New Sense (new + sense)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Female choice of sexually antagonistic male adaptations: a critical review of some current research

C. Cordero
Abstract We contrast some recent uses of the concept of male-female conflict, with the type of conflict that is inherent in traditional Darwinian female choice. Females in apparent conflict situations with males may suffer reduced lifetime reproduction, but nevertheless benefit because they obtain sons with superior manipulative abilities. Female defences against male manipulations may not be ,imperfect' because of inability to keep pace with male evolution, but in order to screen males and favour those that are especially good manipulators. We examine the consequences of these ideas, and of the difficulties of obtaining biologically realistic measures of female costs, for some recent theoretical and empirical presentations of male,female conflict ideas, and find that male,female conflict in the new sense is less certain than has been commonly supposed. Disentangling previous sexual selection ideas and the new conflict of interest models will probably often be difficult, because the two types of payoffs are not mutually exclusive. [source]

The evolution of family interventions for schizophrenia.

A tribute to Gianfranco Cecchin
Family intervention for schizophrenia has informed the whole history of family therapy, although in different fashions. This presentation will deal with the main phases of such intervention, outlining the characteristic features of each one. We can roughly divide the history of family intervention for schizophrenia into four phases: Phase 1 , Conjoint family therapy (1955,1965). Family interventions were aimed at modifying family communication patterns, implying the possibility of a definitive resolution of psychopathology. Phase 2 , Antipsychiatry (1965,1975). This, rather than a treatment model, was a philosophy of psychiatry, which considered schizophrenia as an epiphenomenon of the distortions of Western society. Family treatment was aimed at promoting the awareness of such a dynamic. Phase 3 , Milan systemic therapy (1975,1985). The systemic model was aimed at helping people with schizophrenia to recognize their position within their families (and other significant systems), giving all family members a new sense of their relationships to each other. Phase 4 , Psychoeducation (1985,2005). In most psychoeducational models, schizophrenia was conceived of as a biologically determined disorder. Psychoeducation was a way of helping the not diagnosed family members to cope with problems brought about by the illness, eliciting consensus towards psychiatric treatments such as medication and rehabilitation. A fifth phase of family intervention for schizophrenia is probably developing right now. If this is happening it should probably be an integrative phase, in which different approaches to family dynamics might be bridged and blended, in order to give more effective help to all members of families with schizophrenia. [source]

More carrots than sticks: Antanas Mockus's civic culture policy in Bogotá

Felipe Cala Buendía
The son of a Lithuanian artist, Antanas Mockus was the president of the National University in Colombia before he became mayor of Bogotá in 1995. As mayor, he transformed the city into a huge classroom, not only bringing to his administration a new view of governing but also transforming the way people exercised their citizenship. Mockus resorted to a creative communicative and pedagogical effort to change the citizens' hearts and minds in favor of peaceful coexistence and legal compliance. Symbols, metaphors, and humor became the language through which the administration would enforce its measures to deal with urban violence. Unconventional techniques, such as a symbolic vaccine against domestic violence and the use of mimes to control traffic circulation and create a sense of shame among those who committed infractions, helped to stop crime and develop a new sense of citizenship. [source]

Closing Ranks: Fundamentals in History, Politics and Anthropology

Kirsten Hastrup
In this presentation, I discuss fundamentalism from a processual perspective, seeking to tease out some general qualities of the processes involved in a return to fundamentals amidst social change. I start with an analysis of the historical dynamics of Icelandic society in the period 1400,1800, showing how the increasing insistence on old patterns and cultural fundamentals contributed to the gradual destruction of a one time flourishing medieval society. This devolution, I suggest, is closely correlated with a process of amplification (Sahlins) of a particular set of values, leading to a loss of flexibility in the response to environmental and other changes. Next follows a discussion of present day concerns with nationalism and other interests in bounding oneself off from the surrounding world, and demanding recognition in return. One of the processes discussed is a process of transvaluation (Tambiah), assimilating particulars to a larger and less context-bound scheme and thereby gradually deepening the cleavage between selves and others, sometimes to the point of epistemological closure (Ignatieff). Finally, one of the anthropological fundamentals, holism, is discussed with a view to reassessing its potential for present-day anthropology. It is argued that through the process of knowing implied in fieldwork, anthropologists arrive at a dual understanding of perceived wholes and creative agents. A new sense of holism may still grant both consistency and uniqueness to the anthropological discipline. [source]