O3 was sufficient to mount a potent antibacterial effect. The dearth of new antibiotics in development makes Ga3+ a potentially promising new therapeutic agent for pathogenic bacteria including MRSA and C. difficile. [source]

Intrinsic stability and functional properties of disulfide bond-stabilized coagulation factor VIIIa variants

Summary.,Background:,The utility of purified coagulation factor (F)VIII for treatment of hemophilia A is limited in part by its instability following activation by thrombin, which is caused by spontaneous dissociation of the A2 domain from the activated FVIII (FVIIIa) heterotrimer. To prevent this A2 domain dissociation in FVIIIa, we previously engineered a cysteine pair (C664,C1826) in recombinant FVIII that formed a disulfide bond cross-linking the A2 domain in the heavy chain to the A3 domain in the light chain. This engineered disulfide bond resulted in a more stable FVIIIa. Aims:,Here, we characterize the functional parameters of C664,C1828 FVIII and of a new disulfide bond-stabilized FVIII (C662,C1828 FVIII). Methods:,In order to assess whether these FVIII variants might be good candidates for a new therapeutic agent to treat hemophilia A, we investigated a variety of functional parameters that might affect the in vivo properties of the variants, including half-life of disulfide bond-stabilized FVIII and FVIIIa and the potency of these FVIIIa molecules in the FXase complex. Results:,Both disulfide bond-stabilized variants had improved affinity for von Willebrand factor (VWF). In studies of FX activation by purified FIXa and FVIIIa, C662,C1828 FVIIIa had normal activity while C664,C1826 FVIIIa had reduced activity. Both C664,C1826 FVIIIa and C662,C1828 FVIIIa were inactivated by activated protein C (APC) but the rates of inactivation were different. Conclusion:,Overall, the specific location of the disulfide bridge between the A2 and A3 domains appears to affect functional properties of FVIIIa. In summary, introduction of engineered interdomain disulfides results in FVIIIa variants that resist spontaneous loss of activity while retaining susceptibility to APC proteolytic inactivation and maintaining VWF binding. [source]

Cantharidin induces apoptosis of human multiple myeloma cells via inhibition of the JAK/STAT pathway

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 9 2008
Morihiko Sagawa
Multiple myeloma is an incurable B-cell malignancy requiring new therapeutic strategies in clinical settings. Interleukin (IL),6 signaling pathways play a critical role in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma. The traditional Chinese medicine cantharidin (CTD) has been shown to inhibit cellular proliferation and induce apoptosis of various cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of CTD as a novel therapeutic agent for the patients with multiple myeloma. We investigated the in vitro effects of CTD for its antimyeloma activity, and further examined the molecular mechanisms of CTD-induced apoptosis. CTD inhibited the cellular growth of human myeloma cell lines as well as freshly isolated myeloma cells in patients. Cultivation with CTD induced apoptosis of myeloma cells in a cell-cycle-independent manner. Treatment with CTD induced caspase-3, ,8, and ,9 activities, and it was completely blocked by each caspase inhibitor. We further examined the effect of CTD on the IL-6 signaling pathway in myeloma cells, and found that CTD inhibited phosphorylation of STAT3 at tyrosine 705 residue as early as 1 h after treatment and down-regulated the expression of the antiapoptotic bcl-xL protein. STAT3 directly bound and activated the transcription of bcl-xL gene promoter, resulting in the induction of the expression of bcl-xL in myeloma cells. The essential role of STAT3 in CTD effects was confirmed by transfection with the constitutively active and dominant negative form of STAT3 in U266 cells. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that CTD is a promising candidate to be a new therapeutic agent in signal transduction therapy. (Cancer Sci 2008; 99: 1820,1826) [source]


Cristiane F Freitas
SUMMARY 1BAY 41-2272 is a potent activator of the nitric oxide-independent site of soluble guanylate cyclase and has been recently introduced as a new therapeutic agent to treat chronic pulmonary hypertension (PH) in neonatal sheep. Because the in vivo heparin,protamine interaction may lead to severe PH, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of BAY 41-2272 in the PH induced by heparin,protamine interaction in anaesthetized dogs. 2Sixteen male dogs (10 mongrel dogs and six Beagles) were anaesthetized and instrumented for acquisition of mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP), heart rate (HR), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), cardiac index (CI) and indices of systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance (ISVR and IPVR, respectively). Plasma cGMP levels and Spo2 were evaluated. 3Intravenous administration of heparin (500 IU/kg) followed 3 min later by protamine (10 mg/kg) caused marked PH, as evaluated by the increase in MPAP, PCWP and IPVR. This was accompanied by a significant fall in MABP and a transient increase in HR. Infusion of BAY 41-2272 (10 µg/kg per h, starting 10 min before heparin administration) augmented plasma cGMP levels and slightly and significantly increased HR and CI, without affecting the other cardiovascular parameters. The elevation in IPVR, MPAP and PCWP triggered by the heparin,protamine interaction was significantly reduced in animals exposed to BAY 41-2272. 4In vehicle-treated dogs, the Spo2 values decreased significantly at the peak of the PH and this was significantly attenuated by treatment with BAY 41-2272. In addition, BAY 41-2272 (10 µmol/L) had no effect on the activated partial thromboplastin time of citrated plasma after the addition of heparin,protamine. 5In conclusion, BAY 41-2272 was effective in reducing canine PH induced in vivo by the heparin,protamine interaction, thus indicating its potential in the treatment of this type of disorder. [source]

A cardiologist view of vascular disease in diabetes

Christopher J. Lockhart
Diabetes mellitus is a potent risk factor for the development of a wide spectrum of cardiovascular (CV) complications. The complex metabolic milieu accompanying diabetes alters blood rheology, the structure of arteries and disrupts the homeostatic functions of the endothelium. These changes act as the substrate for end-organ damage and the occurrence of CV events. In those who develop acute coronary syndromes, patients with diabetes are more likely to die, both in the acute phase and during follow-up. Patients with diabetes are also more likely to suffer from chronic cardiac failure, independently of the presence of large vessel disease, and also more likely to develop stroke, renal failure and peripheral vascular disease. Preventing vascular events is the primary goal of therapy. Optimal cardiac care for the patient with diabetes should focus on aggressive management of traditional CV risk factors to optimize blood glucose, lipid and blood pressure control. Targeting medical therapy to improve plaque stability and diminish platelet hyper-responsiveness reduces the frequency of events associated with atherosclerotic plaque burden. In patients with critical lesions, revascularization strategies, either percutaneous or surgical, will often be necessary to improve symptoms and prevent vascular events. Improved understanding of the vascular biology will be crucial for the development of new therapeutic agents to prevent CV events and improve outcomes in patients with diabetes. [source]

Mechanisms of renal hyporesponsiveness to ANP in heart failure

A. Charloux
Abstract The atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) plays an important role in chronic heart failure (CHF), delaying the progression of the disease. However, despite high ANP levels, natriuresis falls when CHF progresses from a compensated to a decompensated state, suggesting emergence of renal resistance to ANP. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain renal hyporesponsiveness, including decreased renal ANP availability, down-regulation of natriuretic peptide receptors and altered ANP intracellular transduction signal. It has been demonstrated that the activity of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) is increased in CHF, and that its inhibition enhances renal cGMP production and renal sodium excretion. In vitro as well as in vivo studies have provided strong evidence of an increased degradation of intracellular cGMP by phosphodiesterase in CHF. In experimental models, ANP-dependent natriuresis is improved by phosphodiesterase inhibitors, which may arise as new therapeutic agents in CHF. Sodium-retaining systems likely contribute to renal hyporesponsiveness to ANP through different mechanisms. Among these systems, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has received particular attention, as angiotensin II and ANP have renal actions at the same sites and inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin-receptor blockade improve ANP hyporesponsiveness. Less is known about the interactions between the sympathetic nervous system, endothelin or vasopressin and ANP, which may also blunt ANP-induced natriuresis. To summarize, renal hyporesponsiveness to ANP is probably multifactorial. New treatments designed to restore renal ANP efficiency should limit sodium retention in CHF patients and thus delay the progression to overt heart failure. [source]

Neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury: significance of clinical and electrophysiological measures

Susanne Wydenkeller
Abstract A large percentage of spinal cord-injured subjects suffer from neuropathic pain below the level of the lesion (bNP). The neural mechanisms underlying this condition are not clear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the general effects of spinal deafferentiation and of bNP on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. In addition, the relationship between the presence of bNP and impaired function of the spinothalamic tract was studied. Measurements were performed in complete and incomplete spinal cord-injured subjects with and without bNP as well as in a healthy control group. Spinothalamic tract function, assessed by contact heat evoked potentials, did not differ between subjects with and without bNP; nevertheless, it was impaired in 94% of subjects suffering from bNP. In the EEG recordings, the degree of deafferentiation was reflected in a slowing of EEG peak frequency in the 6,12-Hz band. Taking into account this unspecific effect, spinal cord-injured subjects with bNP showed significantly slower EEG activity than subjects without bNP. A discrimination analysis in the subjects with spinothalamic tract dysfunction correctly classified 84% of subjects as belonging to either the group with bNP or the group without bNP, according to their EEG peak frequency. These findings could be helpful for both the development of an objective diagnosis of bNP and for testing the effectiveness of new therapeutic agents. [source]

Structure and biology of complement protein C3, a connecting link between innate and acquired immunity

Arvind Sahu
Summary: Complement protein C3 is a central molecule in the complement system whose activation is essential for all the important functions performed by this system. After four decades of research it is now well established that C3 functions like a double-edged sword: on the one hand it promotes phagocytosis, supports local inflammatory responses against pathogens, and instructs the adaptive immune response to select the appropriate antigens for a humoral response; on the other hand its unregulated activation leads to host cell damage. In addition, its interactions with the proteins of foreign pathogens may provide a mechanism by which these microorganisms evade complement attack. Therefore, a clear knowledge of the molecule and its interactions at the molecular level not only may allow the rational design of molecular adjuvants but may also lead to the development of complement inhibitors and new therapeutic agents against infectious diseases. A.S. is a Wellcome Trust Overseas Senior Research Fellow in Biomedical Science in India. This research was supported by National Institutes of Health grants AI 30040, GM 56698, HL28220, and AI 48487. [source]

The genetic and immunopathological processes underlying collagen-induced arthritis

IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 4 2001
JEFF A. Luross
Summary Animal models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have provided substantial insights into basic pathogenic mechanisms of chronic inflammatory arthritis and autoimmune disease in general. Of the variety of models reported, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) has been the most characterized in terms of both its pathogenesis and its underlying immunological basis. Collagen-induced arthritis has also been the model of choice in terms of testing potential new therapeutic agents for the treatment of human RA. Nevertheless, the complex nature of the balance between T-cell cytokines and the chronic inflammatory processes is only recently becoming clear. This review focuses on these developments, highlighting their implications for our understanding of RA and for the use of CIA as a suitable animal model. [source]

Statistical issues in interpreting clinical trials

D. L. DeMets
Abstract. Randomized clinical trial is an important research tool in evaluating new therapeutic agents, devices and procedures. In order to obtain reliable and unbiased results, careful consideration must be given in the design and conduct of the trial. However, bias can be introduced in the analysis of the final data if certain principles are not followed. Several issues are described that make interpretation of analyses challenging. These include the intent-to-treat principle, the use of surrogate outcome measures, subgroup analyses, missing data and noninferiority trials. [source]

Inflammatory bowel disease: new insights into pathogenesis and treatment

S. Ardizzone
Abstract., Ardizzone S, Bianchi Porro G (,L. Sacco' University Hospital, Milan, Italy). Inflammatory bowel disease: new insights into pathogenesis and treatment (Review). J Intern Med 2002; 252: 475,496. Despite all the advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), we do not know the cause. Some of the most recently available data have been discussed here and yet it is now becoming increasingly accepted that immunogenetics play an important role in the predisposition, modulation, and perpetuation of IBD. The mucosal immune system is the central effector of intestinal inflammation and injury, with cytokines playing a central role in modulating inflammation. The role of intestinal milium, and enteric flora in particular, appears to be of greater significance than previously held. A review is made of the main areas of research exploring the mechanisms more intimately associated with the development of IBD, providing advances in the agents currently used, and identifying a host of new therapeutic agents potentially interacting with or interrupting specific targets in the genesis of IBD. [source]

Advances in paediatric rheumatology: Beyond NSAIDs and joint replacement

JE Munro
Over the previous three decades there have been a number of dramatic changes in our understanding of both the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the rheumatic diseases of childhood. Improvements in the classification of paediatric-onset arthritides and international collaboration in terms of multicentre research have led to the development of new therapeutic agents and better methods of outcome assessment for these chronic and often disabling conditions. Fortunately for children with paediatric rheumatic diseases treatment regimes are now available that provide excellent disease control for many and remission induction for some. Challenges include clearer definition of the genetics and pathogenesis of the diseases, delineation of reliable biological markers for diagnosis and monitoring of disease activity. The future should also herald early identification of those with a poorer prognosis, together with the design of more powerful, safer and cheaper remission-inducing agents, given to the right patients at the right time. [source]

Biological agents in the treatment of Crohn's disease

R. Caprilli
SUMMARY The main aim of the management of Crohn's disease is to reduce inflammation. Current approaches with corticosteroids, immunosuppressive agents, mesalazine and antibiotics have limited therapeutic benefit for many patients. Considerable progress has been made with regard to our knowledge of the basic mechanisms of the disease, which is associated with immunological imbalance characterized by an excess of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Recent advances in bio-technology have led to the development of many new therapeutic agents, so-called biological agents, which selectively target single key processes involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. A growing number of biological agents are under investigation in both randomized controlled trials and uncontrolled studies. The aim of this review is to provide the clinician with an insight into the randomized controlled trials published in the literature on the use of biological agents in the treatment of Crohn's disease. [source]

Potential opportunity in the development of new therapeutic agents based on endogenous and exogenous inhibitors of the proprotein convertases

Yannick Bontemps
Abstract The proprotein convertases (PCs) are responsible for the endoproteolytic processing of various protein precursors (e.g., growth factors, receptors, adhesion molecules, and matrix metalloproteinases) implicated in several diseases such as obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer, and Alzheimer disease. The potential clinical and pharmacological role of the PCs has fostered the development of various PC-inhibitors. In this review we summarized the recent findings on PCs inhibitors, their mode of actions and potential use in the therapy of various diseases. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Med Res Rev, 27, No. 5, 631,648, 2007 [source]

The allergen bronchoprovocation model: an important tool for the investigation of new asthma anti-inflammatory therapies

ALLERGY, Issue 10 2007
L.-P. Boulet
Allergen bronchoprovocation tests have been used for more than two decades in the investigation of respiratory allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis. These bronchial challenges are now well standardized and can offer key information on the therapeutic potential of new agents and on their anti-inflammatory effects on the airways. Both standard and low-dose allergen provocations are safe when performed by experienced investigators and do not lead to persistent worsening of asthma or change in airway function. The evaluation of new therapeutic agents by these methods can also provide important information on the mechanisms of development and persistence of airway diseases. [source]

Role of spinal cord glia in the central processing of peripheral pain perception

S. Bradesi
Abstract Background, The discovery that glial activation plays a critical role in the modulation of neuronal functions and affects the spinal processing of nociceptive signalling has brought new understanding on the mechanisms underlying central sensitization involved in chronic pain facilitation. Spinal glial activation is now considered an important component in the development and maintenance of allodynia and hyperalgesia in various models of chronic pain, including neuropathic pain and pain associated with peripheral inflammation. In addition, spinal glial activation is also involved in some forms of visceral hyperalgesia. Purpose, We discuss the signalling pathways engaged in central glial activation, including stress pathways, and the neuron,glia bidirectional relationships involved in the modulation of synaptic activity and pain facilitation. In this expanding field of research, the characterization of the mechanisms by which glia affect spinal neuro-transmission will increase our understanding of central pain facilitation, and has the potential for the development of new therapeutic agents for common chronic pain conditions. [source]

Cerebrospinal fluid brain-derived proteins in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and Creutzfeldt,Jakob disease

A. J. E. GreenArticle first published online: 24 NOV 200
The differential diagnosis of dementia can be difficult in the early stages of disease, and with the emergence of new therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD) there is an increasing need for reliable and accurate diagnostic tests. The concept of brain-specific proteins was first proposed in the 1960s and, since that time, methods have developed to measure these proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The concentration of individual brain-specific proteins can be altered in disease, and these changes are thought to reflect the underlying pathology. CSF tau protein and amyloid peptide A,42 concentrations are altered in AD and have been proposed as early diagnostic tests for this disease. The data from a number of studies suggest that these proteins may be of value, but are less specific than previously thought and further studies with neuropathological confirmation are required before these tests can be introduced into clinical practice. The detection of 14-3-3 in the CSF is an accurate test for sporadic Creutzfeldt,Jakob disease (CJD) and this accuracy has lead the World Health Organization to revise the clinical criteria for probable sporadic CJD to include a positive CSF 14-3-3. However, CSF 14-3-3 is less useful in the diagnosis of variant CJD, where studies are underway investigating the value of other CSF proteins. [source]

Glutathione- S -transferase pi as a model protein for the characterisation of chemically reactive metabolites

Rosalind E. Jenkins Dr.
Abstract Chemically reactive metabolites (CRMs) are thought to be responsible for a number of adverse drug reactions through modification of critical proteins. Methods that defined the chemistry of protein modification at an early stage would provide invaluable tools for drug safety assessment. Here, human GST pi (GSTP) was exploited as a model target protein to determine the chemical, biochemical and functional consequences of exposure to the hepatotoxic CRM of paracetamol (APAP), N -acetyl- p -benzoquinoneimine (NAPQI). Site-specific, dose-dependent modification of Cys47 in native and His-tagged GSTP was revealed by MS, and correlated with inhibition of glutathione (GSH) conjugating activity. In addition, the adaptation of iTRAQ labelling technology to define precisely the quantitative relationship between covalent modification and protein function is described. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-MS of GSTP allowed high sensitivity detection of modified peptides at physiological levels of exposure. Finally, a bioengineered mutant cytochrome P450 with a broad spectrum of substrate specificities was used in an in vitro reaction system to bioactivate APAP: in this model, GSTP trapped the CRM and exhibited both reduced enzyme activity and site-specific modification of the protein. These studies provide the foundation for the development of novel test systems to predict the toxicological potential of CRMs produced by new therapeutic agents. [source]

Development of chondrosarcoma animal models for assessment of adjuvant therapy

J. C. M. Clark
Abstract Chondrosarcoma is a primary cancer of bone causing significant morbidity due to local recurrence and limited treatment options. Relatively few chondrosarcoma animal models have been developed, and the only orthotopic model is technically demanding and has limited clinical relevance. The aim of this review is to assess the features of current animal chondrosarcoma models for the purpose of developing new models in which to test adjuvant chondrosarcoma therapy. The available literature on this topic was identified using the PubMed database, and then analysed for relevance to the human chondrosarcoma disease and feasibility in testing new therapeutic agents. Animal-derived chondrosarcoma models comprise predominantly allograft tumour transplanted into the rat (Swarm rat chondrosarcoma) or the hamster. These types of models are less relevant to the human disease and have been more useful for evaluation of chondrosarcoma growth and histology than in developing novel therapeutic agents. The athymic nude mouse has enabled reliable human xenograft transplantation. A number of human chondrosarcoma cell lines have been successfully used to generate tumours in this species, including OUMS-27 and HCS-2/A. Although effective in demonstrating anti-tumour effects of a number of agents, the lack of a representative orthotopic model diminishes overall clinical relevance. More clinically relevant models of human chondrosarcoma progression are required either through transgenic mice or orthotopic human xenograft models. [source]

An update on the first decade of the European centralized procedure: how many innovative drugs?

Domenico Motola
What is already known about this subject ,,We recently proposed an algorithm to assess the degree of therapeutic innovation of new therapeutic agents. It was based on the disease seriousness, the availability of previous treatments and the extent of the therapeutic effect, and was applied to all therapeutic agents approved by the EMEA in the period 1995,2003. ,,A low percentage (32%) of important therapeutic innovation was found. This figure may be an underestimate of the actual level of innovation, because common biotechnological products, such as recombinant human insulins, must follow the centralized procedure. What this study adds ,,Details for each agent, focusing on the comparison of the degree of therapeutic innovation between biotechnological and nonbiotechnological therapeutic agents approved by EMEA during the its first decade of activity (1995,2004). The underlying hypothesis was that the latter have a higher degree of innovation because they followed the centralized procedure on the assumption that they are innovative. ,,The percentage of important therapeutic innovation was low not only for biotechnological products (25%), as expected because they include many already known products such as insulins, but also for nonbiotechnological therapeutic agents (29%). Aims In a previous paper, we proposed an algorithm to assess the degree of therapeutic innovation of the agents approved by the European centralized procedure, which must be followed by biotechnological products and is optional for drugs claimed as innovative. A low overall degree of therapeutic innovation (about 30%) was found. This figure may be an underestimate of the actual level of innovation, because common biotechnological products, such as recombinant human insulins, must follow this procedure. To test the hypothesis that therapeutic innovation prevails among nonbiotechnological products, we evaluated separately the degree of therapeutic innovation of biotechnological vs. nonbiotechnological agents in the first decade of European Medicines Agency activity, also studying a possible time trend. Methods We assessed, for each drug: (i) the seriousness of the target disease, (ii) the availability of previous treatments, and (iii) the extent of therapeutic effect according to the previously proposed algorithm. Results Our analysis considered 251 medicinal products corresponding to 198 active substances, classified according to four main areas as therapeutic agents (88.9%), diagnostics (5.5%), vaccines (5.1%) and life-style drugs (0.5%). Among all therapeutic agents, 49 out of 176 agents (28%) were classified as having an important degree of therapeutic innovation. Fifteen out of 60 biotechnological therapeutic agents were considered important therapeutic innovations (25%), whereas this figure was 29% for nonbiotechnological agents. Conclusions Among active substances claimed as innovative by the manufacturers, only a minority deserve this definition according to our algorithm. [source]

The crucial role of metal ions in neurodegeneration: the basis for a promising therapeutic strategy

Alessandra Gaeta
The variety of factors and events involved in neurodegeneration renders the subject a major challenge. Neurodegenerative disorders include a number of different pathological conditions, which share similar critical metabolic processes, such as protein aggregation and oxidative stress, both of which are associated with the involvement of metal ions. In this review, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and prion disease are discussed, with the aim of identifying common trends underlying these devastating neurological conditions. Chelation therapy could be a valuable therapeutic approach, since metals are considered to be a pharmacological target for the rationale design of new therapeutic agents directed towards the treatment of neurodegeneration. British Journal of Pharmacology (2005) 146, 1041,1059. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706416 [source]

Common Inhibition of Both ,-Glucosidases and ,-Mannosidases by Isofagomine Lactam Reflects Different Conformational Itineraries for Pyranoside Hydrolysis

CHEMBIOCHEM, Issue 11 2004
Florence Vincent Dr.
Glycosidase inhibition is a key process both in the pursuit of new therapeutic agents and in the drive to understand transition-state stabilisation by these remarkable enzymes. That isofagomine lactam (1) is an equally potent inhibitor of ,-glucosidases and ,-mannosidases (despite possessing a carbonyl group) adds to the emerging view that mannosidases and glucosidases harness distinct transition states; the B2,5 conformation for some retaining mannosidases and the 4H3 for glucosidases, both of which place O2 pseudo-equatorially. [source]

Rationalizing the Solution Properties of Zwitterions by Means of Computational Chemistry

This short review describes our computational studies of carnitine, acetylcarnitines, and betaines over the past two decades. Interspersed among the three computational studies , a molecular mechanics study of the conformer population of carnitine and acetylcarnitine, an AM1 study of the energetics of hydrolysis of acetylcarnitine, and an HF 6-31G* study of the solvation energies and structures of a homologous series of betaines , are brief overviews of our research in designing and testing new therapeutic agents for non-insulin dependent diabetes and for protection against sexually transmitted diseases. The three studies also show how computational chemistry has evolved during this time to enable an evaluation of the structure and energetics of zwitterions in aqueous solution. [source]