New Standards (new + standards)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Nanobiomaterials and Nanoanalysis: Opportunities for Improving the Science to Benefit Biomedical Technologies,

W. Grainger
Abstract Nanomaterials advocated for biomedical applications must exhibit well-controlled surface properties to achieve optimum performance in complex biological or physiological fluids. Dispersed materials with extremely high specific surface areas require as extensive characterization as their macroscale biomaterials analogues. However, current literature is replete with many examples of nanophase materials, most notably nanoparticles, with little emphasis placed on reporting rigorous surface analysis or characterization, or in formal implementation of surface property standards needed to validate structure-property relationships for biomedical applications. Correlations of nanophase surface properties with their stability, toxicity and biodistributions are essential for in vivo applications. Surface contamination is likely, given their processing conditions and interfacial energies. Leaching adventitious adsorbates from high surface area nanomaterials is a possible toxicity mechanism. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), long known as a ubiquitous contaminant in clean room conditions, chemical synthesis and microfabrication, remains a likely culprit in nanosystems fabrication, especially in synthesis, soft lithography and contact molding methods. New standards and expectations for analyzing the interfacial properties of nanoparticles and nano-fabricated technologies are required. Surface science analytical rigor similar to that applied to biomedical devices, nanophases in microelectronics and heterogeneous catalysts should serve as a model for nanomaterials characterization in biomedical technologies. [source]

New standards for networked reference services.

Sponsored by SIG LT & ASIST Standards Committee
NISO (National Information Standards Organization) is developing a protocol for networked reference services. The intent of the protocol is to promote the interoperability of disparate online and networked reference systems. This session will provide an overview of the work of the committee developing the protocol including the motivation for its development, technical details of the protocol itself, and the implications it may have for reference services in the future. [source]

Continuing education self-assessment quiz: New standards for permanent tooth emergence in Australian children

Article first published online: 12 MAR 200
In the scientific article by Diamanti and Townsend on page 39 in this issue a number of interesting issues are raised regarding tooth emergence in Australian children. Test you knowledge here by first reading the article entitled: New standards for permanent tooth emergence in Australian children, answer the following questions by indicating what you believe is the one best answer for each of the six questions and then forward the completed questionnaire to the Australian Dental Journal Office and we will let you know how you scored. Please note that the answers have been provided in good faith and to the best of our knowledge are correct. The Editor's decision is final and no correspondence will be entered into. [source]

Core Competencies in Food Science: Background Information on the Development of the IFT Education Standards

Richard W. Hartel
ABSTRACT: In recent years, many professional organizations have shifted their program standards and program review away from course content-based criteria and towards outcome-based learning measures. IFT has recently done the same with implementation of the new IFT Education Standards. These Standards, which replace the old "Minimum Standards for Food Science Programs", were approved by the Executive Committee at their meeting in June, 2001, with implementation beginning in fall, 2001. All food science programs will now be reviewed for IFT approval against these new Standards. This article describes the process by which this change has occurred over the past few years. [source]

On-line monitoring of wastewater quality: a review

Wilfrid Bourgeois
Abstract Real-time monitoring of wastewater quality remains an unresolved problem to the wastewater treatment industry. In order to comply with increasingly stringent environmental regulations, plant operators as well as instrument manufacturers have expressed the need for new standards and improved comparability and reliability of existing techniques. A review of currently available methods for monitoring global organic parameters (BOD, COD, TOC) is given. The study reviews both existing standard techniques and new innovative technologies with the focus on the sensors' potential for on-line and real-time monitoring and control. Current developments of biosensors, optical sensors and sensor arrays as well as virtual sensors for the monitoring of wastewater organic load are presented and the interests and limitations of these techniques with respect to their application to the wastewater monitoring are discussed. © 2001 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

ISBT 128 implementation plan for cellular therapy products

Paul Ashford
Abstract The publication of new standards for terminology and labeling marks an important step in ensuring consistency and traceability of cellular therapies at the global level. However, it is only with the widespread implementation of the standard that the benefits can be truly realized. This paper provides guidance on the practical aspects of adopting these new standards for organizations with differing current levels of computerization. It discusses project management, equipment, licensing, and validation topics. J. Clin. Apheresis, 2007. © 2007 Internal Cellular Therapy Coding and Labeling Advisory Group. [source]

The World Development Report: concepts, content and a Chapter 12,

Robert Chambers
The World Development Report (WDR) process set new standards for openness and consultation. Its concepts and content are a major advance on its 1990 predecessor. The intention that its concepts and content should be influenced by voices of the poor was partly fulfilled. Conceptually, the VOP findings support the multidimensional view of poverty as ,pronounced deprivation of wellbeing', and the use of income-poverty to describe what is only one dimension of poverty (though this welcome usage is not consistent throughout in the WDR). Two concepts or analytical orientations were not adopted: powerlessness and disadvantage seen as a multidimensional interlinked web; and livelihoods. On content, three areas where the influence fell short were: how the police persecute and impoverish poor people; the diversity of the poorest people; and the significance of the body as the main but vulnerable and indivisible asset of many poor people. A weakness of the WDR is its lack of critical self-awareness. Chapter 11 is self-serving for the International Financial Institutions: it lumps loans with grants as concessional finance; it makes liberal use of the term donor, but never lender; and it does not consider debt avoidance as a strategy. The Report ends abruptly, a body without a head. Its multidimensional view of poverty is not matched by a multidimensional view of power and responsibility. A Chapter 12 is crying out to be written. This would confront issues of professional, institutional and personal commitment and change. It would stress critical reflection as a professional norm, disempowerment for democratic diversity as institutional practice, and personal values, attitudes and courageous behaviour as primary and crucial if development is to be change that is good for poor people. A new conclusion is suggested for the WDR, and a title for the World Development Report 2010. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Financial Reporting of Small Business Entities in Canada,

Michael Maingot
Financial reporting for small business entities (SBEs) has been the subject of much debate and concern by the accounting bodies (institutes) in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, and other countries. The main issue for the standard setters is whether they should have one set of standards for all companies or two sets of standards (one for big companies and one for SBEs). The main objective of our study is to examine whether SBEs in Canada should have their own new set of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) or should they continue to use big GAAP used by public companies. To address this issue in the Canadian environment, we sent out a questionnaire to a sample of managers and owners of small businesses, preparers, auditors, and users of small business accounts. These stakeholders were asked to identify the purposes of SBE financial statements, their levels of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the present accounting standards for SBEs, the burdens imposed on the preparers of the financial statements, and the weaknesses of the present standards. Furthermore, they were asked to give the expected advantages of adopting new standards, after having ranked four models of financial reporting of SBEs. The results are quite interesting. Stakeholders indicated that financial statements of SBEs are prepared mainly for taxation purposes and borrowing. They are not satisfied with the present standards because they are costly to comply with and very complex. The burden of producing SBE financial statements can be reduced by simplifying the present standards. The new standards would mean a shorter and simpler form of financial statements. It is hoped that the results of this study will provide the standard setters in Canada and other countries with an indication of the future direction for SBE reporting and accounting. [source]

Setting some new standards in medical education research

Mathieu Albert
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

How residents learn: qualitative evidence for the pivotal role of clinical activities

P W Teunissen
Objectives, Medical councils worldwide have outlined new standards for postgraduate medical education. This means that residency programmes will have to integrate modern educational views into the clinical workplace. Postgraduate medical education is often characterised as a process of learning from experience. However, empirical evidence regarding the learning processes of residents in the clinical workplace is lacking. This qualitative study sought insight into the intricate process of how residents learn in the clinical workplace. Methods, We carried out a qualitative study using focus groups. A grounded theory approach was used to analyse the transcribed tape recordings. A total of 51 obstetrics and gynaecology residents from teaching hospitals and affiliated general hospitals participated in 7 focus group discussions. Participants discussed how they learn and what factors influence their learning. Results, An underlying theoretical framework emerged from the data, which clarified what happens when residents learn by doing in the clinical workplace. This framework shows that work-related activities are the starting point for learning. The subsequent processes of ,interpretation' and ,construction of meaning' lead to refinement and expansion of residents' knowledge and skills. Interaction plays an important role in the learning process. This is in line with both cognitivist and sociocultural views on learning. Conclusions, The presented theoretical framework of residents' learning provides much needed empirical evidence for the actual learning processes of residents in the clinical workplace. The insights it offers can be used to exploit the full educational potential of the clinical workplace. [source]

Semi-automatic tool to describe, store and compare proteomics experiments based on MIAPE compliant reports

Salvador Martínez-Bartolomé
Abstract The Human Proteome Organization's Proteomics Standards Initiative aims to develop new standards for data representation and exchange. The Proteomics Standards Initiative has defined the Minimum Information About a Proteomics Experiment (MIAPE) guidelines that specify the information that should be reported with a published experiment. With the aim of promoting the implementation of standard reporting guidelines, we have developed a web tool that helps to generate and store MIAPE compliant reports describing gel electrophoresis and MS-based experiments. The tool can be used in the reviewing phase of the proteomics publication process and can facilitate data interpretation through the comparison of related studies. [source]

Intellectual Property Rights in the Making: The Evolution of Intellectual Property Provisions in US Free Trade Agreements and Access to Medicine

Gaëlle P. Krikorian
Examining 14 US free trade agreements (FTAs), this article presents a text analysis of their intellectual property (IP) provisions with reference to patents and data protection. For each type of provision present in a given FTA, a "unit of protection" is assigned in that category. This method allows us to estimate the evolution in protection for each type of provision, both relative to the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights standard and from one agreement to the next. The analysis reveals a global increase in IP rights (IPR) protection, as the agreements get more stringent and specific provisions get more intricate and complex. But it also shows that the increase of IPR protection is not strictly linear over time and that some variation does exist in the outcomes of the negotiations. Nevertheless, IPR is clearly on the rise, and close comparative analysis of the different texts sheds light on the process of the setting of these new standards. Ultimately, this analysis provides a snapshot of the challenges that will soon be brought to bear on the policies on access to medicine in developing countries. [source]

Realisation of a fully-deterministic microlensing observing strategy for inferring planet populations,

M. Dominik
Abstract Within less than 15 years, the count of known planets orbiting stars other than the Sun has risen from none to more than 400 with detections arising from four successfully applied techniques: Doppler-wobbles, planetary transits, gravitational microlensing, and direct imaging. While the hunt for twin Earths is on, a statistically well-defined sample of the population of planets in all their variety is required for probing models of planet formation and orbital evolution so that the origin of planets that harbour life, like and including ours, can be understood. Given the different characteristics of the detection techniques, a complete picture can only arise from a combination of their respective results. Microlensing observations are well-suited to reveal statistical properties of the population of planets orbiting stars in either the Galactic disk or bulge from microlensing observations, but a mandatory requirement is the adoption of strictly-deterministic criteria for selecting targets and identifying signals. Here, we describe a fully-deterministic strategy realised by means of the ARTEMiS (Automated Robotic Terrestrial Exoplanet Microlensing Search) system at the Danish 1.54-m telescope at ESO La Silla between June and August 2008 as part of the MiNDSTEp (Microlensing Network for the Detection of Small Terrestrial Exoplanets) campaign, making use of immediate feedback on suspected anomalies recognized by the SIGNALMEN anomaly detector. We demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of such an approach, and thereby the readiness for studying planet populations down to Earth mass and even below, with ground-based observations. While the quality of the real-time photometry is a crucial factor on the efficiency of the campaign, an impairment of the target selection by data of bad quality can be successfully avoided. With a smaller slew time, smaller dead time, and higher through-put, modern robotic telescopes could significantly outperform the 1.54-m Danish, whereas lucky-imaging cameras could set new standards for high-precision follow-up monitoring of microlensing events (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Erläuterungen und Beispiele zur Lastnorm DIN 1055 neu

BAUTECHNIK, Issue 8 2007
Heinrich Schroeter Dr.-Ing.
In diesem Aufsatz wird die Gruppe der neu gefassten Normen über Lastannahmen aus der Sicht des Anwenders kritisch betrachtet. Es werden die wesentlichen nderungen gegenüber den alten Fassungen herausgestellt und auch auf die dadurch häufig vorkommenden Fehlinterpretationen der neuen Normen hingewiesen. Da der Verfasser nicht an der Neufassung mitgearbeitet hat, werden auch keine Auslegungen gegeben. Aus Platzgründen werden die Teile7, 8 und 10 nicht näher behandelt, da diese Teil e nicht bauaufsichtlich eingeführt wurden. Explanations and examples for the new load standard DIN 1055. In this paper the group of the new standards for load assumptions from the view of the user is regarded critically. The substantial changes are put out in relation to the old versions and also to the misinterpretations of the new standards frequently occurring thereby refer. Since the author did not cooperate in the revised version, no interpretations are given. From space reasons, the parts of 7, 8 and 10, are not more nearly treated since these parts were not certified by construction supervision. [source]