New Situations (new + situation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The role of autonomy,connectedness in depression and anxiety

Marrie H.J. Bekker Ph.D.
Abstract The relationship between autonomy,connectedness, and depression and anxiety was investigated in 94 primary mental health care patients and 95 psychology students. All participants completed the Autonomy,Connectedness Scale,30 (ACS-30), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Symptom Checklist,90 (SCL-90). Results indicated that the primary mental health care group compared with the control group scored lower in Self-Awareness and Capacity for Managing New Situations, and higher in Sensitivity to Others. Women compared with men had higher levels of self-reported Sensitivity to Others. Regression analyses showed that both (low) Self-Awareness and (high) Sensitivity to Others predicted depression, as well as anxiety; also, (low) educational level had predictive value. These results indicate that low autonomy,connectedness might be a risk factor for depression and anxiety. Depression and Anxiety 23:274,280, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A Bayesian Approach to Prediction Using the Gravity Model, with an Application to Patient Flow Modeling

Peter Congdon
This paper investigates the potential for estimation and prediction by Bayesian methods of hospitalization flows classified by place of residence and hospital site. The focus is especially with respect to emergency (unplanned) admissions to hospitals. The need for strategic modeling and forecasting arises since the structure of U.K. emergency service provision is subject to changes involving site closures or changes in bed numbers. The gravity model, reflecting patient demand, hospital supply, and distance effects has been applied to patient flows, but generally in a situation of unchanged destination states. It may be modified, however, in accordance with major changes in hospital service structure, to include access effects (the interplay of supply and distance) and temporal variation in its parameters. Therefore, prediction may be applied to a "new" situation defined, for example, by closures of entire hospital sites. The modeling approach used may be adapted to other flow models where destinations may be added or eliminated (for example, trade-area models). A case study involves a sector of London subject to such a restructuring following the U.K. government's 1997,98 review of London's emergency services. [source]

Life experiences after stroke among Iranian stroke survivors

A. Dalvandi phd
DALVANDI A., HEIKKILÄ K., MADDAH S.S.B., KHANKEH H.R. & EKMAN S.L. (2010) Life experiences after stroke among Iranian stroke survivors. International Nursing Review57, 247,253 Background:, Stroke is a major cause of disability worldwide. It is a life-threatening and life-altering event, which leaves many physical and mental disabilities, thus creating major social and economic burdens. Experiencing a stroke and its aftermath can be devastating for patients and their families. In Iran, many services are not available for those who lack property; this may result in many difficulties and long-term problems for stroke survivors and their family members who are usually the main caregivers in Iranian cultural. Despite its effect on their lives, little is known about how the survivors perceive stroke in the Iranian context, therefore, knowing more about this process may enhance problem identification and problem solving. Aim:, To illuminate how stroke survivors experience and perceive life after stroke. Method:, A grounded theory approach was recruited using semi-structured interviews with 10 stroke survivors. Findings:, The survivors perceived that inadequate social and financial support, lack of an educational plan, lack of access to rehabilitative services, physical and psychological problems led them to functional disturbances, poor socio-economical situation and life disintegration. The core concept of life after stroke was functional disturbances. Conclusions:, The study shows the need to support the stroke survivors in their coping process with their new situation by providing appropriate discharge plans, social and financial support, social insurances and training programmes for the stroke survivors and their families. [source]

Golbalisation, Regional Integration, International Migration

Georges Photios Tapinos
After having recalled the two-way links between international migration and development and having placed migratory movements in the con-textof globalisation, the author examines the new situation created by the strengthening of immigration control policies and the relevance of the alternative strategy which considers free trade as a substitute for migration. He examines to what extent the effects of economic liberalisation are likely to modify the decision to emigrate. In conclusion, he outlines various impli-cations for migration policies. [source]

Speech adaptation after treatment of full edentulism through immediate-loaded implant protocols

Liene Molly
Abstract Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of immediate loading of implants on speech adaptation. Material and methods: Ten patients (mean age 54, 6 females) were examined before surgery and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months afterwards. Articulation analysis was done using objective DAT-recoded data evaluated by two groups of speech and language therapists and a computer software program. Besides, patient VAS-scores, myofunctional problems and hearing impairment were recorded and analysed. Results: In the present study only one patient suffered from deteriorated speech after immediate loading. Other patients showed unaffected or improved articulation 3 to 6 months after surgery with a strident and interdental pronunciation mostly becoming addental. Furthermore, myofunctional problems occurred in one patient, other patients adapted to the new situation after three months. Hearing impairment did not influence speech pathology in this study. Conclusion: Immediate loading of oral implants does not seem to compromise the normal 3,6 months speech adaptation period. Whether such procedure presents advantages to the conventional 2-stage rehabilitation remains to be investigated. [source]

Using innovative group-work activities to enhance the problem-based learning experience for dental students

R. Grady
Abstract Problem-based learning (PBL) in medical and dental curricula is now well established, as such courses are seen to equip students with valuable transferable skills (e.g. problem-solving or team-working abilities), in addition to knowledge acquisition. However, it is often assumed that students improve in such skills without actually providing direct opportunity for practice, and without giving students feedback on their performance. ,The Manchester Dental Programme' (TMDP) was developed at The University of Manchester, UK as a 5-year, integrated enquiry-led curriculum. The existing PBL course was redesigned to include a unique, additional PBL session (,Session 4') that incorporated an activity for the group to complete, based on the subject material covered during student self-study. A summative mark was awarded for each activity that reflected the teamwork, organisational and overall capabilities of the groups. This paper describes the different types of activities developed for the Session 4 and presents an analysis of the perceptions of the students and staff involved. The student response to the Session 4 activities, obtained via questionnaires, was extremely positive, with the majority finding them fun, yet challenging, and ,worthwhile'. The activities were perceived to enhance subject understanding; develop students' problem-solving skills; allow the application of knowledge to new situations, and helped to identify gaps in knowledge to direct further study. Staff found the activities innovative and exciting learning tools for the students. The Session 4 activities described here are useful educational resources that could be adapted for other PBL courses in a wide variety of subject areas. [source]

The Effect of Learning Experiences and Context on Infant Imitation and Generalization

INFANCY, Issue 6 2008
Emily J. H. Jones
Over the first years of life, infants gradually develop the ability to retrieve their memories across cue and contextual changes. Whereas maturational factors drive some of these developments in memory ability, experiences occurring within the learning event may also impact infants' ability to retrieve memories in new situations. In 2 experiments we examined whether it was possible to facilitate 12-month-old infants' generalization of learning in the deferred imitation paradigm by varying experiences before or during the demonstration session, or during the retention interval. In Experiment 1, altering the length, timing, or variability of training had no impact on generalization; infants showed a low, but consistent level of memory retrieval. In Experiment 2, infants who experienced a unique context for encoding and retrieval exhibited generalization; infants who experienced the context prior to the demonstration session, or during the retention interval, did not. Specificity is a robust feature of infant memory and is not substantially altered by encoding experiences in an observational learning paradigm. Previous history with a learning environment can, however, impact the flexibility of memory retrieval. [source]

Pushing the boundaries of technology to educate and train the next generation of crystallographers

Katherine Kantardjieff
This article describes the evolution of educational technologies, moving from the Web 1.0 to the current Web 3.0 decade, with the aim of stimulating discussion and inspiring innovative and effective crystallography education in the Web 3.0 decade. In the last 15 years, academic crystallography has largely migrated from a research specialty to a technique employed by a broad user community. This has led to the growth of and dependence on independently funded workshops and summer schools, as well as other non-traditional curricular resources for crystallography instruction, such as web pages and online courses, which allow crystallography to be self-taught. In fact, informal courses and e-learning constitute 70,80% of all learning today, and students expect on-demand learning. Implementing modern web technologies with sound pedagogy requires skilful integration of relevant, often disparate, resources into useful and usable frameworks, enabling learners to interact, explore new situations, and use scientific reasoning skills such as hypothesis testing and model-based reasoning. The evident disproportion in implementing contemporary technologies into our global crystallography education resources requires that we shift our focus from simply imparting subject knowledge by posting largely text-based content to empowering students with the fundamental processes and skills needed for on-demand learning and practice in crystallography. [source]

An operational model predicting autumn bird migration intensities for flight safety

Summary 1Forecasting migration intensity can improve flight safety and reduce the operational costs of collisions between aircraft and migrating birds. This is particularly true for military training flights, which can be rescheduled if necessary and often take place at low altitudes and during the night. Migration intensity depends strongly on weather conditions but reported effects of weather differ among studies. It is therefore unclear to what extent existing predictive models can be extrapolated to new situations. 2We used radar measurements of bird densities in the Netherlands to analyse the relationship between weather and nocturnal migration. Using our data, we tested the performance of three regression models that have been developed for other locations in Europe. We developed and validated new models for different combinations of years to test whether regression models can be used to predict migration intensity in independent years. Model performance was assessed by comparing model predictions against benchmark predictions based on measured migration intensity of the previous night and predictions based on a 6-year average trend. We also investigated the effect of the size of the calibration data set on model robustness. 3All models performed better than the benchmarks, but the mismatch between measurements and predictions was large for existing models. Model performance was best for newly developed regression models. The performance of all models was best at intermediate migration intensities. The performance of our models clearly increased with sample size, up to about 90 nocturnal migration measurements. Significant input variables included seasonal migration trend, wind profit, 24-h trend in barometric pressure and rain. 4Synthesis and applications. Migration intensities can be forecast with a regression model based on meteorological data. This and other existing models are only valid locally and cannot be extrapolated to new locations. Model development for new locations requires data sets with representative inter- and intraseasonal variability so that cross-validation can be applied effectively. The Royal Netherlands Air Force currently uses the regression model developed in this study to predict migration intensities 3 days ahead. This improves the reliability of migration intensity warnings and allows rescheduling of training flights if needed. [source]

Community-based individual knowledge construction in the classroom: a process-oriented account

C.-K. Looi
Abstract This paper explores the process of knowledge convergence and knowledge sharing in the context of classroom collaboration in which students do a group learning activity mediated by a generic representation tool. In analysing the transcript of the interactions of a group, we adapt the group cognition method of Stahl and the uptake analysis methodology of Suthers to understand how the members of the group did meaning making in their interactions, and how individual members did uptakes of their interactions and applied their new shared knowledge or understanding in new situations. The transcript is taken from our school-based research using the Group Scribbles software technology which provides representation spaces for individual, group or class work to support collaborative practices. Our work contributes toward a methodology for explaining a process-oriented account of a small group interaction through face-to-face communication over external shared representations. [source]

International cooperation on western corn rootworm ecology research: state-of-the-art and future research

J. Moeser
Abstract 1,Invasive pest species are challenging partly because the invasion process may be highly dynamic and because of the lack of knowledge of many researchers, professionals and farmers in the newly-invaded regions. The chrysomelid Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is such an invasive pest. It has been the main pest of continuous maize in the U.S.A. for more than 60 years and is currently spreading throughout Europe. 2,In the area with a long history of this pest (Central and North America), scientific knowledge concerning the ecology of this pest has accumulated over the last decades. This resource is of great importance to both America and Europe and has to be gathered, shared and adapted to new situations. We therefore examined, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the scientific literature relating to D. virgifera virgifera ecology. 3,The quantitative analysis suggests that research on D. virgifera virgifera ecology is still in its infancy in Europe and suffers from geographical barriers (between Europe and North America and between linguistic areas within Europe) and that scientific communication should be strengthened both between North America and Europe and within Europe. 4,As a first solution to this problem, we introduce three companion review articles that constitute a landmark for D. virgifera virgifera research, enabling European and American scientists and decision-makers to orient themselves and discover new opportunities for research. We also stress that international research cooperation is the most important key to successfully manage invasive species. [source]

Cultural competence: a conceptual framework for teaching and learning

Conny Seeleman
Objectives, The need to address cultural and ethnic diversity issues in medical education as a means to improve the quality of care for all has been widely emphasised. Cultural competence has been suggested as an instrument with which to deal with diversity issues. However, the implementation of culturally competent curricula appears to be difficult. We believe the development of curricula would profit from a framework that provides a practical translation of abstract educational objectives and that is related to competencies underlying the medical curriculum in general. This paper proposes such a framework. Methods, The framework illustrates the following cultural competencies: knowledge of epidemiology and the differential effects of treatment in various ethnic groups; awareness of how culture shapes individual behaviour and thinking; awareness of the social context in which specific ethnic groups live; awareness of one's own prejudices and tendency to stereotype; ability to transfer information in a way the patient can understand and to use external help (e.g. interpreters) when needed, and ability to adapt to new situations flexibly and creatively. Discussion, The framework indicates important aspects in taking care of an ethnically diverse patient population. It shows that there are more dimensions to delivering high-quality care than merely the cultural. Most cultural competencies emphasise a specific aspect of a generic competency that is of extra importance when dealing with patients from different ethnic groups. We hope our framework contributes to the further development of cultural competency in medical curricula. [source]

From Warrior to Wife: Cultural Transformation in the Gamo Highlands of Ethiopia

Dena Freeman
This article focuses on cultural transformation in the Gamo Highlands of Ethiopia and seeks to explain the way in which certain initiation rituals have transformed over time. The article begins by considering two structural variants of the initiation ritual that exist in two neighbouring communities, Doko Gembela and Doko Masho, and argues that one is an historical transformation of the other. After comparing the contemporary form of these two variants, the article then moves to consider the macro-level forces of change that have impinged on the two communities over the past two hundred years or so. It then seeks to bring ethnography and history together by considering how the macro-level changes might have been experienced in the interpersonal relations of individuals. It explores the new types of situations that would have arisen and discusses how these new situations would have put strains on particular interpersonal relations, leading in many cases to conflict and dispute. After describing the local methods of conflict resolution, it is shown that on some occasions solutions are found which involve communal decisions to make a small change in cultural practice. In some cases these small changes have a knock-on effect leading to overall structural change. The article ends with a hypothetical reconstruction of the way in which the Doko Masho initiation rituals might have transformed. [source]

The Case for a Rational Reconstruction of Consent in Criminal Law

Catherine Elliott
This article argues for consistency in criminal law and the need for ,rational reconstruction' of the law where necessary to achieve this. It focuses Parliament's failure to respect the need for consistency by passing a statutory definition of consent in the Sexual Offences Act 2003 which appears to apply only to sexual offences. As a result, the law on consent risks being a patchwork of statute and ad hoc case law, without any overarching principle to deal with new situations and different offences. The consequent lack of certainty, accessibility, predictability and fairness is compared to the standards of the European Convention on Human Rights. The statutory definition of consent in the context of the sexual offences is assessed critically as a model which could be used in offences against the person and property offences. The article concludes that until Parliament responds to the need for certainty and consistency by legislating on consent, there can be no rational reconstruction of consent under the Sexual Offences Act 2003. [source]

An Adaptive Recipe Implementation in Case-Based Formalism for Abnormal Condition Management

D. Rizal
Abstract This paper deals with accurate recipe implementation for abnormal condition management in a batch process using a case-based reasoning (CBR) approach. A set of new problems can be solved by reusing proven process solutions. The proposed system integrates quantitative and qualitative parameters for adaptation of cases. A novel methodology to generate accurate recipes and to adapt to the processes is introduced during normal and abnormal conditions. In particular, the differences between current conditions and the references (recipes) should be managed to prevent any hazardous conditions arising. The processes are evaluated using their similarity to the past cases. This intelligent approach distinguishes plausible cases, generates accurate recipes, and adapts to new situations. The aim is to use the offline historical process data and safety related information in order to propose changes and adjustments in the processes. [source]