New Settlements (new + settlement)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Coral Recruitment and Regeneration on a Maldivian Reef 21 Months after the Coral Bleaching Event of 1998

MARINE ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2002
Karen Loch
Abstract. This paper describes the quantitative inventory of stony corals on a Maldivian reef after the bleaching event of 1998. The detailed data, collected in March 1999 and March 2000, comprise survival, new recruitment and regenerates. They were obtained in 6 transects laid out randomly on the reef flat, on 22 Acropora tables on 6 sites at the reef edge and on 39 Porites lobata blocks and 1 Diploastrea heliopora colony. The present cover of living zooxanthellate corals is reduced to ca. 2,,,5 % of its previous state. Acroporidae and Pocilloporidae were practically wiped out, while Poritidae survived partly and Agariciidae (esp. Pavona) are now the dominant group. New settlements on dead Acropora tables were mainly Agariciidae, followed by Acroporidae and Pocilloporidae. Regenerates on Porites were pronounced and the apparent yearly increase in mass was about threefold that of Diploastrea, which is 3 , 4,mm per year. The influence on reef ecology in terms of coral substrate and species, possible sources of larvae, change of guilds in reef builders, other species and the prospect for further development of the reef, with respect to growth versus erosion, is discussed. [source]

Die Auswanderung: religion, culture, and migration among Old Colony Mennonites

Migrations among the Mennonite people were historically undertaken in an attempt to secure religious freedom. Migrations are still being made by the most conservative Mennonite groups. This article briefly examines the process of migration in Mennonite history, and emphasizes the role of migration among one particular group, the Old Colony. A Mennonite settlement in northern Alberta serves as a case study for this investigation, and demonstrates that the preservation of lifestyle is a fundamental objective of all Old Colony migrations. Between 1950 and 1970, families from this community moved, in succession, to another part of northern Alberta, to a new settlement in Belize, and finally, in a remarkable exodus, to Bolivia. [source]

Areca nut use following migration and its consequences

S. Warnakulasuriya
The combined use of areca nut and smokeless tobacco (ST) is practiced particularly in the Indo-Chinese continents. While there is considerable global variation in the use of these products, migrant studies relevant to areca nut use is of considerable interest to epidemiologists in suggesting the extent to which these environment exposures are important in the aetiology of different cancers and other health-related consequences. Studies on Indian migrants to the Malay peninsula, South and east Africa and various Asian ethnic groups resident in several parts of the United Kingdom have shown that the consumption of areca nut (often mixed with ST) is highly prevalent in these communities. Available data on the prevalence of areca chewing among these migrant populations are reviewed here. The carriage of these risk factors from South Asia to other countries has resulted in excess risk of oral cancer in these new settlements. There is also a high incidence of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and late onset diabetes among Indians living in the United Kingdom and there is new evidence to suggest that the combined roles of areca and ST may be contributory. Because of their enhanced financial situation, substance abuse may increase in their new country of domicile. The two products are psychologically addictive and a dependency syndrome related to their use among Asian immigrants to the United Kingdom has been described recently. [source]

Modelling the long-term sustainability of indigenous hunting in Manu National Park, Peru: landscape-scale management implications for Amazonia

Taal Levi
Summary 1. ,Widespread hunting throughout Amazonia threatens the persistence of large primates and other vertebrates. Most studies have used models of limited validity and restricted spatial and temporal scales to assess the sustainability. 2. ,We use human-demographic, game-harvest and game-census data to parameterize a spatially explicit hunting model. We explore how population growth and spread, hunting technology and effort, and source,sink dynamics impact the density of black spider monkeys Ateles chamek over time and space in the rainforests of south-eastern Peru. 3. ,In all scenarios, spider monkey populations, which are vulnerable to hunting, persist in high numbers in much of Manu National Park over the next 50 years. Nonetheless, shotguns cause much more depletion than traditional bow hunting by Matsigenka (Machiguenga) indigenous people. 4. ,Maintenance of the current indigenous lifestyle (dispersed settlements, bow hunting) is unlikely to deplete spider monkeys and, by extension, other fauna, despite rapid human population growth. This helps explain why large, pre-Colombian human populations did not drive large primates to extinction. When guns are used, however, spider monkeys quickly become depleted around even small settlements, with depletion eventually reversing the short-term harvest advantage provided by shotgun hunting. Thus, our models show that when guns are used, limits on settlement numbers can reduce total depletion. 5. ,Synthesis and applications. Our framework lets us visualize the future effects of hunting, population growth, hunting technology and settlement spread in tropical forests. In Manu Park, the continued prohibition of firearms is important for ensuring long-term hunting sustainability. A complementary policy is to negotiate limits on new settlements in return for development aid in existing settlements. The advantage of the latter approach is that settlement numbers are more easily monitored than is hunting effort or technology. Similar policies could help to reduce landscape-scale depletion of prey species in human-occupied reserves and protected areas throughout the Amazon. [source]