New Scale (new + scale)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Personality Assessment with the MMPI-2: Historical Roots, International Adaptations, and Current Challenges

James N. Butcher
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) is the most widely used personality test in psychological practice. Although originally developed during the middle of the last century in the United States, its use today extends around the world. The MMPI-2 is a robust measure given its strong empirical tradition and many innovations. Recent years have seen controversial changes to this standard of psychological assessment. New scales were added in 2003 (i.e. the Restructured Clinical or RC Scales) and the Fake Bad Scale (FBS) was included in the MMPI-2 in 2007. A new instrument called the MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) was released in 2008 with the RC Scales replacing the well-validated MMPI-2 Clinical Scales; 40 per cent of its items eliminated; a shortened FBS included; and most of its 50 scales introduced for the first time. This article traces the history of the evolving MMPI-2 with special attention to its international applications, and offers a perspective on the radical departure from past MMPI-2 research represented by the RC Scales, FBS, the MMPI-2-RF, and other recent changes to this standard in the field. [source]

Behavioral arousal in response to stress and drug cue in alcohol and cocaine addicted individuals versus healthy controls

Tara M. Chaplin
Abstract Negative emotional arousal in response to stress and drug cues is known to play a role in the development and continuation of substance use disorders. However, studies have not examined behavioral indicators of such arousal. Objective The current study examined behavioral and bodily arousal in response to stress and drug cue in individuals with alcohol dependence and cocaine dependence as compared to healthy controls using a new scale. Methods Fifty-two alcohol dependent (AD group), 45 cocaine dependent (COC group), and 68 healthy controls (HC group) were exposed to individually developed stressful, drug-cue, and neutral-relaxing imagery. Behavioral and bodily responses were assessed with a new scale, the Behavioral Arousal Scale (BAS). Results The BAS showed acceptable inter-rater reliability and internal consistency and correlated with subjective negative emotion and craving. BAS scores were higher in stress than neutral conditions for all three groups. COC participants showed higher BAS response to stress than AD or HC participants. COC and AD participants showed greater BAS response to drug cue than HC participants. Conclusion Behavioral arousal is a domain in which stress and drug related arousal is expressed and assessment of this domain could provide unique information about vulnerability to craving and relapse in addicted populations. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Functional cognitive assessment scale (FUCAS): a new scale to assess executive cognitive function in daily life activities in patients with dementia and mild cognitive impairment

Fotini Kounti
Abstract Background Several tests have been developed to examine performance of demented patients in daily life activities. However, most of them are based either on the subjective evaluation of performance by the patient him/herself, or on the reports of relatives. Functional Cognitive Assessment Scale (FUCAS) is a new reliable (,,>,0.89,,,0.92) cognitive-behavioral scale that assesses executive function in daily life activities directly in patients with dementia. Aims This study aimed at testing FUCAS' internal consistency of items, criterion-related validity, interrater reliability, discriminative ability, and effect of age, sex, and education on FUCAS scores. Results Criterion-related validity was supported by significant correlations between FUCAS, CAMCOG, MMSE, and FRSSD. The interrater reliability of FUCAS' total score for two raters was r 0.997 and we found no significant effect of age, sex, or education on FUCAS' total performance. Discriminant analysis has identified that FUCAS was able to sufficiently discriminate the patients with MCI from those with moderate-severe dementia. Conclusion FUCAS is a useful and reliable diagnostic tool for MCI. Cognitive-behavioral assessment such as that provided by FUCAS can provide objective information that can serve to enhance the quality of clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Eating problems, body image disturbances, and academic achievement: Preliminary evaluation of the eating and body image disturbances academic interference scale

Tovah Yanover MA
Abstract Objective: To examine the relationships between a new scale, the Eating and Body Image Disturbances Academic Interference Scale (EBIDAIS), and measures of eating disturbance, body image, and academic achievement. Method: One thousand five hundred eighty-four college undergraduates completed the measures in an online survey and were awarded class credit for their participation. Measures included the Eating Disorder Inventory Bulimia, Drive for Thinness, Body Dissatisfaction, and Perfectionism subscales. Grade point average (GPA) was also reported. Results: Academic interference and GPA were significantly correlated, indicating that higher interference scores were related to lower GPA. EBIDAIS was also significantly correlated with drive for thinness, bulimia, and body dissatisfaction, but was not significantly associated with perfectionism. The correlation between interference and GPA was substantially higher for a subsample of individuals who scored in the elevated range on eating and body dissatisfaction. Conclusion: Academic interference may be a relatively unexamined, but potentially important, outcome for individuals who experience eating problems and body image disturbance. © 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2008 [source]

The attitudes to ageing questionnaire (AAQ): development and psychometric properties

K. Laidlaw
Abstract Objective This paper describes the development of the Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire (AAQ) which is a self-report measure with which older people themselves can express their attitudes to the process of ageing. Method The development of the AAQ followed a coherent, logical and empirical process taking full account of relevant gerontological knowledge and modern and classical psychometric analytical methods. Pilot testing with 1,356 participants from 15 centres worldwide refined the scale and provided the basis for a field test. A total of 5,566 participants from 20 centres worldwide contributed to the further development of this new scale with the derivation involving both classical and modern psychometric methods. Results The result is a 24-item cross-cultural attitudes to ageing questionnaire consisting of a three-factor model encompassing psychological growth, psychosocial loss, and physical change. The three-factor model suggests a way of conceptualizing and measuring successful ageing in individuals. Conclusions The AAQ provides researchers, clinicians and policy makers with a unique scale to measure the impact of successful ageing interventions. It also provides a vehicle for the measurement of how individuals age across cultures and under different economic, political and social circumstances. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Nurses' satisfaction with shiftwork and associations with work, home and health characteristics: a survey in the Netherlands

Velibor P.J.M. Peters
Abstract Title.,Nurses' satisfaction with shiftwork and associations with work, home and health characteristics: a survey in the Netherlands. Aim., This paper is a report of a study conducted to determine if satisfaction with irregular working hours that are a form of shiftwork operates as a mediator between work and home characteristics and health problems. Background., Shiftwork contributes to health problems, decreased well-being and poorer health habits. It also affects employees' decisions to leave the healthcare sector. Although many nurses voluntarily work shifts, there have been few studies of their satisfaction with irregular working hours when these are a form of shiftwork. Methods., A survey was carried out with 144 nurses working in three nursing homes and one care home in the Netherlands. Questionnaires were distributed in 2003 to 233 nurses who worked shifts (response rate 60%). The questionnaire contained items on work and home characteristics, satisfaction with irregular working hours that are a form of shiftwork and health. A new scale to measure satisfaction with irregular working hours was constructed. Results., All work characteristics, but no home characteristics, were associated with satisfaction with irregular working hours. The work characteristics ,job demands' and the home characteristics ,autonomy at home' and ,home demands' were associated with health. Satisfaction with irregular working hours did not mediate between work/home characteristics and health. Those reporting more social support, lower job demands and more job autonomy were more satisfied with their irregular working times that were a form of shiftwork. Conclusions., Satisfaction with irregular working hours is a useful construct that requires further longitudinal study. The results also underline the importance of considering home characteristics when predicting health outcomes. [source]

Criminal attitudes to violence: Development and preliminary validation of a scale for male prisoners

Devon L.L. Polaschek
Abstract Two studies report on the development and preliminary psychometric properties of a new scale measuring criminal attitudes to violence. In Study 1, the responses of a mixed sample of male prisoners were used to select 20 scale items from a larger pool. The final scale (the Criminal Attitudes to Violence Scale; CAVS) was designed so that it had a single-factor structure and was uncorrelated with a measure of social desirability bias. It demonstrated high internal reliability, and a strong relationship to a self-report measure of physical aggression. Significant differences were found in CAVS mean scores for various offence history comparisons, such as whether or not the offender was currently on sentence for a violent conviction. In the second study, most results from the first study were replicated with an independent sample of male prisoners. Further, compared to another scale measuring attitudes to aggression [the EXPAGG Instrumental subscale; Archer and Haigh, 1997b], the CAVS was a better predictor of general attitudes to crime. Mean CAVS scores were again significantly higher for current violent offenders than those on sentence for other types of offences. Lastly, the CAVS was moderately predictive of estimated risk of reconviction and re-imprisonment. Overall these results suggest that this scale measures the construct of attitudes to criminal violence, which partially overlaps two other constructs: attitudes to aggression and attitudes to crime. Aggr. Behav. 30:484,503, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A new scale to measure family members' perception of community health care services for persons with Huntington disease

Valmi D. Sousa PhD CNS-BC RN
Abstract Rationale, aims, and objectives, Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive genetic brain disease leading to disruptive cognitive, behavioural and physical impairments. Persons with the condition and their caregivers need appropriate and accessible health care services to help them manage the disease adequately. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a new scale that measures family members' perception of community health care services (CHCS) for persons with HD. Methods, A methodological design was used to examine the initial reliability and dimensionality of the CHCS scale among 245 family members of persons with a diagnosis of HD. Data analysis consisted of computing Cronbach's , coefficients, calculating the 95% confidence interval for , and performing item-analysis and exploratory factor analysis. Results, Reliability of the scale based on Cronbach's , was 0.83. Factor analysis using principal component analysis and varimax rotation suggested that three interpretable factors underlie the scale. Factor 1, HD knowledge, had , = 0.82, eigenvalue of 4.67 and explained 33.42% of the variance; factor 2, HD community resources, had , = 0.62, eigenvalue of 1.68 and explained 12.02% of the variance; factor 3, individualized HD management, had , = 0.77, eigenvalue of 1.45 and explained 10.39% of the variance. Conclusions, Findings from this study provide evidence of both construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the CHCS scale. Further psychometric testing of the scale in other samples of family caregivers of persons with HD is warranted. [source]

The measurement of psychotic acuity by nursing staff

C. THEODORIDOU bsc(hons) msc
Accurate evaluation of patients' psychotic state is essential to decrease psychotic symptoms and protect the patient and others. The aim of this paper is to conduct a literature review in order to access the utility, reliability and validity of current rating scales that are purported to measure psychotic acuity of inpatient population. A search of a number of electronic databases was undertaken to retrieve potential articles that focus on the measurement of acute psychosis. We identified some conceptual and theoretical problems when using a scale that is monitoring the progress of discharge and assesses the outcome of treatments. The findings revealed a difficulty in finding a commonly agreed definition of acute psychosis and a problem of obtaining frequent measures, and the frequency of measurement and fluctuation in psychosis. The most dominant scales in assessing psychosis were reviewed: the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. Several issues related to the scales' inter-rater reliability and construct validity remain unexplored. None of these scales addressed the conceptual and theoretical problems that we identified. A new scale that will measure acuity of symptoms in inpatient settings needs to be created. [source]

Parkinson's disease-cognitive rating scale: A new cognitive scale specific for Parkinson's disease

Javier Pagonabarraga MD
Abstract Cognitive defects associated with cortical pathology may be a marker of dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD). There is a need to improve the diagnostic criteria of PD dementia (PDD) and to clarify the cognitive impairment patterns associated with PD. Current neuropsychological batteries designed for PD are focused on fronto-subcortical deficits but are not sensitive for cortical dysfunction. We developed a new scale, the Parkinson's Disease-Cognitive Rating Scale (PD-CRS), that was designed to cover the full spectrum of cognitive defects associated with PD. We prospectively studied 92 PD patients [30 cognitively intact (CogInt), 30 mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 32 PDD] and 61 matched controls who completed the PD-CRS and neuropsychological tests assessing the cognitive domains included in the PD-CRS. Acceptability, construct validity, reliability, and the discriminative properties of the PD-CRS were examined. The PD-CRS included items assessing fronto-subcortical defects and items assessing cortical dysfunction. Construct validity, test-retest and inter-rater reliability of PD-CRS total scores showed an intraclass correlation coefficient >0.70. The PD-CRS showed an excellent test accuracy to diagnose PDD (sensitivity 94%, specificity 94%). The PD-CRS total scores and confrontation naming item scores-assessing "cortical" dysfunction,independently differentiated PDD from non-demented PD. Alternating verbal fluency and delayed verbal memory independently differentiated the MCI group from both controls and CogInt. The PD-CRS appeared to be a reliable and valid PD-specific battery that accurately diagnosed PDD and detected subtle fronto-subcortical deficits. Performance on the PD-CRS showed that PDD is characterized by the addition of cortical dysfunction upon a predominant and progressive fronto-subcortical impairment. © 2008 Movement Disorder Society [source]

The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS): Status and recommendations

Article first published online: 18 MAR 200
Abstract The Movement Disorder Society Task Force for Rating Scales for Parkinson's Disease prepared a critique of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Strengths of the UPDRS include its wide utilization, its application across the clinical spectrum of PD, its nearly comprehensive coverage of motor symptoms, and its clinimetric properties, including reliability and validity. Weaknesses include several ambiguities in the written text, inadequate instructions for raters, some metric flaws, and the absence of screening questions on several important non-motor aspects of PD. The Task Force recommends that the MDS sponsor the development of a new version of the UPDRS and encourage efforts to establish its clinimetric properties, especially addressing the need to define a Minimal Clinically Relevant Difference and a Minimal Clinically Relevant Incremental Difference, as well as testing its correlation with the current UPDRS. If developed, the new scale should be culturally unbiased and be tested in different racial, gender, and age-groups. Future goals should include the definition of UPDRS scores with confidence intervals that correlate with clinically pertinent designations, "minimal," "mild," "moderate," and "severe" PD. Whereas the presence of non-motor components of PD can be identified with screening questions, a new version of the UPDRS should include an official appendix that includes other, more detailed, and optionally used scales to determine severity of these impairments. © 2003 Movement Disorder Society [source]

A new set of electronegativity scale for trivalent lanthanides

Keyan Li
Abstract A new set of electronegativity (EN) scale for all trivalent lanthanides (Ln) is proposed on the basis of effective ionic potential, from which the electron-attracting power of trivalent Ln can be well differentiated. This new scale can be used to qualitatively explain the valence stability and valence change of some typical trivalent Ln. Furthermore, the good linear relationships of the charge-transfer energy of Ln3+ and the first dehydroxylation temperature in the agardite to the current EN scale of Ln3+ show us the further reasonableness of our new EN scale. (© 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Examination of the content of individualism/collectivism scales in cultural comparisons of the USA and Japan

Kenji Noguchi
The definitions of individualism/collectivism and the content of scale items used to assess them could explain the lack of cross-cultural differences reported in some research. Specifically, existing scales may not adequately assess expected cultural differences. In study 1, a new scale was given in Japan and the USA. Three factors were identified in both cultures. Japanese scored higher on the others focus factor but scored lower on the helping others factor than the US Americans. In study 2, a forced choice version replicated results in study 1. In studies 3 and 4, the factor structure and cultural differences were replicated and the convergent and the divergent validities of the scale were examined. Results indicate that Japanese may be more others oriented depending on the item content. [source]

A novel scale for measuring mixed states in bipolar disorder

Jonathan Cavanagh
Abstract Objectives: Conventional descriptions of bipolar disorder tend to treat the mixed state as something of an afterthought. There is no scale that specifically measures the phenomena of the mixed state. This study aimed to test a novel scale for mixed state in a clinical and community population of bipolar patients. Methods: The scale included clinically relevant symptoms of both mania and depression in a bivariate scale. Recovered respondents were asked to recall their last manic episode. The scale allowed endorsement of one or more of the manic and depressive symptoms. Internal consistency analyses were carried out using Cronbach alpha. Factor analysis was carried out using a standard Principal Components Analysis followed by Varimax Rotation. A confirmatory factor analytic method was used to validate the scale structure in a representative clinical sample. Results: The reliability analysis gave a Cronbach alpha value of 0.950, with a range of corrected-item-total-scale correlations from 0.546 (weight change) to 0.830 (mood). The factor analysis revealed a two-factor solution for the manic and depressed items which accounted for 61.2% of the variance in the data. Factor 1 represented physical activity, verbal activity, thought processes and mood. Factor 2 represented eating habits, weight change, passage of time and pain sensitivity. Conclusions: This novel scale appears to capture the key features of mixed states. The two-factor solution fits well with previous models of bipolar disorder and concurs with the view that mixed states may be more than the sum of their parts. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message: There is no clinical scale that specifically measures the phenomena of the bipolar mixed state. This new scale includes clinically relevant symptoms of both mania and depression in a bivariate scale. The scale appears to capture key features of the mixed state and endorses the view that mixed states may be more than the sum of their parts. [source]

The scale of perceived interpersonal closeness (PICS)

M. Popovic
The development and piloting of a new scale entitled the Perceived Interpersonal Closeness Scale (PICS) is described. The format of the PICS requires an individual to position other individuals within a circular ,closeness' space in which the distance between these others can be mapped as an ordinal distance rating. By removing the reliance on verbal ratings, the PICS is designed to be easily understood by respondents. The PICS is specifically designed to measure individual perception of interpersonal (socio-emotional) closeness and captures both the individual's actual and ideal sense of perceived closeness and social support. The results illustrate that the scale has satisfactory psychometric properties, including short-term test,retest reliability (median value rs = 0.77), and acceptable face, concurrent and discriminant validity. It is proposed that this instrument is a pan-theoretical and psychometrically sound assessment tool that can be clinically useful, regardless of therapeutic orientation.,Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Examining Rape Empathy From the Perspective of the Victim and the Assailant,

Christine A. Smith
Two studies using college student samples were conducted to establish reliability and validity for new scales measuring rape victim empathy and rape perpetrator empathy separately. In Experiment 1, two 13-item measures of rape empathy were developed. Variables examined for purposes of construct validity included personal sexual assault experience, general empathy, and perceived rape victim responsibility. In Experiment 2, we added 5 new items to each scale. The final scales were two 18-item measures with high reliability. Variables examined in Experiment 2 included personal sexual assault, general empathy, and acquaintanceship with a victim or a perpetrator. Both studies found gender differences for empathy scores, with women tending to be higher on rape victim empathy, and men tending to be higher on rape perpetrator empathy. Personal sexual experience was related to rape empathy scores. Perceived victim responsibility was negatively correlated with rape victim empathy and positively correlated with rape perpetrator empathy. [source]

Observations on the histochemistry and ultrastructure of regenerating caudal epidermis of the tuatara Sphenodon punctatus (Sphenodontida, Lepidosauria, Reptilia)

Lorenzo Alibardi
Abstract Study of the histology, histochemistry, and fine structure of caudal epidermal regeneration in Sphenodon punctatus through restoration of a scaled form reveals that the processes involved resemble those known in lizards. Following establishment of a wound epithelium (WE), subjacent scale neogenesis involves epidermal downgrowths into the dermis. Although the process is extremely slow, and most new scales do not overlap, their epidermal coverings reestablish epidermal generation (EG) formation. As in lizards, the flat, ,-keratogenic, WE cells contain lipids as revealed by their affinity for Sudan III. A few mucous cells that store large PAS-positive mucus-like granules also occur in WE. During differentiation of WE cells, among the bundles of 70-nm tonofilaments are many lamellar bodies (LBs) and mucous granules (MGs) that discharge their contents into the cytoplasm and extracellular spaces producing a strongly PAS-positive keratinized tissue. Richness of epidermal lipids coexistent with mucus is a primitive characteristic for amniote vertebrates, probably related to functions as a barrier to cutaneous water loss (CWL). As scale neogenesis begins, beneath the superficial WE appear 3,5 layers of irregularly shaped cells. These contain tonofilament bundles surrounded by small, round keratohyalin-like granules (KHLGs) and a keratinized matrix with ,-keratin packets and a 3,5-nm thick keratin granulation. This mixture of ,- and ,-keratogenic capacities resembles that seen in the innermost cells of a normal tuatara epidermal generation. As in the latter, but in contrast to both normal and regenerating lizard epidermis, no definable shedding complex with interdigitating clear layer and oberhautchen cells occurs (Alibardi and Maderson, 2003). The tortuous boundaries, and merging ,-keratin packets, identify subjacent keratinizing cells as precursors of the typical stratified, squamous ,-layer seen in long-term regenerated caudal skin wherein the entire vertical sequence of epidermal layers resembles that of normal scales. The sequence of events in caudal epidermal regeneration in S. punctatus resembles that documented for lizards. Observed differences between posttrauma scale neogenesis and scale embryogenesis are responses to functional problems involved in, respectively, restoring, or forming, a barrier to CWL while accommodating rapid somatic growth. J. Morphol. 256:134,145, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Dysautonomia rating scales in Parkinson's disease: Sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation,Critique and recommendations by movement disorders task force on rating scales for Parkinson's disease,

Marian L. Evatt MD
Abstract Upper and lower gastrointestinal dysautonomia symptoms (GIDS),sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and often socially as well as physically disabling for patients. Available invasive quantitative measures for assessing these symptoms and their response to therapy are time-consuming, require specialized equipment, can cause patient discomfort and present patients with risk. The Movement Disorders Society commissioned a task force to assess available clinical rating scales, critique their clinimetric properties, and make recommendations regarding their clinical utility. Six clinical researchers and a biostatistician systematically searched the literature for scales of sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation, evaluated the scales' previous use, performance parameters, and quality of validation data (if available). A scale was designated "Recommended" if the scale was used in clinical studies beyond the group that developed it, has been specifically used in PD reports, and clinimetric studies have established that it is a valid, reliable, and sensitive. "Suggested" scales met at least part of the above criteria, but fell short of meeting all. Based on the systematic review, scales for individual symptoms of sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation were identified along with three global scales that include these symptoms in the context of assessing dysautonomia or nonmotor symptoms. Three sialorrhea scales met criteria for Suggested: Drooling Severity and Frequency Scale (DSFS), Drooling Rating Scale, and Sialorrhea Clinical Scale for PD (SCS-PD). Two dysphagia scales, the Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire (SDQ) and Dysphagia-Specific Quality of Life (SWAL-QOL), met criteria for Suggested. Although Rome III constipation module is widely accepted in the gastroenterology community, and the earlier version from the Rome II criteria has been used in a single study of PD patients, neither met criteria for Suggested or Recommended. Among the global scales, the Scales for Outcomes in PD-Autonomic (SCOPA-AUT) and Nonmotor Symptoms Questionnaire for PD (NMSQuest) both met criteria for Recommended, and the Nonmotor Symptoms Scale (NMSS) met criteria for Suggested; however, none specifically focuses on the target gastrointestinal symptoms (sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation) of this report. A very small number of rating scales have been applied to studies of gastrointestinal-related dysautonomia in PD. Only two scales met "Recommended" criteria and neither focuses specifically on the symptoms of sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation. Further scale testing in PD among the scales that focus on these symptoms is warranted, and no new scales are needed until the available scales are fully tested clinimetrically. © 2009 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Preferences for Third-Party Help in Workplace Conflict: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Chinese and Dutch Employees

Ellen Giebels
Abstract This study examines conflict parties' preferences for different types of third-party help and how this may be influenced by cultural differences in terms of individualism/collectivism. We focus our analysis on process-related nonsubstantive help and identify three types of third-party help in interpersonal conflict situations: relational help, procedural help, and emotional help. In a pilot study with Chinese and Dutch students (N = 93), we first developed and validated three new scales to measure preferences for the three types of third-party help. To further test specific hypotheses we used another sample of Dutch and Hong Kong Chinese bank employees (N = 71). In line with our expectations, Chinese employees report a higher preference for relational help, while Dutch employees report a higher preference for emotional help. In terms of procedural help, there was no significant difference between Dutch and Chinese employees. Furthermore, additional analyses revealed a gender effect on the preference for emotional help, showing that,regardless of their cultural background,females prefer this type of third-party help more, presumably because they experience more conflict stress. [source]

Eastern versus Western Control Beliefs at Work: An Investigation of Secondary Control, Socioinstrumental Control, and Work Locus of Control in China and the US

Paul E. Spector
La théorie et la recherche concernant les croyances (LOC) et les perceptions du contrôle suggèrent que les Asiatiques tendent à obtenir des scores plus bas et àêtre plus passifs que les Américains, mais ces travaux ont été menés à l'aide de concepts et d'échelles développés principalement aux USA qui certifient une primauté du contrôle interne (ex: en changeant l'environnement pour l'adapter à soi). Une équipe de recherche internationale a étendu la notion de croyance dans le contrôle en développant des échelles qui permettent de reconsidérer la notion en faisant état de croyances secondaires dans le contrôle (ex: en adaptant le soi à l'environnement) et de faire état d'un concept nouveau de croyances socio-instrumentales (ex: le contrôle par les relations interpersonelles) qui permettent de rendre compte de manière plus pertinente des croyances en un contrôle dans les cultures collectivistes. Nous nous attendions à ce que, par l'utilisation d'échelles culturellement appropriées, les Américains n'obtiennent pas une croyance en un contrôle plus importante que les Asiatiques. Les hypothèses ont été partiellement confirmées en ce que les Américains se sont montrés comme obtenant un contrôle plus bas que les Chinois (de Hong Kong et de RP de Chine) sur ces échelles. Il est suggéré que voir les Asiatiques comme évitant passivement le contrôle au travail peut être incorrect et dû aux insuffisances de contrôle socio-instrumental. Research and theory concerning beliefs (locus of control) and perceptions of control suggest that Asians tend to be lower and more passive than Americans, but this work has been conducted mainly with US-developed constructs and scales that assess primary control (i.e. changing the environment to adapt to the self). An international research team expanded the notion of control beliefs by developing scales to assess secondary control beliefs (i.e. adapting the self to the environment) and the new construct of socioinstrumental control beliefs (i.e. control via interpersonal relationships), both of which were thought to better fit the control beliefs of collectivist cultures than Western-developed control scales. We expected that, when culturally appropriate scales were employed, Americans would not show higher control beliefs than Asians. Hypotheses were partially confirmed that Americans would be lower than Chinese (Hong Kong and PR China) on these new scales. It is suggested that views of Asians as passive avoiders of control at work may be incorrect and due to the overlooking of socioinstrumental control. [source]

1322: History of disease, facial nerve grading systems & clinical evaluation

Obtaining an accurate history of the onset, progress and associated symptoms of newly acquired facial nerve palsy is extremely helpful in determining the potential cause of the palsy. More importantly it serves as a guide for prognosis and timing of any necessary surgical intervention. Acute versus chronic facial nerve palsy, complete versus incomplete facial nerve palsy, recovery and recurrence of the disease will be discussed. The gold standard for grading facial nerve function is the House-Brackmann grading scale. Due to the limitations and subjectivity of this scale, several new scales of various degrees of objectivity and ease of use have been introduced. These include the Nottingham system, the Sunnybrook scale, the Yanagihara and the Sydney system, all with their advantages and disadvantages. Clinical evaluation of a patient with facial nerve palsy include evaluation of upper eyelid retraction, blink reflex, lagophthalmos, brow ptosis, paralytic ectropion, midface ptosis, mouth symmetry, platysma muscle strength, hearing, corneal sensation, Bell's phenomenon, tear function and synkinesis. [source]