New Spaces (new + space)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences


Selected Abstracts


New Spaces in Accra: transnational houses

CITY & SOCIETY, Issue 1 2003
Deborah Pellow
Accra has been Ghana's primate city since the British moved their administrative headquarters there in 1877. The city took shape under British site planning and like many colonial cities, it developed a spatial layout that distinguished different neighborhoods, such as the old core, the European section, and the Muslim zongo or stranger area. Accra's Sabon Zongo ("new zongo") was founded in the first decade of the 20th century, as a refuge for migrant Hausa who had been living in the original zongo in the city's core. House ownership continues to confer status in the community but there is little room left for building. Hausa transmigrants from Sabon Zongo have been going abroad and remitting money back home, largely to build homes in the new peri-urban margins of Accra. This paper focuses upon the latter phenomenon , the new styles of houses they are building, the process this involves, and how these styles may accommodate worldview, lifestyle and behaviors different from those with which these men were raised in Sabon Zongo. [transmigration, housing, Ghana] [source]


Landscapes of voluntarism: New spaces of health, welfare and governance

NEW ZEALAND GEOGRAPHER, Issue 3 2007
Janine Wiles
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


,New spaces' for change?: Diamond governance reforms and the micro-politics of participation in post-war Sierra Leone

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION & DEVELOPMENT, Issue 3 2010
Roy Maconachie
Abstract While the majority of research carried out on diamonds and development in Sierra Leone has focused on debates concerning the role that diamonds played in the country's civil war of the 1990s, little attention has been directed towards understanding how the emergence and consequences of ,new spaces' for citizen engagement in diamond governance are shaping relationships between mining and political economic change in the post-war period. Recent fieldwork carried out in two communities in Kono District illustrates how the emergence of such spaces,although much celebrated by government, donors and development practitioners,may not necessarily be creating the ,room for manoeuvre' necessary to open up meaningful public engagement in resource governance. The analysis focuses on one recent governance initiative in the diamond sector,the Diamond Area Community Development Fund (DACDF),which aims to strengthen citizen participation in decision-making within the industry, but has frequently been at the centre of controversy. In framing and articulating socio-environmental struggles over resource access and control in Sierra Leone's post-war period of transition, the article highlights how the emerging geographies of participation continue to be shaped by unequal power relationships, in turn having an impact on livelihood options, decision-making abilities and development outcomes in the country's diamondiferous communities. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Population dynamics of the ectomycorrhizal fungal species Tricholoma populinum and Tricholoma scalpturatum associated with black poplar under differing environmental conditions

ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 5 2006
Hervé Gryta
Summary Fungi combine sexual reproduction and clonal propagation. The balance between these two reproductive modes affects establishment dynamics, and ultimately the evolutionary potential of populations. The pattern of colonization was studied in two species of ectomycorrhizal fungi: Tricholoma populinum and Tricholoma scalpturatum. The former is considered to be a host specialist whereas T. scalpturatum is a generalist taxon. Fruit bodies of both basidiomycete species were mapped and collected over several years from a black poplar (Populus nigra) stand, at two different sites. Multilocus genotypes (= genets) were identified based on the analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) patterns and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in the ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer (rDNA IGS). The genetic analyses revealed differences in local population dynamics between the two species. Tricholoma scalpturatum tended to capture new space through sexual spores whereas T. populinum did this by clonal growth, suggesting trade-offs in allocation of resources at the genet level. Genet numbers and sizes strongly differ between the two study sites, perhaps as a result of abiotic disturbance on mycelial establishment and genet behaviour. [source]


Censorship and Opinion Formation:,Franziska Linkerhand,on the GDR Stage

GERMAN LIFE AND LETTERS, Issue 3 2010
Laura Bradley
ABSTRACT This article uses the stage history of,Franziska Linkerhand,to cast new perspectives on GDR theatre after Wolf Biermann's expatriation. Whilst this period is usually associated with a retreat from experimentation, new space for innovative contemporary drama opened up in the spring and summer of 1978. Christoph Schroth's groundbreaking production of,Franziska Linkerhand,was judged a qualified success when it was premièred in Schwerin, but it sparked controversy in Leipzig and especially in East Berlin. After prolonged negotiations, performances in Schwerin were allowed to continue, but plans for new productions in Halle and Wittenberg were dropped. The changing theatrical fortunes of,Franziska Linkerhand,thus allow us to trace processes of opinion formation within the theatre community and political establishment, and to show how and why the Culture Ministry had to change its policy on GDR drama in autumn 1978 , a change which historians have previously overlooked. The case study also sheds new light on the nature and extent of regional differences in GDR theatre censorship in the 1970s: whilst East Berlin's First Party Secretary pushed for tighter restrictions than the Ministry, the different decisions reached in other regions can be explained by the changes in central policy. An hand einer Untersuchung der Inszenierungsgeschichte von,Franziska Linkerhand,wirft dieser Beitrag ein neues Licht auf das DDR-Theater nach der Ausbürgerung Wolf Biermanns. Obwohl die Jahre nach 1976 gewöhnlich mit einem Rückgang an künstlerischen Experimenten assoziiert werden, öffnete sich im Frühling und Sommer 1978 neuer Raum für innovative Gegenwartsdramatik. Christoph Schroths bahnbrechende Inszenierung von,Franziska Linkerhand,schien sich in Schwerin anfangs durchgesetzt zu haben, löste in Leipzig und vor allem in Ostberlin jedoch heftige Kontroversen aus. Nach langen Verhandlungen durfte das Stück in Schwerin weiterhin aufgeführt werden, Pläne für neue Inszenierungen in Halle und Wittenberg wurden jedoch gestrichen. Der Beitrag unternimmt den Versuch, an hand dieser Entwicklungen der Meinungsbildung unter Theaterleuten und Funktionären nachzuspüren und somit zu erklären, warum das Ministerium für Kultur im Herbst 1978 seine Linie im Hinblick auf die Gegenwartsdramatik ändern musste. Historiker haben diesen Kurswechsel bisher übersehen. Die Fallstudie bietet auch neue Einsichten in die Ursachen und das Ausmaß regionaler Unterschiede in der DDR-Theaterzensur der siebziger Jahre: während der Erste Sekretär der Ostberliner SED-Bezirksleitung eine strengere Politik als das Ministerium vertrat, lassen sich die unterschiedlichen Entscheidungen in anderen Bezirken durch den Kurswechsel in der zentralen Theaterpolitik erklären. [source]


Improved genetic algorithm for design optimization of truss structures with sizing, shape and topology variables

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Issue 13 2005
Wenyan Tang
Abstract This paper presents an improved genetic algorithm (GA) to minimize weight of truss with sizing, shape and topology variables. Because of the nature of discrete and continuous variables, mixed coding schemes are proposed, including binary and float coding, integer and float coding. Surrogate function is applied to unify the constraints into single one; moreover surrogate reproduction is developed to select good individuals to mating pool on the basis of constraint and fitness values, which completely considers the character of constrained optimization. This paper proposes a new strategy of creating next population by competing between parent and offspring population based on constraint and fitness values; so that lifetime of excellent gene is prolonged. Because the initial population is created randomly and three operators of GA are also indeterminable, it is necessary to check whether the structural topology is desirable. An improved restart operator is proposed to introduce new gene and explore new space, so that the reliability of GA is enhanced. Selected examples are solved; the improved numerical results demonstrate that the enhanced GA scheme is feasible and effective. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


(W)rapped Space: The Architecture of Hip Hop

JOURNAL OF ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION, Issue 1 2000
Craig L. Wilkins
My research work is broadly framed around the confluence of contemporary and historical-spatial-theoretical understandings, architecture, the progressive self-defining energy of African-American culture, and the historical legacy of urban spaces in current society. A preeminent principle of this confluence focuses on questions of identity. "(W)rapped Space: The Architecture of Hip Hop" theorizes the development of an African-American spatial paradigm that at once recalls, creates, and deploys a new space of diasporian origin that is predicated on a response to spaces that represent an erasure of identity and, concomitantly, the presence of repressive power. [source]


A new space and time sensor fusion method for mobile robot navigation

JOURNAL OF FIELD ROBOTICS (FORMERLY JOURNAL OF ROBOTIC SYSTEMS), Issue 7 2004
TaeSeok Jin
To fully utilize the information from the sensors of mobile robot, this paper proposes a new sensor-fusion technique where the sample data set obtained at a previous instant is properly transformed and fused with the current data sets to produce a reliable estimate for navigation control. Exploration of an unknown environment is an important task for the new generation of mobile service robots. The mobile robots may navigate by means of a number of monitoring systems such as the sonar-sensing system or the visual-sensing system. Notice that in the conventional fusion schemes, the measurement is dependent on the current data sets only. Therefore, more sensors are required to measure a given physical parameter or to improve the reliability of the measurement. However, in this approach, instead of adding more sensors to the system, the temporal sequences of the data sets are stored and utilized for the purpose. The basic principle is illustrated by examples and the effectiveness is proved through simulations and experiments. The newly proposed STSF (space and time sensor fusion) scheme is applied to the navigation of a mobile robot in an environment using landmarks, and the experimental results demonstrate the effective performance of the system. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


"SAVING" MALAWI: FAITHFUL RESPONSES TO ORPHANS AND VULNERABLE CHILDREN

ANNALS OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL PRACTICE, Issue 1 2010
Andrea Freidus
Malawi is scrambling to deal with one million orphans while contending with state rollbacks resulting in economic, political, and social breakdowns. As a result, a new space is emerging for faith-based organizations. Their presence is justified through a global discourse of connection rooted in the western ideology of childhood as a state of innocence and immaturity in need of protection and intervention. These organizations function with myriad ideologies, projects, and resources as they develop intimate linkages with children and communities. This article highlights the disjuncture between western conceptualizations and Malawian understandings of orphans, illustrating how this disjuncture results in unanticipated consequences as material resources are deployed and programs implemented. Two faith-based organizations focusing on orphans and some unanticipated outcomes of these emerging global ties are examined. [source]


Disturbance mediates the effects of nutrients on developing assemblages of epibiota

AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, Issue 8 2008
NELSON VALDIVIA
Abstract Local dynamics such as resource enhancement (e.g. nutrient supply) and stochastic events of destruction (disturbances that provide new space) are hypothesized to counteractively affect species diversity and composition. We tested the independent and interactive effects of nutrients and disturbance on the development of assemblages of epibiota attached to vertical surfaces in an oligotrophic system. Nutrient concentrations were manipulated at three levels (ambient, medium and high) while disturbance was manipulated by removing biomass at seven frequencies (0×, 2×, 3×, 4×, 5×, 7×, 12×). Nutrient and disturbance regimes had opposing effects on diversity such that species richness increased with resource enhancement (nutrients) and declined with disturbance. These results support the model that increased heterogeneity of distribution of limiting resources allows the coexistence of species with low and high resource requirements. [source]


The ,New Woman' and the Politics of Love, Marriage and Divorce in Colonial Korea

GENDER & HISTORY, Issue 2 2005
Theodore Jun Yoo
This study seeks to explore the changing discursive forces that competed to define Korean women's identity and roles within the context of the new spaces created by colonialism and modernity. It argues that a small coterie of literate women seized the initiative to enhance their education, define the politics of physical aesthetics and con-tribute to the debate about the changing gender roles and expectations in Korean society all under the guise of 'Westernisation' and progress. The emergence of these 'new women' challenged traditional notions of Korean womanhood and brought the 'woman question' to the forefront of public discourse. [source]


GLOBALIZATION AND EXTERRITORIALITY IN METROPOLITAN CAIRO

GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW, Issue 3 2005
PETRA KUPPINGER
ABSTRACT. Rapid construction of new spaces like hotels, malls, private clubs, and gated communities in Greater Cairo, Egypt produces structures disconnected spatially and conceptually from most of the existing urban fabric. Their spatial concepts and practices, as well as architectural forms and expertise, are based largely on globally available models. Planning and construction are guided by the search for security in the face of real or imagined fear of the urban masses and political upheaval. Concrete walls, guarded entrances, and high-tech security technology bear witness to these fears. Analysis of the Mena House Hotel, the Grand Egyptian Museum project, and the First Mall in Giza shows how these projects globalize Cairo and localize the global. Often these globalized spaces are remade by creating local and regional ties and design features that were not anticipated by the planners. Such changes shed light on underlying dynamics and contribute to a better understanding of in situ globalization. Whereas their physical features tend to accentuate their globalized nature, these spaces do not exist in isolation from their geographical and cultural contexts. Their everyday realities tell tales of reterritorialization that are frequently overlooked in scholarly debates. [source]


The appropriation and repurposing of social technologies in higher education

JOURNAL OF COMPUTER ASSISTED LEARNING, Issue 1 2009
A. Hemmi
Abstract This paper presents some of the findings from a recent project that conducted a virtual ethnographic study of three formal courses in higher education that use ,Web 2.0' or social technologies for learning and teaching. It describes the pedagogies adopted within these courses, and goes on to explore some key themes emerging from the research and relating to the pedagogical use of weblogs and wikis in particular. These themes relate primarily to the academy's tendency to constrain and contain the possibly more radical effects of these new spaces. Despite this, the findings present a range of student and tutor perspectives which show that these technologies have significant potential as new collaborative, volatile and challenging environments for formal learning. [source]


To open up new spaces of thought: anthropology BSC (beyond society and culture)

THE JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, Issue 1 2010
Tobias Rees
First page of article [source]


Making Trash into Treasure: Struggles for Autonomy on a Brazilian Garbage Dump

ANTHROPOLOGY OF WORK REVIEW, Issue 2 2008
Kathleen Millar
Abstract In recent years, the expansion of types of work that fall outside the category of formal waged employment challenge many of our anthropological conceptions of labor, class politics and contemporary capitalism. This paper addresses the need to rethink the meaning of work in the context of neoliberal capitalism by exploring the formation of new worker subjectivities and practices among catadores: informal workers who collect and sell recyclable materials on a garbage dump in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Based on ethnographic research conducted among catadores from June through August of 2005 and in January 2007, this paper provides an analysis of the labor conditions, social relations, and forms of political organizing that have emerged on the garbage dump and which differ in significant ways from those found in situations of formal wage labor. Ultimately, this paper argues that while neoliberal capitalism has led to increased unemployment and underemployment among vulnerable populations in cities worldwide, the practices of those struggling to earn a living in urban informal economies are creating new spaces for alternative economic practices, social relations, and class politics today. [source]


Shifting Environmental Governance in a Neoliberal World: US AID for Conservation

ANTIPODE, Issue 3 2010
Catherine Corson
Abstract:, By exploring the shifting and uneven power relations among state, market and civil society organizations in US environmental foreign aid policy-making, this article forges new ground in conversations about conservation and neoliberalism. Since the 1970s, an evolving group of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) has lobbied the US Congress to support environmental foreign assistance. However, the 1980s and 1990s rise of neoliberalism laid the conditions for the formation of a dynamic alliance among representatives of the US Congress, the US Agency for International Development, environmental NGOs and the private sector around biodiversity conservation. In this alliance, idealized visions of NGOs as civil society and a countering force to corporations have underpinned their influence, despite their contemporary corporate partnerships. Furthermore, by focusing on,international,biodiversity conservation, the group has attracted a broad spectrum of political and corporate support to shape public policy and in the process create new spaces for capital expansion. [source]


Geographies of embodied outdoor experience and the arrival of the patio heater

AREA, Issue 3 2007
Russell Hitchings
Machines that provide people with nearby sources of outdoor warmth have become increasingly popular in the UK as a crop of mushroom-shaped technologies has started to spring up outside many public houses and private homes in this country. Yet this development has also received considerable condemnation from advocates of sustainable consumption, who have seemingly been disgusted by the societal self-indulgence that they see in these devices. Moving away from these more immediate forms of outrage, this paper enriches our understanding of their arrival by considering these heaters in terms of cultural conventions of thermal adaptation and the changing geographies that can be attached to them. Through these means, it is argued that a more nuanced understanding of why these technologies have become prevalent is produced and that an existing disciplinary interest in embodied outdoor experience is taken towards some important new spaces for study. [source]


Re-encountering resistance: Plantation activism and smallholder production in Thailand and Sarawak, Malaysia

ASIA PACIFIC VIEWPOINT, Issue 3 2004
Keith BarneyArticle first published online: 6 DEC 200
Abstract:,The emergence of social and environmental movements against plantation forestry in Southeast Asia positions rural development against local displacement and environmental degradation. Multi-scaled NGO networks have been active in promoting the notion that rural people in Southeast Asia uniformly oppose plantation development. There are potential pitfalls in this heightened attention to resistance however, as it has often lapsed into essentialist notions of timeless indigenous agricultural practices, and unproblematic local allegiances to common property and conservation. An exclusive emphasis on resistance also offers little understanding of widespread smallholder participation in plantation production across the region. A useful method of approaching the complexity of local responses to plantation development is through the history of legal and informal resource tenure, within an analysis of rural political-economic restructuring. Drawing on research in Thailand and Sarawak, I suggest that a more nuanced appreciation of both the structural constraints and deployments of agency which characterise the enrolment of rural people into plantation commodity networks, opens up new spaces for analysis and political action, which supports a geographically embedded view of relations of power, rural livelihoods and environmental politics. [source]


Resituating narrative and story in business ethics

BUSINESS ETHICS: A EUROPEAN REVIEW, Issue 3 2010
Kenneth Mølbjerg Jørgensen
In this article, we resituate a long-standing duality of (Western) narrative tradition over living story emergence and more linear narrative. Narrative, with its focus on linear beginning, middle and end coherence, retrospection and monologic, is too easily appropriated into managerialist projects. We focus on the web of living stories as a Derridian deconstructive move, which allows us to say something important about their relation to narrative and to develop a storytelling ethics. Our thesis is that resituating the relationship between narrative and living story invites exploration of the plurality of narratives that treat living stories as supplementary. We claim that this deconstructive move allows us to rethink politics and ethics anew. Storytelling ethics opens new spaces for marginalized other(s) voices and creates an awareness of our complicity and responsibility for others. Further, storytelling ethics allows for a more nuanced and varied understanding of business ethics and its inherent exclusionary truth and morality claims and paves the way for a more reflexive ethics. [source]


,New spaces' for change?: Diamond governance reforms and the micro-politics of participation in post-war Sierra Leone

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION & DEVELOPMENT, Issue 3 2010
Roy Maconachie
Abstract While the majority of research carried out on diamonds and development in Sierra Leone has focused on debates concerning the role that diamonds played in the country's civil war of the 1990s, little attention has been directed towards understanding how the emergence and consequences of ,new spaces' for citizen engagement in diamond governance are shaping relationships between mining and political economic change in the post-war period. Recent fieldwork carried out in two communities in Kono District illustrates how the emergence of such spaces,although much celebrated by government, donors and development practitioners,may not necessarily be creating the ,room for manoeuvre' necessary to open up meaningful public engagement in resource governance. The analysis focuses on one recent governance initiative in the diamond sector,the Diamond Area Community Development Fund (DACDF),which aims to strengthen citizen participation in decision-making within the industry, but has frequently been at the centre of controversy. In framing and articulating socio-environmental struggles over resource access and control in Sierra Leone's post-war period of transition, the article highlights how the emerging geographies of participation continue to be shaped by unequal power relationships, in turn having an impact on livelihood options, decision-making abilities and development outcomes in the country's diamondiferous communities. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]