New States (new + states)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Photostimulated Reduction Processes in a Titania Hybrid Metal,Organic Framework

CHEMPHYSCHEM, Issue 11 2010
Aron Walsh Dr.
Lights, camera, action! A hybrid material derived from TiO2 is found to have remarkable defect chemistry: optical excitations larger than the band gap have sufficient energy to reduce titanium, accompanied by oxygen loss (see figure). New states introduced in the electronic gap are responsible for the material,s photochromicity. The future looks bright for photoactive metal,organic frameworks. [source]


ABSTRACT This article traces the association between the European overseas empires and the concept of sovereignty, arguing that, ever since the days of Cicero,if not earlier,Europeans had clung to the idea that there was a close association between a people and the territory it happened to occupy. This made it necessary to think of an "empire" as a unity,an "immense body," to use Tacitus's phrase,that would embrace all its subjects under a single sovereign. By the end of the eighteenth century it had become possible, in this way, to speak of "empires of liberty" that would operate for the ultimate benefit of all their "citizens," freeing them from previous tyrannical rulers and bringing them under the protection of more benign regimes. In such empires sovereignty could only ever be, as it had become in Europe, undivided. The collapse of Europe's "first" empires in the Americas, however, was followed rapidly by Napoleon's attempt to create a new kind of Empire in Europe. The ultimate, and costly, failure of this project led many, Benjamin Constant among them, to believe that the age of empires was now over and had been replaced by the age of commerce. But what in fact succeeded Napoleon was the modern European state system, which attempted not to replace empire by trade, as Constant had hoped, but to create a new kind of empire, one that sought to minimize domination and settlement, and to make a sharp distinction between imperial ruler and imperial subject. In this kind of empire, sovereignty could only be "divided." Various kinds of divided rule were thus devised in the nineteenth century. Far, however, from being an improvement on the past, this ultimately resulted in,or at least contributed greatly to,the emergence of the largely fictional and inevitably unstable societies that after the final collapse of the European empires became the new states of the "developing world." [source]

Bound state spectra of the 3D rational potential

Amlan K. Roy
Abstract We present bound state spectra of the 3D rational potential, V(r) = r2 + ,r2/(1 + gr2), g > 0, by means of the generalized pseudospectral method. All the 30 states corresponding to n = 0,9 are considered for the first time for a broad range of coupling parameters. These results surpass the accuracy of all other existing calculations published so far except the finite-difference method, which yields similar accuracy as ours. Variation of energies and radial distribution functions is followed with respect to the interaction parameters. Special emphasis has been laid on higher excitations and negative values of the interaction, where relatively less work has been reported. The energy sequence is found to be different for positive and negative interaction; numerically following a mirror-image relationship usually, if not always. Additionally, 20 energy splittings arising from certain levels belonging to n = 0,9 are systematically studied as functions of the potential parameters. Several new states (including the higher ones) are presented. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2008 [source]

Studies on some singular potentials in quantum mechanics

Amlan K. RoyArticle first published online: 10 MAY 200
Abstract A simple methodology is suggested for the efficient calculation of certain central potentials having singularities. The generalized pseudospectral method used in this work facilitates nonuniform and optimal spatial discretization. Applications have been made to calculate the energies, densities, and expectation values for two singular potentials of physical interest, viz., (i) the harmonic potential plus inverse quartic and sextic perturbation and (ii) the Coulomb potential with a linear and quadratic term for a broad range of parameters. The first 10 states belonging to a maximum of ,, = 8 and 5 for (i) and (ii) have been computed with good accuracy and compared with the most accurate available literature data. The calculated results are in excellent agreement, especially in light of the difficulties encountered in these potentials. Some new states are reported here for the first time. This offers a general and efficient scheme for calculating these and other similar potentials of physical and mathematical interest in quantum mechanics accurately. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2005 [source]

Nation-building and informal politics

Victor T. Le Vine
Among the problems that confront nation-builders in new states is dealing with their country's informal sector and its politics, manifest not only in the informal economy of markets and hidden transactions, but also its traditional authority systems, networks of patronage, bonds of ethnic and other parochial identities, and illicit activities, including corruption and criminal organisations. Some of these aspects of the informal sector have survived from pre-independence or colonial periods. Others, like kleptocracy and the criminalisation of the state, are outgrowths of the new state and its leadership cadre. These problems largely arise in the so-called juridical state, the legal-rational construct of new statehood, and reflect the failure, or unwillingness of the managers of the new state to move beyond the juridical state to the empirical state, that is, to nationhood and a generalised national identity and citizenship. [source]

Not forging nations but foraging for them: uncertain collective identities in Gran Colombia,

ABSTRACT. This article examines the place of the nation in discussions of collective identities in the early nineteenth century in northern Hispanic South America. It provides a historical account of the birth of national identities in the late colonial and early republican period, and then explores two main sections. The first looks at the port of Riohacha and its experiences during the Wars of Independence. The second examines the in-patients at a hospital in Caracas just after the end of the wars in 1821. The conclusion suggests that foreign involvement in the Wars of Independence was a crucial catalyst to national identity formation in Gran Colombia. As such the article brings out the extent to which these wars were part of Atlantic networks which were being reconfigured during the Age of Revolution. Rather than forging national identities, the Wars of Independence were the arena in which elites foraged for the constituents of new states and nations. [source]

Conditional recognition as an instrument of ethnic conflict regulation: the European Community and Yugoslavia

Richard Caplan
The European Community's conditional recognition of new states in Yugoslavia in 1991,2 represents the revival of an approach to ethnic conflict management that harks back to the Congress of Berlin (1878) and the minority treaties negotiated at the end of the First World War. Despite the historic parallels, and the continued relevance of this approach to ethnic conflict regulation, scholars have given scant attention to the strategic logic governing the EC's use of recognition. This article seeks to recover the conceptual thinking behind the EC's recognition policy. It argues that however much extra-strategic considerations may have informed EC policy and however imperfectly that policy may have been implemented, conditional recognition represented a genuine attempt to address some of the presumed sources of violent conflict in the region. [source]