New Needs (new + need)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Critical Evidence: The Politics of Trauma in French Asylum Policies

ETHOS, Issue 3 2007
Didier Fassin
However obvious it might seem today that victims of persecutions suffer from psychological consequences of the violence inflicted on them, its political implications are a recent phenomenon. In the last decade, asylum seekers in France, as in other European countries, have been more and more often subject to demands of psychiatric expertise to prove the cogency of their claim to the status of refugee. This social innovation results from the convergence of two processes: on the one hand, the rapid decline in the legitimacy of asylum, leading to increasing expectations for evidence to establish the reality of persecutions; on the other hand, the emergence of trauma as a nosographical category legitimizing the traces of violence. At the crossroads of these two histories, a social field, mainly occupied by NGOs, has developed to answer this new need for proof from state institutions, with an increasing specialization on victims of torture and on psychic trauma, the two dimensions being partially independent. The final paradox is, however, that in a context of generalized suspicion toward refugees, the recognition of trauma at a collective level is counterbalanced by its limited impact on the evaluation of individual cases. [source]

Prospering in a transition economy through information technology-supported organizational learning

Marius Janson
Abstract., This paper presents the findings of a longitudinal study of the Slovenian company Sava during its 1995,2004 transition period when it adapted to and prospered in a free market economy. The company is particularly interesting because of its successful transition from a socialist company operating in a protected market to a privatized company operating in a capitalist global market, as well as the pivotal role of information technology (IT)-supported organizational learning that brought about radical change and successful transition. Our investigation of Sava's experiences demonstrates how the company's increasing attention to organizational learning, integration of working and learning, and its constant innovation of products and processes created new needs for IT support that motivated the adoption of new IT systems (such as Lotus Notes, document management systems, SAP), which in turn increased Sava's capacity to learn. Furthermore, our study reveals how the role of IT systems in organizational learning depends on the nature of learning (single-loop, double-loop or triple-loop learning) and the organizational level at which learning takes place (individual, group/department or organization). By providing insight into the emergence of distinct types of IT-supported learning and their vital role in Sava's successful transition, the paper contributes to a deeper understanding of the relationship between IT and organizational learning that is relevant and inspiring to other companies, especially those operating in transition economies. [source]

Social protection in Europe: A European trade union perspective

Martin Hutsebaut
Governments and social partners in the European Union (EU) look for ways and means to adapt welfare systems to new needs, to keep expenditure under control, and to find alternative and supplementary financial resources in order to cope with future financial commitments. The EU is actively involved in the search for solutions to these common problems. It becomes more and more evident that only an active economic, budgetary, taxation and social policy mix can provide a solid base for safeguarding social systems. The author presents the most recent figures relating to actual and future social protection expenditure in the EU, disaggregated according to function and showing significant differences between gross and net figures. Attention is also paid to coverage and replacement rates of social benefits and to the availability of social infrastructures. The article then shows the shifts in implicit tax rates on labour in comparison with the rate on other factors. The conclusion outlines a European trade union view on the future of social protection in Europe and suggests possible issues for social benchmarking. [source]

A vision from the President of the Council

E. Blaine Cliver
Fifty-three years ago a proposal was made to create an inter-governmental centre for the study and improvement of methods for conserving and restoring the cultural heritage of the world. In 1959 this agreement materialized as the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property, an inter-governmental organization located in Rome. Now called ICCROM, it has grown to become the premier international centre for conservation, training and information in cultural heritage. Over the past five decades ICCROM has grown and, in so doing, has evolved into the institution we have today. In this process of evolution ICCROM has continued to maintain its standards, though changing to meet the new needs of a diverse world community. Courses are now taught in many places around the globe, some of them specially developed for specific regions. However, ICCROM must adjust to the changing needs and challenges, especially financial ones, if it is to remain meaningful in today's heritage community. [source]

Oral vaccines: new needs, new possibilities

BIOESSAYS, Issue 6 2007
Mohd Azhar Aziz
Vaccination is an important tool for handling healthcare programs both in developed and developing countries. The current global scenario calls for a more-efficacious, acceptable, cost-effective and reliable method of immunization for many fatal diseases. It is hoped that the adoption of oral vaccines will help to provide an effective vaccination strategy, especially in developing countries. Mucosal immunity generated by oral vaccines can serve as a strong first line of defense against most of the pathogens infecting through the mucosal lining. Advances in elucidating the mechanism of action of oral vaccines will facilitate the design of more effective, new generation vaccines. There are promising developments in the use of different agents to effectively deliver the vaccine candidate. It is hoped that ongoing research may be able to set another cardinal point, after polio vaccine, in eradicating infectious diseases. BioEssays 29:591,604, 2007. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]