New Staging System (new + staging_system)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Evaluation of the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging System for Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Proposal of a New Staging System

DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 11 2005
Scott M. Dinehart MD
Purpose. To identify and propose corrections for deficiencies in the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) system for staging cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Materials and Methods. Prognostic factors for CSCC were identified by retrospective analysis of the published literature. Limitations and deficiencies in the current AJCC staging system for CSCC were then determined using these prognostic factors. Results. Size, histologic differentiation, location, previous treatment, depth of invasion, tumor thickness, histologic subtype, perineural spread, and scar etiology are the most powerful tumor prognostic indicators in patients with localized disease. The most important prognostic factors for patients with nodal metastases are the location, number, and size of the positive lymph nodes. Proposed changes for the T classification include increased stratification of tumor size, identification of patients with perineural invasion, and the addition of tumor thickness or depth of invasion. The N classification has been expanded to include the number and size of nodal metastases. Conclusion. The current AJCC staging system for carcinoma of the skin has deficiencies that limit its use for CSCC. The proposed TMN staging system for CSCC more accurately reflects the prognosis and natural history of CSCC. SCOTT M. DINEHART, MD, AND STEVEN PETERSON, MD, HAVE INDICATED NO SIGNIFICANT INTEREST WITH COMMERCIAL SUPPORTERS. [source]


Extranodal NK,/,T-cell lymphoma, nasal type: New staging system and treatment strategies

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 12 2009
Tae Min Kim
Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NTCL) is characterized by clinical heterogeneity based on clinical prognostic factors and survival outcome. NTCL subsets are classified as upper aerodigestive tract (UAT) NTCL or non-UAT NTCL; non-UAT has pathologic similarity to UAT-NTCL but is a clinically distinct subtype. Due to the clinical heterogeneity of NTCL, optimal treatment modalities and prognostic factors have been difficult to determine. Ann Arbor staging for lymphomas and the International Prognostic Index (IPI) have been used to predict prognosis for UAT-NTCL; however, local tumor invasiveness (bony invasion or perforation or invasion of the overlying skin) is the most significant factor for poor outcomes in localized UAT-NTCL. Thus, a new staging system is proposed: limited disease (stage I/II UAT-NTCL without local tumor invasiveness) and extensive disease (stage I/II with local invasiveness or stage III/IV disease of UAT NTCL, and non-UAT NTCL) based on treatment outcomes. NTCL is resistant to anthracycline-based chemotherapy, whereas non-anthracycline combination chemotherapy (such as ifosfamide, methotrexate, etoposide, and prednisolone) has an activity against NTCL as either a front-line or as a second-line treatment. The effectiveness of radiotherapy is evident in limited disease, but questionable in extensive disease. (Cancer Sci 2009; 100: 2242,2248) [source]


Cutaneous head and neck squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to parotid and cervical lymph nodes

HEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 7 2007
FRANZCR, Michael J. Veness MMed (Clin Epi)
Abstract Nonmelanoma skin cancers occur at an epidemic rate in Australia and are increasing in incidence worldwide. In most patients, local treatment is curative. However, a subset of patients will be diagnosed with a high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and are defined as patients at increased risk of developing metastases to regional lymph nodes. Patients with high-risk SCC may be identified based on primary lesion and patient factors. Most cutaneous SCC arises on the sun-exposed head and neck. The parotid and upper cervical nodes are common sites for the development of metastases arising from ear, anterior scalp, temple/forehead, or scalp SCC. The mortality and morbidity associated with high-risk cutaneous SCC is usually a consequence of uncontrolled metastatic nodal disease and, to a lesser extent, distant metastases. Patients with operable nodal disease have traditionally been recommended for surgery. The efficacy of adjuvant radiotherapy has previously been questioned based on weak evidence in the early literature. Recent evidence from larger studies has, however, strengthened the case for adjuvant radiotherapy as a means to improve locoregional control and survival. Despite this, many patients still experience relapse and die. Research aimed at improving outcome such as a randomized trial incorporating the addition of chemotherapy to adjuvant radiotherapy is currently in progress in Australia and New Zealand. Ongoing research also includes the development of a proposed new staging system and investigating the role of molecular factors such as the epidermal growth factor receptor. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2007 [source]


Significance of clinical stage, extent of surgery, and pathologic findings in metastatic cutaneous squamous carcinoma of the parotid gland,

HEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 5 2002
Christopher J. O'Brien MS, FRACS
Abstract Background Metastatic cutaneous cancer is the most common parotid malignancy in Australia, with metastatic squamous carcinoma (SCC) occurring most frequently. There are limitations in the current TNM staging system for metastatic cutaneous malignancy, because all patients with nodal metastases are simply designated N1, irrespective of the extent of disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of clinical stage, extent of surgery, and pathologic findings on outcome after parotidectomy for metastatic SCC by applying a new staging system that separates metastatic disease in the parotid from metastatic disease in the neck. Methods A prospectively documented series of 87 patients treated by one of the authors (COB) over 12 years for clinical metastatic cutaneous SCC involving the parotid gland and a minimum of 2 years follow-up was analyzed. These patients were all previously untreated and were restaged according to the clinical extent of disease in the parotid gland in the following manner. P1, metastatic SCC of the parotid up to 3 cm in diameter; P2, tumor greater than 3 cm up to 6 cm in diameter or multiple metastatic parotid nodes; P3, tumor greater than 6 cm in diameter, VII nerve palsy, or skull base invasion. Neck disease was staged in the following manner: N0, no clinical metastatic disease in the neck; N1, a single ipsilateral metastatic neck node less than 3 cm in diameter; N2, multiple metastatic nodes or any node greater than 3 cm in diameter. Results Clinical P stages were P1, 43 patients; P2, 35 patients; and P3, 9 patients. A total of 21 patients (24%) had clinically positive neck nodes. Among these, 11 were N1, and 10 were N2. Conservative parotidectomies were carried out in 71 of 87 patients (82%), and 8 of these had involved surgical margins (11%). Radical parotidectomy sacrificing the facial nerve was performed in 16 patients, and 6 (38%) had positive margins, (p < .01 compared with conservative resections). Margins were positive in 12% of patients staged P1, 14% of those staged P2, and 44% of those staged P3 (p < .05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that increasing P stage, positive margins, and a failure to have postoperative radiotherapy independently predicted for decreased control in the parotid region. Survival did not correlate with P stage; however, many patients staged P1 and P2 also had metastatic disease in the neck. Clinical and pathologic N stage both significantly influenced survival, and patients with N2 disease had a much worse prognosis than patients with negative necks or only a single positive node. Independent risk factors for survival by multivariate analysis were positive surgical margins and the presence of advanced (N2) clinical and pathologic neck disease. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that patients with metastatic cutaneous SCC in both the parotid gland and neck have a significantly worse prognosis than those with disease in the parotid gland alone. Furthermore, patients with cervical nodes larger than 3 cm in diameter or with multiple positive neck nodes have a significantly worse prognosis than those with only a single positive node. Also, the extent of metastatic disease in the parotid gland correlated with the local control rate. The authors recommend that the clinical staging system for cutaneous SCC of the head and neck should separate parotid (P) and neck disease (N) and that the proposed staging system should be tested in a larger study population. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Extranodal NK,/,T-cell lymphoma, nasal type: New staging system and treatment strategies

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 12 2009
Tae Min Kim
Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NTCL) is characterized by clinical heterogeneity based on clinical prognostic factors and survival outcome. NTCL subsets are classified as upper aerodigestive tract (UAT) NTCL or non-UAT NTCL; non-UAT has pathologic similarity to UAT-NTCL but is a clinically distinct subtype. Due to the clinical heterogeneity of NTCL, optimal treatment modalities and prognostic factors have been difficult to determine. Ann Arbor staging for lymphomas and the International Prognostic Index (IPI) have been used to predict prognosis for UAT-NTCL; however, local tumor invasiveness (bony invasion or perforation or invasion of the overlying skin) is the most significant factor for poor outcomes in localized UAT-NTCL. Thus, a new staging system is proposed: limited disease (stage I/II UAT-NTCL without local tumor invasiveness) and extensive disease (stage I/II with local invasiveness or stage III/IV disease of UAT NTCL, and non-UAT NTCL) based on treatment outcomes. NTCL is resistant to anthracycline-based chemotherapy, whereas non-anthracycline combination chemotherapy (such as ifosfamide, methotrexate, etoposide, and prednisolone) has an activity against NTCL as either a front-line or as a second-line treatment. The effectiveness of radiotherapy is evident in limited disease, but questionable in extensive disease. (Cancer Sci 2009; 100: 2242,2248) [source]