New Services (new + services)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Modeling and simulation of mixed traffic on a prioritized shared medium

Jeffrey J. Evans
Network access systems (NAS) such as digital loop carriers (DLC) are increasingly utilizing a shared medium, such as Hybrid Fiber Coax (HFC) to provide point-to-multi-point access from the public switched telephone network (PSTN) to the end user (consumer). New services, such as direct access to the packet switched network (PSN, WWW) have been added to DLC equipment in such a way as to provide for a prioritized set of services over a shared medium in an effort to take advantage of otherwise unused bandwidth. The introduction of such services requires the modeling and analysis of these network access systems. This becomes complex when considering the variability in different service type traffic characteristics. This work identifies a traffic engineering problem of prioritized circuit switched and packet switched (PSTN/PSN) traffic over the same shared medium as it may relate to "perceived" quality of service (QoS). Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Community health practitioner's practice guideline for a changing health care: Korean contribution

Il Sun Ko
Aims and objectives., The specific aims of the study were (1) to identify community residents' health problems and community health practitioners' activities, (2) to explore community health practitioners' perception of the practice guidelines and (3) to provide recommendations for the development of a new practice guideline in the future. Background., Community health practitioners in Korea are recognised as a critical component of the public health workforce in rural areas. Community health practitioners are registered nurses with six months special training, who have the chief responsibility of delivering primary health care to remote or isolated communities. Although there has been numerous changes in focus of community health practitioners practice over the two decades, community health practitioners guidelines have never been updated since being first developed in 1981. Design., This investigation employed a cross-sectional survey and focus group interview. Methods., The samples included two different groups: 1003 community health practitioners participated in a survey and a group of 12 community health practitioners participated in a focus group interview. A measure of perception of the guideline was developed from Mansfield's work. Goolsby's criteria were revised and used to guide the focus group interview. Results., The participants recognised that the role of community health practitioners is in a process of transition and expect to use well developed guidelines that will allow an appropriate response to the needs of the community. Community health practitioners are generally supportive of practice guidelines although they report various contextual, social and resource barriers to the use of practice guidelines. Finally, the researchers have provided recommendations for the development of new community health practitioners practice guidelines. Conclusion., A newly developed community health practitioners guideline should assist in articulating new roles and responsibilities in the practice of community health practitioners and establish a foundation for knowledge, skills and training necessary for them to work independently. Relevance to clinical practice., New services made available for under-recognised health problems may be a direct outcome of newly developed guidelines. [source]

Uncertainty, lack of control and emotional functioning in women with metastatic breast cancer: a review and secondary analysis of the literature using the critical appraisal technique

M. WARREN msc, clinical nurse specialist
WARREN M. (2010) European Journal of Cancer Care19, 564,574 Uncertainty, lack of control and emotional functioning in women with metastatic breast cancer: a review and secondary analysis of the literature using the critical appraisal technique A diagnosis of metastatic (or secondary) breast cancer is frequently more distressing than the diagnosis of a primary tumour since it indicates that the cancer is no longer curable. Relatively little is known, however, about women's experiences of this condition in comparison with those diagnosed with primary breast cancer. This paper therefore reports findings from a secondary analysis of the published literature on the topic using tools from the critical appraisal skills programme to identify and analyse appropriate papers, and the constant comparative method as a means of identifying any overarching or dominant themes emerging from the literature. Uncertainty, lack of control and poor emotional functioning emerged as the main themes affecting women with metastatic breast cancer. These are discussed in relation to their antecedents in the original studies and their implications for nursing care. The themes demonstrate that living with metastatic (or secondary) breast cancer is a multifaceted experience that is influenced by a large number of factors, many of which are under-researched in comparison with those affecting women diagnosed with primary disease. It is clear, however, that women affected by the condition need a great deal more support than they currently receive, and new services may be required to meet these needs. [source]

Using a multiple priority reservation MAC to support differentiated services over HFC systems,

J. D. Angelopoulos
Abstract The successful commercial deployment of Hybrid Fibre/Coaxial (HFC) access networks in the residential market has so far been driven by demand for faster Internet access and the prospects of a host of new services based on real-time voice and video. To sustain their growth rates and compete with alternative approaches, such as ADSL, they must be enhanced with the capability to efficiently handle quality-intensive real-time services. The new multi-service paradigm mandates isolation of traffic classes, conditioning of entering traffic and preventive control in addition to traditional closed-loop control. The differentiated services (DiffServ) architecture with its relevant traffic control tools and the bundling of behaviour aggregates is particularly suited to the H/W-based MAC of HFC systems. It constitutes a suitable framework enabling the support of proliferating real-time voice- and video-based services while aligning the system to the emerging Internet strategy of scalable service differentiation. The implementation of such a solution in the ACTS 327AROMA research project is presented in this paper. The performance of the system is evaluated using computer simulation. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Trunking of TDM and narrowband services over IP Networks

Dr James Aweya
The recent interest in IP as the vehicle for transporting TDM and narrowband services stems from the possibility of using a common transport network for voice, video, and data, and the flexibility with which new services can be introduced. A key step in the evolution of networks towards a ,broadband' IP-based environment is the ,graceful' interworking of the IP networks with the existing networks and services, particularly with the circuit switched telephone network. A ,graceful' interworking approach is one whose complexity is minimal and preserves the user's perceived quality of service (QoS). To interwork with a circuit switched network whose services are pre-dominantly time-sensitive, the IP network must essentially behave as a transparent ,link' in the end-to-end connection. This paper presents an overview of the main technical problems to be addressed when trunking TDM and narrowband services over IP networks. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Using discrete choice experiments to value preferences for pharmacy services

Dr. Katherine Payne Research fellow
Objective This paper describes the application of discrete choice experiments (DCEs), in the measurement of consumers' preferences for pharmacy services. Summary Patients' preferences for healthcare influence strongly their use of services. Quantifying revealed preferences for services (what services people use) is not always possible because either the service does not yet exist or the consumer has no experience of it. There is a need for tools that measure stated preference (what people say they will do) for healthcare, to allow development of new services. DCEs have been used in the valuation of preferences for healthcare services and interventions and can be applied usefully to the valuation of preferences for pharmacy services. DCEs assume that preferences are based on preferences for different attributes of a service, and that consumers are prepared to trade off one attribute against another, such as effectiveness versus side-effects. In a DCE study, respondents make hypothetical choices between scenarios of services with fixed attributes, but varying levels, revealing their strength of preference for attributes of that service. These data are analysed using regression, which generates coefficients that quantify the direction and magnitude of preferences. Marginal rates of substitution and willingness to pay for each attribute can be estimated, which provide powerful information for future service provision. For this approach to be applied in practice, key methodological issues must be handled explicitly, principally scenario design, attribute and level selection, orthogonality, level balance, minimal overlap and utility balance. A hypothetical example of a DCE designed for valuing consumers' preferences for a medication review service for the elderly is described. [source]

Cross-layer protocol optimization for satellite communications networks: a survey

Giovanni Giambene
Abstract Satellite links are expected to be one important component of the next-generation Internet. New satellite system architectures are being envisaged to be fully IP based and support digital video broadcasting and return channel protocols (e.g. DVB-S, DVB-S2 and DVB-RCS). To make the upcoming satellite network systems fully realizable, meeting new services and application requirements, a complete system optimization is needed spanning the different layers of the OSI, and TCP/IP protocol stack. This paper deals with the cross-layer approach to be adopted in novel satellite systems and architectures. Different cross-layer techniques will be discussed, addressing the interactions among application, transport, MAC and physical layers. The impacts of these techniques will be investigated and numerical examples dealing with the joint optimization of different transport control schemes and lower layers will be considered referring to a geostationary-based architecture. Our aim is to prove that the interaction of different layers can permit to improve the higher-layer goodput as well as user satisfaction. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Demand for information and communication technology-based services and regional economic development,

Eduardo Anselmo de Castro
Information and communication technology; demand modelling; network externalities; regional economic convergence Abstract. The relationship between the uptake of Information and Communication Technology-based services (ICT) and regional economic development is examined here; we address in particular the idea that ICT will promote regional economic convergence. We argue that ICT can generate contradictory trends of regional convergence and divergence and that, under conditions of non-regulated market supply, the effects leading to divergence can be dominant. The approach is based on the development of a regional demand model, which is the combination of two sub models, one dealing with the effects of network externalities and the other based on the concept of potential demand for ICT. The main conclusion is that less populous, more peripheral and poorer regions with weaker existing social and economic networking will encounter problems of insufficient demand. This in turn will delay the launch of new services and slow the rate of uptake. Negative dynamic effects of low ICT use on economic performance will generate a vicious circle of cumulative disadvantage. [source]

Reducing the information gap: Digital library development in Brazil

Cavan McCarthy
Principal Brazilian digital library initiatives were identified and characterized. Significant projects in the area of science and research include gateway sites for research (Prossiga), set up and maintained cooperatively, also a multinational access system for regional electronic journals (SciELO). Systems which offer access to texts of the Brazilian classics predominate in the field of literature and hmanities. Digital libraries have had a significant impact on Brazil. Government financing was critical for implanting these new services. Institutions which already have a strong background in advanced technology have significantly better chances of success in the digital library field. Cooperative projects have also had significant impact. [source]

A Resource-Process Framework of New Service Development

Craig M. Froehle
Motivated by the increasing attention given to the operational importance of developing new services, this paper offers a theoretical framework that integrates both process- and resource-oriented perspectives of new service development (NSD) by defining and organizing 45 practice constructs for NSD-related practices and activities that occur in contemporary service firms. We employ a rigorous procedure whereby both quantitative and qualitative data were gathered through multiple rounds of interviews and card-sorting exercises with senior service managers. This iterative refinement process helps ensure that the construct domains and definitions are consistent and that they are applicable across multiple service sectors. A primary contribution of this research is to provide precise operational definitions of theoretically important NSD practice constructs. Importantly, this study expands on the NSD literature by including both resource- and process-centric perspectives within a single framework. A second contribution is to illustrate a general methodology for developing clear, concise, and consistent construct definitions that may be generally useful for production and operations management scholars interested in new construct development for emerging areas. Empirical results suggest that the resource-process framework can help guide and organize future research on, and provide insight into, a more comprehensive view of new service development. [source]

Taxes, Time, and Support for Security

New technologies have been developed in response to terrorism. These present problems for local officials: implementing technologies will be expensive, and no technologies exist that can be used to gauge demand. We apply contingent valuation methodologies to determine support for additional taxes to pay for new terrorism-related technologies and services. We present findings from a national survey about people's attitudes toward terrorism prevention and response. We find that respondents generally support new services and technologies and local tax increases to pay for them. We also find that respondents are willing to pay more if programs have everyday uses that would enhance public safety, but are less supportive as inconveniences increase. [source]

Innovative versus incremental new business services: Different keys for achieving success

Ulrike de Brentani
In companies where new product development plays an important strategic role, managers necessarily contend with a portfolio of projects that range from high technology, new-to-the-world, innovations to relatively simple improvements, adaptations, line extensions, or imitations of competitive offerings. Recent studies indicate that achieving successful outcomes for projects that differ radically in terms of innovativeness requires that firms adjust their NPD practices in line with the type of new product project they are developing. Based on a large-scale survey of managers knowledgeable about new product development in their firm, this study focuses on new business-to-business service projects in an attempt to gain insights about the influence of product innovativeness on the factors that are linked to new service success and failure. The research results indicate that there are a small number of "global" success factors which appear to govern the outcome of new service ventures, regardless of their degree of newness. These include: ensuring an excellent customer/need fit, involving expert front line personnel in creating the new service and in helping customers appreciate its distinctiveness and benefits, and implementing a formal and planned launch program for the new service offering. Several other factors, however, were found to play a more distinctive role in the outcome of new service ventures, depending on how really new or innovative the new service was. For low innovativeness new business services, the results suggest that managers can enhance performance by: leveraging the firm's unique competencies, experiences and reputation through the introduction of new services that have a strong corporate fit; installing a formal "stage-gate" new service development system, particularly at the front-end and during the design stage of the development process; and ensuring that efforts to differentiate services from competitive or past offerings do not lead to high cost or unnecessarily complex service offerings. For new-to-the-world business services, the primary distinguishing feature impacting performance is the corporate culture of the firm: one that encourages entrepreneurship and creativity, and that actively involves senior managers in the role of visionary and mentor for new service development. In addition, good market potential and marketing tactics that offset the intangibility of "really new" service concepts appear to have a positive performance effect. [source]

Short-term Functional Decline and Service Use in Older Emergency Department Patients With Blunt Injuries

Scott T. Wilber MD
ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:679,686 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Abstract Background:, Injuries are a common reason for emergency department (ED) visits by older patients. Although injuries in older patients can be serious, 75% of these patients are discharged home after their ED visit. These patients may be at risk for short-term functional decline related to their injuries or treatment. Objectives:, The objectives were to determine the incidence of functional decline in older ED patients with blunt injuries not requiring hospital admission for treatment, to describe their care needs, and to determine the predictors of short-term functional decline in these patients. Methods:, This institutional review board,approved, prospective, longitudinal study was conducted in two community teaching hospital EDs with a combined census of 97,000 adult visits. Eligible patients were , 65 years old, with blunt injuries <48 hours old, who could answer questions or had a proxy. We excluded those too ill to participate; skilled nursing home patients; those admitted for surgery, major trauma, or acute medical conditions; patients with poor baseline function; and previously enrolled patients. Interviewers collected baseline data and the used the Older Americans Resources and Services (OARS) questionnaire to assess function and service use. Potential predictors of functional decline were derived from prior studies of functional decline after an ED visit and clinical experience. Follow-up occurred at 1 and 4 weeks, when the OARS questions were repeated. A three-point drop in activities of the daily living (ADL) score defined functional decline. Data are presented as means and proportions with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Logistic regression was used to model potential predictors with functional decline at 1 week as the dependent variable. Results:, A total of 1,186 patients were evaluated for eligibility, 814 were excluded, 129 refused, and 13 were missed, leaving 230 enrolled patients. The mean (±SD) age was 77 (±7.5) years, and 70% were female. In the first week, 92 of 230 patients (40%, 95% CI = 34% to 47%) had functional decline, 114 of 230 (49%, 95% CI = 43% to 56%) had new services initiated, and 76 of 230 had an unscheduled medical contact (33%, 95% CI = 27% to 39%). At 4 weeks, 77 of 219 had functional decline (35%, 95% CI = 29% to 42%), 141 of 219 had new services (65%, 95% CI = 58% to 71%), and 123 of 219 had an unscheduled medical contact (56%, 95% CI = 49% to 63%), including 15% with a repeated ED visit and 11% with a hospital admission. Family members provided the majority of new services at both time periods. Significant predictors of functional decline at 1 week were female sex (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.1 to 4.5), instrumental ADL dependence (IADL; OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.3 to 4.8), upper extremity fracture or dislocation (OR = 5.5, 95% CI = 2.5 to 11.8), lower extremity fracture or dislocation (OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 1.4 to 15.4), trunk injury (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.1 to 5.3), and head injury (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.23 to 1.0). Conclusions:, Older patients have a significant risk of short-term functional decline and other adverse outcomes after ED visits for injuries not requiring hospitalization for treatment. The most significant predictors of functional decline are upper and lower extremity fractures. [source]

Harnessing the social capital of rural communities for youth mental health: An asset-based community development framework

Candice P. Boyd
Abstract In Australia, we are facing a period of mental health reform with the establishment of federally funded community youth services in rural areas of the country. These new services have great potential to improve the mental health of rural adolescents. In the context of this new initiative, we have four main objectives with this article. First, we consider the notion of social capital in relation to mental health and reflect on the collective characteristics of rural communities. Second, we review lessons learned from two large community development projects targeting youth mental health. Third, we suggest ways in which the social capital of rural communities might be harnessed for the benefit of youth mental health by using asset-based community development strategies and fourth, we consider the role that rural clinicians might play in this process. [source]

Increased competitiveness through component technology for element management systems

Alan J. McBride
Element management represents a necessary cost associated with all network devices. Isolated development of element management systems (EMSs) for diverse network device products results in replication of effort on common low-level aspects. This effort spent re-inventing the wheel affects cost-effectiveness and drains resources from features that reduce customer cost of ownership and operation. Reduced cost of EMS development and reduced operations expenditure for the customer can significantly contribute to competitiveness of the managed device itself. The Navis® element management framework (EMF) program addresses the cost-effectiveness of EMS development through a platform approach utilizing a components architecture and Bell Labs software tools together with high-productivity technologies such as J2EE*/EJB,* XML, Java,* and CORBA.* Use of a platform for aspects common across EMSs allows each development to focus on product-specific value-added features, while also facilitating common look-and-feel and integration of EMS products with current and next-generation operations support systems (OSSs) for seamless end-to-end network and service management. The benefits to service providers include faster time-to-market for new services and reduced training and integration costs. © 2003 Lucent Technologies Inc. [source]