New Skills (new + skill)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Credentialing a new skill: What should the standard be for emergency department ultrasound in Australasia?

Adrian M Goudie
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Learning curve in cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy

Bijan N. Moradi III MS
Abstract Cytoreductive surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy have achieved good long-term results in patients with complete surgical eradication of their peritoneal dissemination but at the expense of significant perioperative morbidity and mortality. The high complication rate has been attributed to the steep learning curve associated with this procedure. We report on the current literature regarding the learning curve for this procedure and the key components that determine the success in learning this new skill. J. Surg. Oncol. 2009;100:293,296. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Understanding the Advantages of Open Innovation Practices in Corporate Venturing in Terms of Real Options

Wim Vanhaverbeke
Part of the advantages of using open innovation (compared to closed innovation) in corporate venturing can be explained by applying the real options approach. Open innovation in risk-laden activities such as corporate venturing has the following advantages: (i) benefits from early involvement in new technologies or business opportunities; (ii) delayed financial commitment; (iii) early exits reducing the downward losses; and (iv) delayed exit in case it spins off a venture. We furthermore argue that these benefits do not automatically materialize. Innovative firms have to learn new skills and routines to develop the full ,real option' potential of open innovation practices. [source]

The History of Dermatologic Surgical Reconstruction

Daniel E. Zelac MD
Over the last 40,50 years, reconstructive surgery in dermatology has undergone expansive growth and development. As dermatologists began to provide a greater array of surgical services during this period, it became apparent that new skills and techniques in the area of reconstruction would be required. Initially many of the procedures and concepts were adopted from other specialties, however, in the years since, significant contributions have been made by dermatologists which in turn have benefited other specialties as well. This review attempts to summarize some of the significant historical events and innovations that have established and supported dermatologic surgical reconstruction. [source]


Daniel T. Griswold
Lord Bauer understood that the human freedom of movement plays a vital role in development. Today, internal and cross-border migration generates hard-currency remittances that raise living standards and capital investment in the country of origin, promotes greater trade and investment ties between destination and origin countries, and raises a country's stock of human and physical capital when migrants return with new skills and investment funds. Immigration can also stimulate political and social reform when migrants return or foreign-born immigrants arrive with new ideas and experiences. Relaxing the pervasive controls on the international movement of people remains a huge piece of unfinished business on the market-driven development agenda. [source]

The effect of involvement in participatory research on parent researchers in a Sure Start programme

Ann Rowe M Med Sci BA RN RHVArticle first published online: 24 AUG 200
Abstract Involving service users, patients and members of local communities in health and social care research is becoming increasingly common. However, surprisingly little research has been carried out to examine the experiences of such lay researchers. This paper presents the findings of a study to investigate the experiences of a group of parent researchers involved in a community survey within a UK Sure Start programme. The survey was undertaken to provide insight into the early impact of the programme and inform Sure Start programme expansion. Researchers were recruited from the local community and were given an accredited training programme, before working on the development of the research itself. They took a lead role in the development, data collection, analysis and report writing phases of the survey and have been actively involved with the dissemination of findings. In order to gain insight into the experiences of the lay researchers involved in this work, three separate methods were used to collect data: questionnaires before and after the study, a focus group at the end of the data collection phase and by analysis of personal diaries kept by the parent researchers. Findings reported include lay researchers responses to the accredited training programme, the development of new skills and understanding, access and the conduct of interviews and the impact of the work both for Sure Start and the researchers themselves. Some of the strengths and difficulties of participatory research are discussed and comment made on the extent to which lay involvement impacted on the conduct of the survey. [source]

Can a long-term continuing education course in patient counselling promote a change in the practice of Finnish community pharmacists?

Heli Kansanaho assistant in social pharmacy
ABSTRACT Objective To assess community pharmacists' perceptions of the impact of a long-term continuing education (CE) course on their patient counselling skills. Methods Three focus groups were conducted with the course participants (n = 17) during the last module of the CE course. Data were analysed using computer software for qualitative analysis. Key findings The focus groups revealed eight preliminary categories that were further categorised into four themes related to the learning process in patient counselling skills. The first theme related to achieving the learning objectives. The second related to personal development, understanding principles of two-way communication, and problems in their implementation in practice. The third theme related to actions taken by the participants in their work place, and the fourth involved the potential conflict between the new skills gained and the traditional communication culture in the participant's pharmacy. Conclusion The CE course provided the community pharmacists with new skills and knowledge in patient counselling and collective in-house training. The findings show that the greatest challenge is to change the communication culture of the pharmacy. To achieve this, it may be necessary for more than one pharmacist from the same pharmacy to participate in the training process at the same time. [source]

Factors Affecting Training Effectiveness in the Context of the Introduction of New Technology,A US Case Study

Constantine Kontoghiorghes
The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify the key factors within and outside the training context that could affect training effectiveness. The most important variables that were found to facilitate trainee learning and training transfer are: measurement of trainee knowledge before and immediately after training; supervisory support and encouragement for the application of new skills and knowledge; intrinsic rewards for applying newly learned skills and knowledge; a participative/sociotechnical organisation that is characterised by a high degree of employee involvement; and, a continuous learning environment that encourages frequent participation in multiskill training and retraining programs. [source]

Evaluating STORM skills training for managing people at risk of suicide

Linda Gask MSc PhD FRCPsych
Aim., This paper reports a study evaluating the Skills Training On Risk Management (STORM) training initiative in three mental health services in the North-West of England, UK. Background., Training for health workers has been widely advocated as a key route to suicide prevention. However, reports of evaluations are scarce in the literature. In previous research, we have demonstrated that the STORM intervention results in acquisition of new skills and can be disseminated in a community setting. Method., The training was delivered during a 6-month period in 2002 by three mental health nurses who were seconded part-time to the project. The quantitative evaluation, which assessed change in attitudes, confidence, acquisition of skills and satisfaction, used a pretest/post-test design, with participants acting as their own controls. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 16 participants to explore the impact on clinical practice, and with the three trainers at the end of the study. Findings., Data from 458 staff members were collected during a 6-month period. Positive changes in attitudes and confidence were shown, but previous evidence of skill acquisition was not replicated. Qualitative interviews revealed important insights into changes in clinical practice, particularly for less experienced or unqualified nursing staff, but also concerns about the lack of an educational culture to foster and support such interventions in practice within the organizations. Conclusion., STORM training for the assessment and management of suicide risk is both feasible and acceptable in mental health trusts. However, we remain uncertain of its longer-term impact, given the lack of engagement of senior staff in the enterprise and the absence of linked supervision and support from the organizational management to reinforce skill acquisition and development. We consider that regular supervision that links STORM training to actual clinical experience would be the ideal. [source]

Nursing the clinic vs. nursing the patient: nurses' experience of a day hospital chemotherapy service

Sonja Mcilfatrick PhD
Aims and objectives., This study sought to explore the nurses' experience of a day hospital chemotherapy service in an acute general hospital in Northern Ireland and how this compared with their experience of working in an inpatient setting. Background., Despite the many changes taking place in cancer care delivery, little research has been conducted on nurses' experience of working in more acute cancer treatment settings. Research conducted to date has tended to focus on the role of nurses in wards, hospices and palliative care settings. Design., This Heideggerian hermeneutic phenomenological study explored nurses' lived experience of day hospital chemotherapy service. Method., Face-to-face focused in-depth interviews were conducted with the total population of nurses who worked in the day hospital at the time of data collection (n = 10). Data analysis involved a two-staged approach, the analysis of narratives and narrative analysis, based on the work of Polkinghorne (1995). Conclusions., The nurses' viewed their experience of the chemotherapy day hospital as having both positive and negative dimensions. The positive dimensions included an increased sense of autonomy and the challenge of developing new skills, while the negative dimension included a perceived decrease in their caring role: (i),The individual characteristics of the nurse were seen to have a key influence on caring experience; (ii),Role changes led to a perceived dichotomy between their actual and aspired role and their caring and clinical role. Relevance to clinical practice., There is a need to achieve a balance between delivering a clinical role (administering chemotherapy) while maintaining the centrality of the nurse,patient relationship. This can be likened to achieving a balance between ,nursing the clinic' alongside ,nursing the patient'. These findings have implications for the discourse on caring within other outpatient type clinics and discourse on cancer nursing as therapy and the culture of the cancer clinic. [source]

Modifying therapeutic homework for patients with personality disorders

Arthur Freeman
Generalizing therapeutic gains made during therapy sessions to patients' daily lives is the most fundamental goal of psychotherapy. Assigning between-session homework is an efficient method to teach new skills and to generalize those skills to the patient's natural environment. Given the persistent, chronic, and pervasive nature of the problems presented by the individual with a personality disorder, homework is not merely recommended but is an important and essential part of the therapeutic work. This article discusses modifying homework for personality-disordered patients in the context of a literature review and case examples from the various Personality Disorder Clusters. Also offered are a number of techniques to overcome patient "resistance." © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol/In Session 58: 513,524, 2002. [source]

The acquisition of stimulus equivalence in individuals with fragile X syndrome

S. S. Hall
Abstract Background Few studies have employed stimulus equivalence procedures to teach individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs) new skills. To date, no studies of stimulus equivalence have been conducted in individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common known cause of inherited ID. Method Five adolescents with FXS were taught basic math and geography skills by using a computerized stimulus equivalence training programme administered over 2 days in 2-h sessions. Results Four of the five participants learned the math relations, with one participant demonstrating stimulus equivalence at post-test. Three of the five participants learned the geography relations, with all three of these participants demonstrating stimulus equivalence at post-test. Conclusions These data indicate that computerized stimulus equivalence procedures, conducted in time-limited sessions, may help individuals with FXS learn new skills. Hypotheses concerning the failure of some participants to learn the training relations and to demonstrate stimulus equivalence at post-test are discussed. [source]

An appraisal of the use of secondment within a large teaching hospital

BA(HONS), J. Hamilton RGN, M MED SCI
Introduction, This study was undertaken in a large teaching hospital in Sheffield. It explores the use of secondment as a vehicle for practice, service and career development. Aim, To provide us with an understanding of the ways in which we utilize secondment opportunities, with a view to developing good practice guidelines that will help both the individual and the organization to maximize the potential in each secondment post. Method, A survey of nursing staff who had been on secondment during the previous year. Questionnaires were used to gather data from the senior nurse in each specialty directorate to develop an organizational (seconder) perspective and 20 secondees to provide an individual (secondee) perspective. Results, Nurses tended to be seconded from clinical roles into specialist clinical roles or non-clinical roles, predominantly in areas of research, audit, practice development and teaching. Seconded posts were new roles for individuals and the majority were relocated to new work environments. Secondment was overwhelmingly seen as an opportunity, allowing individuals to develop new skills and knowledge, progress their career and gain a broader strategic perspective. However, there were a number of barriers to progress: lack of role definition for the organization and the individual; uncertainty about the future; falsely raised hopes that secondments would be extended; uncertainty about status; and difficulties adjusting to a new environment and culture within unrealistically short timeframes. Conclusions, Secondment use has become widespread throughout the National Health Service (NHS) and is a very positive and popular vehicle for staff and service development. The potential benefits are high but must be offset against the risks. This paper introduces an organizational risk assessment matrix which can be used to inform the development of effective secondment ventures. [source]

Promoting Physical Activity Among Youth Through Community-Based Prevention Marketing

Carol A. Bryant PhD
BACKGROUND: Community-based prevention marketing (CBPM) is a program planning framework that blends community-organizing principles with a social marketing mind-set to design, implement, and evaluate public health interventions. A community coalition used CBPM to create a physical activity promotion program for tweens (youth 9,13 years of age) called VERB‘ Summer Scorecard. Based on the national VERB‘ media campaign, the program offered opportunities for tweens to try new types of physical activity during the summer months. METHODS: The VERB‘ Summer Scorecard was implemented and monitored between 2004 and 2007 using the 9-step CBPM framework. Program performance was assessed through in-depth interviews and a school-based survey of youth. RESULTS: The CBPM process and principles used by school and community personnel to promote physical activity among tweens are presented. Observed declines may become less steep if school officials adopt a marketing mind-set to encourage youth physical activity: deemphasizing health benefits but promoting activity as something fun that fosters spending time with friends while trying and mastering new skills. CONCLUSIONS: Community-based programs can augment and provide continuity to school-based prevention programs to increase physical activity among tweens. [source]

Simulation in undergraduate medical education: bridging the gap between theory and practice

Jennifer M Weller
Objective, To evaluate the use of simulation-based teaching in the medical undergraduate curriculum in the context of management of medical emergencies, using a medium fidelity simulator. Design, Small groups of medical students attended a simulation workshop on management of medical emergencies. The workshop was evaluated in a postcourse questionnaire. Subjects, All Year 4 medical students allocated to the resuscitation rotation during the first half of 2002. Main outcome measures, Student perceptions of learning outcomes, the value of the simulation in the undergraduate curriculum and their self-assessed improved mastery of workshop material. Results, A total of 33 students attended the workshop and all completed questionnaires. Students rated the workshop highly and found it a valuable learning experience. In all, 21 (64%) students identified teamwork skills as key learning points; 11 (33%) felt they had learnt how to approach a problem better, particularly in terms of using a systematic approach, and 12 (36%) felt they had learnt how to apply their theoretical knowledge in a clinical setting better. All 33 students were positive about the use of simulation in their training; 14 students wrote that simulation should be used more or should be mandatory in training; 5 students commented positively on the realism of the learning experience and a further 5 said they valued the opportunity to learn new skills in a safe environment. Conclusion, This study demonstrates that medical students value simulation-based learning highly. In particular, they value the opportunity to apply their theoretical knowledge in a safe and realistic setting, to develop teamwork skills and to develop a systematic approach to a problem. A medium fidelity simulator is a valuable educational tool in medical undergraduate education. [source]

Evaluation of a family-oriented continuing medical education course for general practitioners

Anja Taanila
Objective To explore the long-term effects of a 2-year Family Systems Medicine course. Fifteen experienced GPs participated in the training programme. Setting Continuing Education Centre, University of Tampere, Department of Public Health Science and General Practice, University of Oulu, Finland. Methods The participants assessed the development of their professional skills on the Doherty-Baird scale and filled in 2 questionnaires. The material obtained from the application form and 2 questionnaires was analysed using the grounded theory method. Results The reasons for taking part in the course seemed to be the constant increase in the workload, problems caused by the demands for change and adaptation, stress and exhaustion. Furthermore, 10 health centres out of 15 had adopted the population-based practice, which requires different working methods compared to the old routines. Some trainees reported that their family-centred working methods improved during the course. A year after the end of the training, all of the GPs who had participated were using such methods in their daily practice. Half of the participants felt that they had also improved the functioning of their working group by making it more family-oriented. The significance of multiprofessional collaboration was one of the most important insights during the course. Conclusion The 2-year family-oriented training programme provided GPs with systemic thinking and with new skills, including the ability to work with families. The programme raised awareness of the need for multiprofessional collaboration in the primary care sittings. [source]

Introduction to the programming of deep brain stimulators

Jens Volkmann MD
Abstract The clinical success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for treating Parkinson's disease, tremor, or dystonia critically depends on the quality of postoperative neurologic management. Movement disorder specialists becoming involved with this therapy need to acquire new skills to optimally adapt stimulation parameters and medication after implantation of a DBS system. In clinical practice, the infinite number of possible parameter settings in DBS can be reduced to few relevant combinations. In this article, the authors describe a general scheme of selecting stimulation parameters in DBS and provide clinical and neurophysiological arguments for such a standardized algorithm. They also describe noninvasive technical trouble shooting by using programming features of the commercially available neurostimulation devices. © 2002 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Maintenance work, maintenance skills: the case of a major water company in the UK

Fang Lee Cooke
This article explores how maintenance work and the requirements of maintenance skills may have changed in a changing technological and organisational environment. A closer examination of the skill requirements for maintenance work in the case study firm has revealed a wider range of skill components than existing literature on maintenance skills has focused on. This paper argues that organisational change may lead to the requirement of new skills for maintenance work and that interpersonal skill may be an important skill element required. [source]

Governing nursing conduct: the rise of evidence-based practice

Sarah Winch
Governing nursing conduct: the rise of evidence-based practice Drawing on the Foucauldian concept of ,governmentality' to analyse the evidence-based movement in nursing, we argue that it is possible to identify the governance of nursing practice and hence nurses across two distinct axes; that of the political (governance through political and economic means) and the personal (governance of the self through the cultivation of the practices required by nurses to put evidence into practice). The evaluation of nursing work through evidence-based reviews provides detailed information that may enable governments to target and instruct nurses regarding their work in the interest of preserving the health of the population as a whole. Political governance of the nursing population becomes possible through centralised discursive mechanisms, such as evidence-based reviews that present nursing practice as an intelligible field whose elements are connected in a more or less systematic manner. The identity of the evidence-based nurse requires the modern nurse to develop new skills and attitudes. Evidence-based nursing is an emerging technology of government that judges nursing research and knowledge and has the capacity to direct nursing practice at both the political and personal level. [source]

Client experiences in work rehabilitation in Sweden: a one-year follow-up study

Eva Wallstedt-Paulsson
Abstract This study, carried out in a work rehabilitation unit in Sweden, investigated how clients perceived their work experiences after a one-year follow up. A semi-structured interview was administered to 14 former clients and a content analysis was applied. Seven categories were derived from the results: ,Expectations of the rehabilitation process'; ,Social relationships'; ,Client influences on the rehabilitation process'; ,Occupations engaged in during the rehabilitation programme'; ,Perceived outcome'; ,Current occupations'; and ,Future aspirations'. The dominating expectations were to find a job, with an overall desire for change. The social relationships with the staff and other clients were of great importance. The positive outcome of the rehabilitation was described as feeling better or having new skills. The perceived negative outcome was that the rehabilitation programme had not turned out as the client expected. The clients reported varying daily occupations after the rehabilitation experience and a majority were contented and optimistic about their future. The main conclusions of the study are that when planning a work rehabilitation programme, efforts have to be made to examine clients' interests and skills, and to develop a dialogue between clients and staff. Further research is needed to evaluate the work rehabilitation experience from the clients' perspective. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons. Ltd. [source]

Family-centered positive psychology: Focusing on strengths to build student success

Susan M. Sheridan
Family-centered positive psychology (FCPP) is defined as a framework for working with children and families that promotes strengths and capacity building within individuals and systems, rather than one focusing solely on the resolution of problems or remediation of deficiencies. This approach to family-based services is predicated on the belief that child and family outcomes will be enhanced if members participate in identifying needs, establishing social supports and partnerships, and acquiring new skills and competencies, rather than simply receiving services from professionals. In this article, we present a rationale for FCPP, outline its primary principles, highlight one model for working with families that exemplifies FCPP practice, and illustrate its use through an authentic data-based case study. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 41: 7,17, 2004. [source]

Step-by-step: A model for practice-based learning

FRCPC, Gabrielle M. Kane MB
Abstract Introduction: Innovative technology has led to high-precision radiation therapy that has dramatically altered the practice of radiation oncology. This qualitative study explored the implementation of this innovation into practice from the perspective of the practitioners in a large academic radiation medicine program and aimed to improve understanding of and facilitate the educational process of this change. Methods: Multiprofession staff participated in a series of seven focus groups and nine in-depth interviews, and the descriptive data from the transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Results: Practitioners believed that there had been a major effect on many aspects of their practice. The team structure supported the adoption of change. The technology changed the way the practices worked. Learning new skills increased workload and stress but led to a new conception of the discipline and the generation of new practice-based knowledge. When the concepts were examined longitudinally, a four-step process of learning was identified. In step 1, there was anxiety as staff acquired the skills to use the technology. Step 2 involved learning to interpret new findings and images, experiencing uncertainty until new perspectives developed. Step 3 involved questioning assumptions and critical reflection, which resulted in new understanding. The final step 4 identified a process of constructing new knowledge through research, development, and dialogue within the profession. Discussion: These findings expand our understanding of how practice-based learning occurs in the context of change and can guide learning activities appropriate to each stage. [source]

Semi-Lagrangian advection scheme with controlled damping: An alternative to nonlinear horizontal diffusion in a numerical weather prediction model

Filip VŠ
Abstract This paper proposes a nonlinear horizontal diffusion scheme for models using semi-Lagrangian formulations. The scheme is made flow dependent and not entirely linked to the model levels. As an extension, the implementation of the scheme to the model Aladin is given. The damping abilities of interpolation are used for the diffusion filtering. The aim is to provide a horizontal diffusion scheme of similar stability and computational efficiency as the existing linear spectral diffusion scheme in Aladin. Preserving such qualities, the new scheme brings beneficial new skills to the model. The differences between the performances of the two diffusion schemes are examined and discussed. Finally, some interesting case-studies simulated with both horizontal diffusion schemes are presented. Copyright © 2008 Royal Meteorological Society [source]