New Scenario (new + scenario)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A New Scenario in Probe Local Oxidation: Transient Pressure-Wave-Assisted Ionic Spreading and Oxide Pattern Formation,

N. Xie
A new mechanism based on transient shock-wave-assisted lateral ionic spreading and oxide growth is reported for atomic force microscopy probe local oxidation (see figure). Transitory high pressure waves generated in the nanoscopic tip,sample junction significantly extend the distribution of hydroxyl oxidants to facilitate micrometer-scale disk-oxide growth on a silicon substrate. The results show that shock propagation may be a general phenomenon in AFM nanolithography. [source]

Therapeutic approaches for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients in the era of novel drugs

Fortunato Morabito
Abstract The treatment of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) has evolved rapidly over recent years. The availability of new effective drugs with novel mechanisms of action, such as thalidomide, lenalidomide and bortezomib in the last decade, has resulted in a new scenario expected to impact favorably on the outcome of patients with MM. The introduction of new drugs in the treatment of patients eligible for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has allowed for a significant increase of complete response rate with a positive impact on progression-free survival. In patients not eligible for ASCT, randomized trials have shown that both thalidomide and bortezomib when combined with melphalan and prednisone (MP) are superior to MP and are now considered the standard of care. Ongoing trials are assessing whether MP plus lenalidomide or the combination of lenalidomide plus dexamethasone should be considered an attractive treatment option, while additional studies are needed to determine the role of routine maintenance or consolidation therapy with these new drugs. This new therapeutic armamentarium in light of adequate prophylaxis and supportive care allows clinicians to greatly improve the survival perspectives for both young and elderly patients. In this review, we report updated data for the front-line therapy of MM, examining the role of new drugs either when administered as induction therapy before ASCT in younger patients or when combined with alkylating agents for the treatment of older patients. The most relevant articles on therapy of MM published from November 1982 to January 2010 (selected through PubMed), and recent meeting abstracts were used as sources for this review. [source]


EVOLUTION, Issue 5 2004
Ken R. Helms
Abstract A recent study by Fournier et al. (2003) provides important new information on sex allocation in the ant Pheidole pallidula, and proposes a new scenario for sex-ratio evolution in P. pallidula and similar species. However, Helms proposed to the authors that two important conclusions of the study were questionable because of potential problems with the analyses. Here we provide new data and a reanalysis that strengthens the conclusion that colony sex ratio is associated with breeding system (i.e., polygyny or monogyny). However, the proposal that colonies shift from monogyny to polygyny when they become larger and more productive is weakened because there is substantial overlap in productivity between monogynous and polygynous colonies. [source]

Late Miocene fish otoliths from the Colombacci Formation (Northern Apennines, Italy): implications for the Messinian ,Lago-mare' event

Giorgio Carnevale
Abstract A fish otolith assemblage from the Messinian ,Lago-mare' deposits of the Colombacci Formation cropping out in the Montecalvo in Foglia Syncline, Marche, central Italy, is described. The assemblage displays a low diversity and consists of seven taxa belonging to three families: the Gobiidae, Myctophidae and Sciaenidae. Sciaenid otoliths are the most abundant elements representing 88% of the entire assemblage. The palaeoecological analysis reveals a coastal shallow marine environment strongly influenced by continental outflow. The low diversity and high abundance of the euryecious sciaenids are indicative of a very simplified food web, which probably represented an ecological response to the fluctuating environmental parameters and available food resources. The fish remains documented here provide an unambiguous evidence that normal marine conditions were present in the Mediterranean, at least in the upper part of the ,Lago-mare' event, and unquestionably demonstrate that the marine refilling preceded the Mio-Pliocene boundary. These findings clearly demonstrate that fishes, because of their mobility and migratory behaviour, represent a useful tool for the large-scale interpretation of the environmental conditions of the Messinian Mediterranean water body. The necessity of a new scenario of palaeoenvironmental evolution for the post-evaporitic Messinian of the Mediterranean is also discussed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

New Concepts and Applications in the Macromolecular Chemistry of Fullerenes

Francesco Giacalone
Abstract A new classification on the different types of fullerene-containing polymers is presented according to their different properties and applications they exhibit in a variety of fields. Because of their interest and novelty, water-soluble and biodegradable C60 -polymers are discussed first, followed by polyfullerene-based membranes where unprecedented supramolecular structures are presented. Next are compounds that involve hybrid materials formed from fullerenes and other components such as silica, DNA, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) where the most recent advances have been achieved. A most relevant topic is still that of C60 -based donor-acceptor (D,A) polymers. Since their application in photovoltaics D,A polymers are among the most realistic applications of fullerenes in the so-called molecular electronics. The most relevant aspects in these covalently connected fullerene/polymer hybrids as well as new concepts to improve energy conversion efficiencies are presented. The last topics disccused relate to supramolecular aspects that are in involved in C60 -polymer systems and in the self-assembly of C60 -macromolecular structures, which open a new scenario for organizing, by means of non-covalent interactions, new supramolecular structures at the nano- and micrometric scale, in which the combination of the hydrofobicity of fullerenes with the versatility of the noncovalent chemistry afford new and spectacular superstructures. [source]

Merging formation and current amplification of field-reversed configuration

Michiaki Inomoto Member
Abstract The merging formation of the field-reversed configuration (FRC) has been developed in the TS-3 merging experiment, leading us to a new scenario of FRC slow formation, heating and current amplification. Two force-free spheromaks with opposing toroidal fields were merged together in the axial direction to form a high-, FRC with higher efficiency than the conventional field-reversed theta-pinch method. This unique relaxation from the force-free (, , 0.05 , 0.1) spheromaks to the high-, (, , 0.7 , 1) FRC is attributed to the conversion of toroidal magnetic energy into ion thermal energy through the reconnection outflow. A central ohmic heating (OH) coil worked successfully to amplify the FRC plasma current by a factor of 2. Toroidal mode analysis of magnetic structure indicated that the tilting stability of the oblate FRC was provided by an ion kinetic effect. This oblate FRC is also useful as an initial equilibrium to produce a high-,p spherical tokamak (ST) with diamagnetic toroidal magnetic field, suggesting the close relationship between FRCs and high-,p STs in the second stable region of the ballooning mode. © 2007 Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

Function-in-layout: a demonstration with bio-inspired hyperacuity chip

András Mozsáry
Abstract Below 100 nm a new scenario is emerging in VLSI design: floorplanning and function are inherently interrelated. Using mainly local connectivity, wire delay and crosstalk problems are eliminated. A new design methodology is proposed, called function-in-layout, that possesses: regular layout, mainly local connectivity, functional ,parasitics'. A bio-inspired demonstration is presented, a hyperacuity chip, with 30 ps time difference detection using 0.35 mm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Radio bimodality: Spin, accretion mode, or both?

M. Sikora
Abstract A new scenario is suggested to explain a large diversity of the AGN radio properties and their dependence on the galaxy morphology. The scenario is based on the assumption that the growth of supermassive BHs is dominated by the accretion only during the quasar (high accretion rate) phase, otherwise , by mergers with less massive black holes. Following that, BHs are expected to spin much faster in giant ellipticals than in disk galaxies. Within the frame of the spin paradigm this explains the observed relation of the radio-dichotomy with the galaxy morphology. Various theoretical and observational aspects of such a dichotomy are discussed. In particular, the issue of the intermittency and suppression of a jet production at high accretion rates is addressed and a scenario for production of powerful, extended radio sources is drafted (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]