New Source (new + source)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Cervicomental "Turkey Gobbler": A New Source for Full-Thickness Grafts

FIACS, Lawrence M. Field MD
A LARGE NUMBER of sources for full-thickness grafts have been described. The concepts of adapting liposuction techniques from cosmetic surgery to reconstructive surgery, especially with flap reconstructions, have been well documented by this author and others in many forums over many years.1,7 However, obtaining the excess skin of the lower neck in those patients with "turkey gobbler" deformities utilizing liposuction aspiration and dissection techniques has not been previously documented. This same approach might at times be valuable in very obese necks with excessively redundant skin as well. [source]

The Debate in the House of Lords on ,No Peace without Spain', 7 December 1711: A New Source

The debate in the house of lords on ,No Peace without Spain' in December 1711 was the first test of the strength of the administration of Robert Harley, earl of Oxford, in the upper House. Though there are more sources for this debate than is normal for proceedings in the Lords, few can claim to be by eyewitnesses. A newly ,discovered' anonymous letter from an eyewitness found in the papers of the lord great chamberlain's office in the Parliamentary Archives gives a detailed account of this important debate. [source]

Linkage and quantitative trait locus mapping of foliage late blight resistance in the wild species Solanum vernei

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 3 2006
K. K. Sørensen
Abstract The global cultivation of potato (Solanum tuberosum) is threatened by epidemics caused by new variants of the late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans. New sources of durable late blight resistance are urgently needed and these may be found in wild Solanum species. The diploid wild species, S. vernei, has not previously been subjected to mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for late blight resistance. Two populations designated HGIHJS and HGG, originating from a cross between a clone of S. vernei and two different S. tuberosum clones were evaluated in field trials for late blight infestation. The relative area under the disease progress curve (RAUDPC) was estimated and used for QTL mapping. A linkage map of S. vernei, comprising 11 linkage groups, nine of which could be assigned to chromosomes, was constructed. Results indicated that the resistance in S. vernei was quantitatively inherited. Significant QTLs for late blight resistance were identified on chromosomes VIII (HGG), VI and IX (HGIHJS). In addition, potential QTLs were detected on chromosomes VII (HGIHJS) and IX (HGG). A putative and a significant QTL for tuber yield were found on chromosomes VI and VII in HGG, but no linkage between yield and resistance was indicated. The QTL for late blight resistance, which mapped to chromosome IX, could be useful for late blight resistance breeding as it was located close to the microsatellite marker STM1051 in both populations. [source]

,The seat of death and terror': urbanization, stunting, and smallpox

Deborah Oxley
Recent works have investigated whether smallpox stunted growth. The answer is important for disentangling the factors driving changing heights. This article outlines the disease and its history in Britain. It then introduces a new source for the study of smallpox: prisoner records. These offer rich descriptions of individuals, including a pockmarked complexion. While pockmarks were not clearly associated with stunting in Ireland or in most of England, the connection did exist in London. In the metropolis, smallpox acted as a proxy for the worst urban disamenities, being most prevalent in the poorest, most overcrowded parts of the city. [source]

Volatile constituents of the cold desert plant Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. ,

U. Mahmood
Abstract The essential oil of Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. (Lamiaceae) from wild and cultivated plants was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC,MS techniques. Twelve constituents, accounting for 96.8% of the total oil from wild plants, and nineteen constituents, accounting for 99.9% of the total oil from cultivated plants, were identified. Citronellol was identified as one of the major constituents, attaining 74.9% in the wild and 54.3% in the cultivated population, respectively. This plant was found to be a new source of citronellol and rose oxides, which are mostly used in the essential oil and perfumery industry. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Rock Art: A Potential Source of Information about Past Maritime Technology in the South-East Asia-Pacific Region

Peter V. Lape
It is possible that most or all boats and rig-types used in prehistoric times in the South-East Asia-Pacific region have completely disappeared from the record, and that those recorded by Europeans in the 17th century may have been relatively recent innovations. The purpose of this paper is to introduce to the literature a new source of information on ancient boat and rig designs. This source is the information encoded in rock-art depictions of watercraft. This paper provides a technical appraisal of 18 images of watercraft from the Tutuala region of East Timor. © 2007 The Authors [source]

Immigration Policy and Employment Conditions of US Immigrants from Mexico, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic1

Katharine M. Donato
ABSTRACT Prior studies suggest that the passage of the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) in 1986 signalled a deterioration in the labour market conditions of Mexican migrants. In this paper, we examine whether and how labour market conditions worsened for Dominicans and Nicaraguans after 1986, and the extent to which these shifts were comparable to those experienced by Mexicans. Our analysis relies on a new source of data that offers comparable data across the three national origins. We estimate multivariate models that capture the effects of demographic attributes, human and social capital, migration-specific human and social capital, legal status, period of trip, national origin, and other controls on the hourly wages earned by household heads and whether they received cash wages on their last US trip. Models with interaction terms reveal significant pre- and post-1986 wage effects, but few differences in these effects between Mexicans and Dominicans or Nicaraguans. In contrast, group differences appear in the risk of cash receipt of wages. Dominicans and Nicaraguans experienced a greater increase in this risk relative to Mexicans pre- and post-1986. Together, these findings depict a broader, negative impact of IRCA on Latino migrant wages than has been documented elsewhere. [source]

Cord blood banking: ethical and cost,benefit aspects

S. Querol
Cord blood represents a new source of stem cells on the edge of fetal and postnatal life. Increasing interest in stem cell therapy has moulded cord blood banking scope, evolving to a multidisciplinary platform exceeding the classic field of haemotherapy. This review intends to re-analyse this and presents the new aspects of cord blood banking that direct it to a model of cell pharmacy in a globalized world. [source]

Hyperlink Analyses of the World Wide Web: A Review

Han Woo Park
We have recently witnessed the growth of hyperlink studies in the field of Internet research. Although investigations have been conducted across many disciplines and topics, their approaches can be largely divided into hyperlink network analysis (HNA) and Webometrics. This article is an extensive review of the two analytical methods, and a reflection on their application. HNA casts hyperlinks between Web sites (or Web pages) as social and communicational ties, applying standard techniques from Social Networks Analysis to this new data source. Webometrics has tended to apply much simpler techniques combined with a more in-depth investigation into the validity of hypotheses about possible interpretations of the results. We conclude that hyperlinks are a highly promising but problematic new source of data that can be mined for previously hidden patterns of information, although much care must be taken in the collection of raw data and in the interpretation of the results. In particular, link creation is an unregulated phenomenon and so it would not be sensible to assume that the meaning of hyperlinks in any given context is evident, without a systematic study of the context of link creation, and of the relationship between link counts, among other measurements. Social Networks Analysis tools and techniques form an excellent resource for hyperlink analysis, but should only be used in conjunction with improved techniques for data collection, validation and interpretation. [source]

A new source of aging?

Helen Knaggs MD
Summary There has been a considerable increase in understanding how skin ages, along with significant progress toward the correction and prevention of the visible signs of aging. However, there are still many unknown factors regarding why we age , and why we all seem to age differently. An area of high interest is the biological or intrinsic processes that affect our appearance over time. This article describes a recent discovery of a membrane bound enzyme proven to be present in skin and increases its activity as biological age increases. The enzyme is located on the external surface of both fibroblast and keratinocytes, and generates free radicals. Therefore, as we age there appears to be a biological mechanism that further increases the production of free radicals. Additionally, there appears to be a relationship between activity of the enzyme and appearance. Data showed that subjects who look younger than their biological age had lower enzyme activity and conversely, subjects who looked older than their biological age had higher enzyme activity. Free radicals are believed to be a major contributing factor in the production of fine lines and wrinkles by destroying the collagen and elastin network keeping skin supple and firm. [source]

Three-dimensional reconstruction of the odontophoral cartilages of Caenogastropoda (Mollusca: Gastropoda) using micro-CT: Morphology and phylogenetic significance

Rosemary E. Golding
Abstract Odontophoral cartilages are located in the molluscan buccal mass and support the movement of the radula during feeding. The structural diversity of odontophoral cartilages is currently known only from limited taxa, but this information is important for interpreting phylogeny and for understanding the biomechanical operation of the buccal mass. Caenogastropods exhibit a wide variety of feeding strategies, but there is little comparative information on cartilage morphology within this group. The morphology of caenogastropod odontophoral cartilages is currently known only from dissection and histology, although preliminary results suggest that they may be structurally diverse. A comparative morphological survey of 18 caenogastropods and three noncaenogastropods has been conducted, sampling most major caenogastropod superfamilies. Three-dimensional models of the odontophoral cartilages were generated using X-ray microscopy (micro-CT) and reconstruction by image segmentation. Considerable morphological diversity of the odontophoral cartilages was found within Caenogastropoda, including the presence of thin cartilaginous appendages, asymmetrically overlapping cartilages, and reflexed cartilage margins. Many basal caenogastropod taxa possess previously unidentified cartilaginous support structures below the radula (subradular cartilages), which may be homologous to the dorsal cartilages of other gastropods. As subradular cartilages were absent in carnivorous caenogastropods, adaptation to trophic specialization is likely. However, incongruence with specific feeding strategies or body size suggests that the morphology of odontophoral cartilages is constrained by phylogeny, representing a new source of morphological characters to improve the phylogenetic resolution of this group. J. Morphol. 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Ascertainment of birth defects: The effect on completeness of adding a new source of data

C Bower
Background: The Western Australian (WA) Birth Defects Registry aims for complete ascertainment of birth defects in WA, but the proportions of birth defects in rural areas and in Aboriginal children are lower than in metropolitan and non-Aboriginal children. The effect on ascertainment of adding data from the Rural Paediatric Service (RPS) was investigated. Method: A file of all cases of birth defects for children born 1980,1997 and recorded on the RPS database was linked to the Registry. Results: The addition of this new data source had little effect on the overall prevalence of birth defects (an increase from 5.38 to 5.41%). There was a slightly greater effect on the prevalence of birth defects in rural residents (4.67%,4.76%) and Aboriginal children (4.55,4.78%), although the prevalence for each of these groups is still less than for metropolitan residents and non-Aboriginal infants, respectively. All major categories of birth defects were represented in the new cases and, in general, their addition made little difference to the prevalence of each category. The exception was fetal alcohol syndrome, which increased from 0.13 per 1000 to 0.18 per 1000 once the 21 new cases from the RPS were added. Conclusion: Complete ascertainment of birth defects is important in developing and evaluating preventive programs, and in investigating clusters of birth defects. [source]


Antonella Nocco
ABSTRACT We investigate the effect of preference heterogeneity between skilled and unskilled workers on agglomeration, and we identify a new source of dependence of equilibrium prices on the demand properties shaped by the inter-regional distribution of workers. We find a new preference effect, and we show that when the intensity of skilled workers' preference for the modern good and its variety is strong enough, prices charged by firms may even increase when the mass of local firms increases, therefore acting as a new dispersion force when trade costs are low or as a new agglomeration force when trade costs are high. [source]


ABSTRACT Fish protein isolate (FPI) made from haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) cut-offs by the pH-shift process was added to haddock mince to make two groups of fried fish balls. The proportions (%) of mince to isolate were 100:0 (control group), 75:25 and 50:50. All groups were air packed and kept frozen at ,18C. The sample groups were evaluated by sensory evaluation 1 day after processing and after 2, 4 and 8 weeks of storage at ,18C. The results indicated that added FPI to mince and frozen storage affected the odor, flavor, texture and appearance of fish balls significantly, possibly because of chemical and biochemical changes of all groups. This study also revealed that most negative features are attributed to the groups containing 50% mince and 50% isolate. The results can be considered for product development of FPI. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Fish protein isolate from by-products is a new source of fish protein to produce ready-to-eat or value-added products. Little information has been published on product development about fish protein isolate and quality and sensory attributes of such products. Therefore, the results of this study could be useful for applying fish protein isolate to food systems. [source]

Use of Record Linkage to Examine Alcohol Use in Pregnancy

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 4 2006
Lucy Burns
Background: To date, no population-level data have been published examining the obstetric and neonatal outcomes for women with an alcohol-related hospital admission during pregnancy compared with the general obstetric population. This information is critical to planning and implementing appropriate services. Methods: Antenatal and delivery admissions to New South Wales (NSW) hospitals from the NSW Inpatient Statistics Collection were linked to birth information from the NSW Midwives Data Collection over a 5-year period (1998,2002). Birth admissions were flagged as positive for maternal alcohol use where a birth admission or any pregnancy admission for that birth involved an alcohol-related International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, Australian Modification (ICD-10-AM) code. Key demographic, obstetric, and neonatal variables were compared for births to mothers in the alcohol group with births where no alcohol-related ICD10-AM was recorded. Results: A total of 416,834 birth records were analyzed over a 5-year period (1998,2002). In this time, 342 of these were coded as positive for at least 1 alcohol-related ICD-10-AM diagnosis. Mothers in the alcohol group had a higher number of previous pregnancies, smoked more heavily, were not privately insured, and were more often indigenous. They also presented later on in their pregnancy to antenatal services and were more likely to arrive at hospital unbooked for delivery. Deliveries involved less epidural and local and more general anesthesia. Cesarean sections were more common to women in the alcohol group and were performed more often for intrauterine growth retardation. Neonates born to women in the alcohol group were smaller for gestational age, had lower Apgar scores at 5 minutes, and were admitted to special care nursery more often. Conclusions: This study shows that linked population-level administrative data provide a powerful new source of information for examining the maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with alcohol use in pregnancy. [source]

Google book search: Citation analysis for social science and the humanities

Kayvan Kousha
In both the social sciences and the humanities, books and monographs play significant roles in research communication. The absence of citations from most books and monographs from the Thomson Reuters/Institute for Scientific Information databases (ISI) has been criticized, but attempts to include citations from or to books in the research evaluation of the social sciences and humanities have not led to widespread adoption. This article assesses whether Google Book Search (GBS) can partially fill this gap by comparing citations from books with citations from journal articles to journal articles in 10 science, social science, and humanities disciplines. Book citations were 31% to 212% of ISI citations and, hence, numerous enough to supplement ISI citations in the social sciences and humanities covered, but not in the sciences (3%,5%), except for computing (46%), due to numerous published conference proceedings. A case study was also made of all 1,923 articles in the 51 information science and library science ISI-indexed journals published in 2003. Within this set, highly book-cited articles tended to receive many ISI citations, indicating a significant relationship between the two types of citation data, but with important exceptions that point to the additional information provided by book citations. In summary, GBS is clearly a valuable new source of citation data for the social sciences and humanities. One practical implication is that book-oriented scholars should consult it for additional citations to their work when applying for promotion and tenure. [source]

Money, Elections, and Democracy in Brazil

David Samuels
ABSTRACT Brazil,s 1993 law requiring candidates to report their campaign contributions has generated a new source of data to explore the supposition that Brazilian elections are extraordinarily expensive. An examination of these data from Brazil,s 1994 and 1998 general elections reveals that most money for Brazilian electoral campaigns comes from business sources and that leftist candidates have extremely limited access to such financing. The effect on democracy is that Brazil,s largely unregulated campaign finance system tends to decrease the scope of interest representation. [source]

The role of Steller sea lions in a large population decline of harbor seals

Elizabeth A. Mathews
Abstract We provide the first direct evidence that Steller sea lions will prey on harbor seals. Direct observations of predation on marine mammals at sea are rare, but when observed rates of predation are extrapolated, predation mortality may be found to be significant. From 1992 to 2002, harbor seals in Glacier Bay declined steeply, from 6,200 to 2,500 (,65%). After documenting that Steller sea lions were preying on seals in Glacier Bay, we investigated increased predation by sea lions as a potential explanation for the large decline. In five independent data sets spanning 21,25 yr and including 14,308 d of observations, 13 predation events were recorded. We conducted a fine-scale analysis for an intensively studied haul-out (Spider Island) and a broader analysis of all of Glacier Bay. At Spider Island, estimated predation by sea lions increased and could account for the entirety of annual pup production in 5 of 8 yr since 1995. The predation rate, however, was not proportional to the number of predators. Predation by Steller sea lions is a new source of mortality that contributed to the seal declines; however, life history modeling indicates that it is unlikely that sea lion predation is the sole factor responsible for the large declines. [source]

Brassica oleracea pollen, a new source of occupational allergens

ALLERGY, Issue 4 2006
H. K. Hermanides
Background:, Vegetable pollen is a rare source of occupational allergens. Occupational allergy has only been described in the case of paprika pollen and tomato pollen. We describe a new source of occupational pollen allergy. Aim:, To study the incidence and the impact of broccoli and cauliflower pollen allergy in employees involved in classical plant breeding. Methods:, Fifty-four employees of five companies working with cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis) and broccoli (B. oleracea italica/cymosa) pollen were eligible for complete evaluation. Allergy to cauliflower and broccoli pollen was evaluated by questionnaire and determination of sensitization by radioallergosorbent test (RAST) and skin-prick tests (SPT). SPT and RAST were performed with a panel of commercial and homemade extracts from cauliflower and broccoli pollen. Results:, Work-related symptoms such as rhinitis, conjunctivitis, asthma and urticaria caused by B. oleracea pollen were reported by 44% of the participants (24/54), of whom all but one had positive SPT for cauliflower- and/or broccoli-pollen/flower extracts and 58% (14/24) had positive RAST results. Symptoms had developed within the first 2 years in 33% of the patients. Six patients had to stop or change work. Conclusions:,Brassica oleracea pollen is a new source of occupational allergen with strong allergenic potential leading to symptoms in almost half of the exposed employees. [source]

Spectropolarimetry of a complete infrared-selected sample of Seyfert 2 galaxies

S.L. Lumsden
We report the results of a spectropolarimetric survey of a complete far-infrared-selected sample of Seyfert 2 galaxies. We have found polarized broad H, emission in one new source, NGC 5995. In the sample as a whole, there is a clear tendency for galaxies in which we have detected broad H, in polarized light to have warm mid,far-infrared colours in agreement with our previous results. However, a comparison of the optical, radio and hard X-ray properties of these systems leads us to conclude that this is a secondary consequence of the true mechanism governing our ability to see scattered light from the broad-line region. We find a strong trend for galaxies showing such emission to lie above a critical value of the relative luminosity of the active core to the host galaxy (as measured from the [O iii] 5007-Å equivalent width) which varies as a function of the obscuring column density as measured from hard X-ray observations. The warmth of the infrared colours is then largely due to a combination of the luminosity of the active core, the obscuring column and the relative importance of the host galaxy in powering the far-infrared emission, and not solely orientation as we inferred in our previous paper. Our data may also provide an explanation as to why the most highly polarized galaxies, which appear to have tori that are largely edge-on, are also the most luminous and have the most easily detectable scattered broad H,. [source]

Discovery of an unusual new radio source in the star-forming galaxy M82: faint supernova, supermassive black hole or an extragalactic microquasar?

T. W. B. Muxlow
ABSTRACT A faint new radio source has been detected in the nuclear region of the starburst galaxy M82 using Multi-Element Radio-Linked Interferometer Network radio observations designed to monitor the flux density evolution of the recent bright supernova SN 2008iz. This new source was initially identified in observations made between 2009 May 1 and 5 but had not been present in observations made 1 week earlier, or in any previous observations of M82. In this Letter, we report the discovery of this new source and monitoring of its evolution over its first 9 months of existence. The true nature of this new source remains unclear, and we discuss whether this source is an unusual and faint supernova, a supermassive black hole associated with the nucleus of M82 or intriguingly the first detection of radio emission from an extragalactic microquasar. [source]

Greenhouse gas credits to provide new source of financing

Andrew Giaccia

Genotypic characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains recovered from patients with cystic fibrosis after initial and subsequent colonization

Anne Munck MD
Abstract Chronic infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is preceded by a period of colonization and acute infection. Early aggressive antibiotic treatment of initial colonisation may prevent or at least delay chronic pulmonary infection. We initiated treatment with a combination of IV ,-lactam tobramycin, followed by nebulized colistin when PA was first isolated from patients with CF. Subsequent serial PA isolates obtained from these colonized CF patients were characterized by means of molecular methods to determine whether they were genetically related to the initial strain. Initial colonization was eradicated in all 19 patients. All patients reacquired PA within 3,25 months during the 3 years of follow-up. Fourteen patients acquired a new PA strain with a distinct genotypic profile, suggesting a new source of contamination. Five patients had two PA isolates with identical genotypes, suggesting either previous undetected respiratory tract colonization or a persistent environmental source of contamination. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2001; 32:288,292. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Lowering seed gossypol content in glanded cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lines

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 6 2008
G. B. Romano
Abstract Cottonseed is a rich source of high quality protein, but its value as an animal feed is limited by gossypol, a toxic polyphenolic compound contained in glands located throughout the plant. This compound helps protect the plant from pests. Totally glandless varieties have been developed, but not adopted as these plants are left vulnerable to pests. This study describes a breeding strategy to decrease the levels of gossypol in the seed while maintaining a high enough concentration of toxin in vegetative plant parts to offer protection from pests. Preliminary studies indicated that crosses between varieties with different gland densities and distributions produced a range of glanding patterns. By selecting within the resulting progeny, we have identified F7 generation progeny that have <0.30% total gossypol in the seed, while still possessing glands at critical locations on the vegetative plant parts. These new lines will be a valuable source of germplasm for developing low seed gossypol varieties. Seed from these varieties would provide a new source of inexpensive protein for animal feeding rations. [source]

Molecular cytogenetic analysis of a durum wheat ×Thinopyrum distichum hybrid used as a new source of resistance to Fusarium head blight in the greenhouse

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 5 2001
Q. Chen
Abstract Fusarium head blight (FHB, scab), caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a serious and damaging disease of wheat. Although some hexaploid wheat lines express a good level of resistance to FHB, the resistance available in hexaploid wheat has not yet been transferred to durum wheat. A germplasm collection of Triticum durum× alien hybrid lines was tested as a potential source of resistance to FHB under controlled conditions. Their FHB reaction was evaluated in three tests against conidial suspensions of three strains of F. graminearum at the flowering stage. Two T. durum×Thinopyrum distichum hybrid lines, ,AFR4' and ,AFR5,, expressed a significantly higher level of resistance to the spread of FHB than other durum-alien hybrid lines and a resistant common wheat line ,Nyu-Bay'. Genomic in situ hybridization using total genomic DNA from alien grass species demonstrated that ,AFR5' had 13 or 14 alien genome chromosomes plus 27 or 28 wheat chromosomes, while ,AFR4' had 22 alien genome and 28 wheat chromosomes. All of the alien chromosomes present in these two lines belonged to the J genome. ,AFR5' is likely to be more useful as a source of FHB resistance than ,AFR4' because of its relatively normal meiotic behaviour, high fertility and fewer number of alien chromosomes. ,AFR5' shows good potential as a source for transferring FHB resistance gene into wheat. The development of T. durum addition lines carrying resistance genes from ,AFR5' is underway. [source]

Local Option Sales Taxes and Fiscal Disparity: The Case of Georgia Counties

While local option sales taxes (LOST) have become an important revenue source for local governments, there has been concern about the distribution of LOST revenues: the uneven distribution of sales tax bases may have introduced a new source of fiscal inequality and exacerbated existing fiscal disparity. Using Georgia county data (N=159, 1970,2000), this study examines whether and how LOST have affected local fiscal disparity. Our findings suggest that the effects of LOST on fiscal disparity vary with the approach to measure revenue-raising capacity; thus the issue of LOST distribution is sensitive to the underlying conceptualization of "fiscal equity." [source]


BIOETHICS, Issue 5 2010
ABSTRACT In this paper I argue that bioethics is in crisis and that it will not have a future unless it begins to embrace a more Socratic approach to its leading assumptions. The absence of a critical and sceptical spirit has resulted in little more than a dominant ideology. I focus on three key issues. First, that too often bioethics collapses into medical ethics. Second, that medical ethics itself is beset by a lack of self-reflection that I characterize here as a commitment to three dogmas. Third, I offer a more positive perspective by suggesting how bioethics may benefit from looking towards public health ethics as a new source of inspiration and direction. [source]

Geometric morphometrics of corpus callosum and subcortical structures in the fetal-alcohol-affected brain

Fred L. Bookstein
Background Although experienced clinicians have been diagnosing fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) for nearly 30 years, the rest of the spectrum of fetal alcohol damage is not being classified effectively. This article describes a quantification of neuroanatomical structure that may supply a useful discriminator of prenatal brain damage from alcohol. It is demonstrated in a data set of adults of both sexes. Methods Ninety adults (45 males) were examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These subjects were group-matched for age and ethnicity across three diagnoses: FAS, fetal alcohol effects (FAE), and normals. All FAS and FAE were heavily alcohol-exposed in utero; normals were not. From T1 -weighted MR brain images, we extracted 3D morphometric representations of shape for 33-landmark point configurations and 40-point outlines of the corpus callosum along its midline (a slightly nonplanar structure). Results There are striking differences between exposed and unexposed in the statistical distributions of these two shapes. The differences are better characterized by excess variance in the exposed group than by any change in average landmark or outline shape. For each sex, combining the callosal outline data with the landmark data leads to a powerful quadratic discriminator of exposed from unexposed. The discriminating features include the relationship of brain stem to diencephalon, and localized variabilities of callosal outline shape, but not diagnosis (FAS vs. FAE). Conclusions Statistical analysis of brain shape is a powerful new source of information relevant to fetal alcohol spectrum nosology and etiology. Patients with FAS and FAE do not differ in these brain shape features, but both differ from the unexposed. The aspects of brain shape that are especially variable may be entailed in the underlying neuroteratogenetic mechanisms. Teratology 64:4,32, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Conservation Biology in Asia: the Major Policy Challenges

Asia; bosques; comercio de vida silvestres; conflicto humano-animal; economía Abstract:,With about half the world's human population and booming economies, Asia faces numerous challenges to its biodiversity. The Asia Section of the Society for Conservation Biology has identified some key policy issues in which significant progress can be made. These include developing new sources of funding for forest conservation; identifying potential impacts of energy alternatives on the conservation of biodiversity; curbing the trade in endangered species of plants and animals; a special focus on the conservation of mountain biodiversity; enhancing relevant research; ensuring that conservation biology contributes to major international conventions and funding mechanisms; using conservation biology to build a better understanding of zoonotic diseases; more effectively addressing human,animal conflicts; enhancing community-based conservation; and using conservation biology to help address the pervasive water-deficit problems in much of Asia. These challenges can be met through improved regional cooperation among the relevant stakeholders. Resumen:,Con aproximadamente la mitad de la población humana y economías prósperas, Asia enfrenta numerosos retos para su biodiversidad. La sección Asia de la Sociedad para la Biología de la Conservación ha identificado algunos temas políticos claves en los que se puede hacer un progreso significativo. Estos incluyen el desarrollo de nuevas fuentes de financiamiento para la conservación de bosques; la identificación de impactos potenciales de las energías alternativas sobre la conservación de la biodiversidad; reducción del comercio de especies de animales y plantas en peligro; un enfoque especial en la conservación de la biodiversidad montana; promoción de investigación relevante; garantía de que la biología de la conservación contribuye a convenios internacionales y mecanismos de financiamiento; utilización de la biología de la conservación para lograr un mejor entendimiento de enfermedades zoonóticas; mejor atención a los conflictos humanos-animales; reforzamiento de la conservación basada en comunidades y utilización de la biología de la conservación para atender los problemas de déficit de agua en gran parte de Asia. Estos retos se pueden atender mediante una mejor cooperación regional entre los principales actores. [source]

Pathological gambling: an increasing public health problem

Article first published online: 7 JUL 200
Gambling has always existed, but only recently has it taken on the endlessly variable and accessible forms we know today. Gambling takes place when something valuable , usually money , is staked on the outcome of an event that is entirely unpredictable. It was only two decades ago that pathological gambling was formally recognized as a mental disorder, when it was included in the DSM-III in 1980. For most people, gambling is a relaxing activity with no negative consequences. For others, however, gambling becomes excessive. Pathological gambling is a disorder that manifests itself through the irrepressible urge to wager money. This disorder ultimately dominates the gambler's life, and has a multitude of negative consequences for both the gambler and the people they interact with, i.e. friends, family members, employers. In many ways, gambling might seem a harmless activity. In fact, it is not the act of gambling itself that is harmful, but the vicious cycle that can begin when a gambler wagers money they cannot afford to lose, and then continues to gamble in order to recuperate their losses. The gambler's ,tragic flaw' of logic lies in their failure to understand that gambling is governed solely by random, chance events. Gamblers fail to recognize this and continue to gamble, attempting to control outcomes by concocting strategies to ,beat the game'. Most, if not all, gamblers try in some way to predict the outcome of a game when they are gambling. A detailed analysis of gamblers' selfverbalizations reveals that most of them behave as though the outcome of the game relied on their personal ,skills'. From the gambler's perspective, skill can influence chance , but in reality, the random nature of chance events is the only determinant of the outcome of the game. The gambler, however, either ignores or simply denies this fundamental rule (1). Experts agree that the social costs of pathological gambling are enormous. Changes in gaming legislation have led to a substantial expansion of gambling opportunities in most industrialized countries around the world, mainly in Europe, America and Australia. Figures for the United States' leisure economy in 1996 show gross gambling revenues of $47.6 billion, which was greater than the combined revenue of $40.8 billion from film box offices, recorded music, cruise ships, spectator sports and live entertainment (2). Several factors appear to be motivating this growth: the desire of governments to identify new sources of revenue without invoking new or higher taxes; tourism entrepreneurs developing new destinations for entertainment and leisure; and the rise of new technologies and forms of gambling (3). As a consequence, prevalence studies have shown increased gambling rates among adults. It is currently estimated that 1,2% of the adult population gambles excessively (4, 5). Given that the prevalence of gambling is related to the accessibility of gambling activities, and that new forms of gambling are constantly being legalized throughout most western countries, this figure is expected to rise. Consequently, physicians and mental health professionals will need to know more about the diagnosis and treatment of pathological gamblers. This disorder may be under-diagnosed because, clinically, pathological gamblers usually seek help for the problems associated with gambling such as depression, anxiety or substance abuse, rather than for the excessive gambling itself. This issue of Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica includes the first national survey of problem gambling completed in Sweden, conducted by Volberg et al. (6). This paper is based on a large sample (N=9917) with an impressively high response rate (89%). Two instruments were used to assess gambling activities: the South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised (SOGS-R) and an instrument derived from the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling. Current (1 year) and lifetime prevalence rates were collected. Results show that 0.6% of the respondents were classified as probable pathological gamblers, and 1.4% as problem gamblers. These data reveal that the prevalence of pathological gamblers in Sweden is significantly less than what has been observed in many western countries. The authors have pooled the rates of problem (1.4%) and probable pathological gamblers (0.6%), to provide a total of 2.0% for the current prevalence. This 2% should be interpreted with caution, however, as we do not have information on the long-term evolution of these subgroups of gamblers; for example, we do not know how many of each subgroup will become pathological gamblers, and how many will decrease their gambling or stop gambling altogether. Until this information is known, it would be preferable to keep in mind that only 0.6% of the Swedish population has been identified as pathological gamblers. In addition, recent studies show that the SOGS-R may be producing inflated estimates of pathological gambling (7). Thus, future research in this area might benefit from the use of an instrument based on DSM criteria for pathological gambling, rather than the SOGS-R only. Finally, the authors suggest in their discussion that the lower rate of pathological gamblers obtained in Sweden compared to many other jurisdictions may be explained by the greater availability of games based on chance rather than games based on skill or a mix of skill and luck. Before accepting this interpretation, researchers will need to demonstrate that the outcomes of all games are determined by other factor than chance and randomness. Many studies have shown that the notion of randomness is the only determinant of gambling (1). Inferring that skill is an important issue in gambling may be misleading. While these are important issues to consider, the Volberg et al. survey nevertheless provides crucial information about gambling in a Scandinavian country. Gambling will be an important issue over the next few years in Sweden, and the publication of the Volberg et al. study is a landmark for the Swedish community (scientists, industry, policy makers, etc.). This paper should stimulate interesting discussions and inspire new, much-needed scientific investigations of pathological gambling. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Guido Bondolfi and Robert Ladouceur Invited Guest Editors References 1.,LadouceurR & WalkerM. The cognitive approach to understanding and treating pathological gambling. In: BellackAS, HersenM, eds. Comprehensive clinical psychology. New York: Pergamon, 1998:588 , 601. 2.,ChristiansenEM. Gambling and the American economy. In: FreyJH, ed. Gambling: socioeconomic impacts and public policy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1998:556:36 , 52. 3.,KornDA & ShafferHJ. Gambling and the health of the public: adopting a public health perspective. J Gambling Stud2000;15:289 , 365. 4.,VolbergRA. Problem gambling in the United States. J Gambling Stud1996;12:111 , 128. 5.,BondolfiG, OsiekC, FerreroF. Prevalence estimates of pathological gambling in Switzerland. Acta Psychiatr Scand2000;101:473 , 475. 6.,VolbergRA, AbbottMW, RönnbergS, MunckIM. Prev-alence and risks of pathological gambling in Sweden. Acta Psychiatr Scand2001;104:250 , 256. 7.,LadouceurR, BouchardC, RhéaumeNet al. Is the SOGS an accurate measure of pathological gambling among children, adolescents and adults?J Gambling Stud2000;16:1 , 24. [source]