New Mode (new + mode)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


ADDICTION, Issue 3 2009
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Re-inscribing Gender in New Modes of Medical Expertise: The Investigator,Coordinator Relationship in the Clinical Trials Industry

Jill A. Fisher
This article analyses the ways in which research coordinators forge professional identities in the highly gendered organizational context of the clinic. Drawing upon qualitative research on the organization of the clinical trials industry (that is, the private sector, for profit auxiliary companies that support pharmaceutical drug studies), this article explores the relationships between predominantly male physician-investigators and female research coordinators and the constitution of medical expertise in pharmaceutical drug development. One finding is that coordinators actively seek to establish relationships with investigators that mirror traditional doctor,nurse relationships, in which the feminized role is subordinated and devalued. Another finding is that the coordinators do, in fact, have profound research expertise that is frequently greater than that of the investigators. The coordinators develop expertise on pharmaceutical products and diseases through their observations of the patterns that occur in patient,participants' responses to investigational drugs. The article argues, however, that the nature of the relationships between coordinators and investigators renders invisible the coordinators' expertise. In this context, gender acts as a persistent social structure shaping both coordinators' and investigators' perceptions of who can be recognized as having authority and power in the workplace. [source]

New Modes of Productivity for Student Learning

Barbara E. Walvoord
Productivity strategies such as delegating instruction to computers, minimizing redundant course taking, and the like may not work. To enhance the productivity of today's students, this chapter recommends that institutions take five steps: delineate learning goals, assess student performance, understand how to achieve learning with the particular student population, consider options for increasing productivity, and ensure institutionwide support. [source]

ChemInform Abstract: New Modes for the Osmium-Catalyzed Oxidative Cyclization.

CHEMINFORM, Issue 29 2010
Timothy J. Donohoe
Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

Shareholding Versus Stakeholding: a critical review of corporate governance

Steve Letza
The current debate and theorising on corporate governance has been polarised between a shareholder perspective and a stakeholder perspective. While advocates and supporters of each camp attempt to justify the superiority, rationality and universality of each model in theory, they rarely pay attention to the age-old conceptions, assumptions and presuppositions underpinning their perspectives which are less credible and valid in matching the continually changing practice of corporate governance. This paper serves as a survey and critical review of major current theories on corporate governance. In so doing, it reveals the inadequacy of conventional approaches employed in corporate governance theorising. It calls for a new mode of thinking in analysing corporate governance and concludes by outlining a new direction of research in this field. [source]

The Temporary Staffing Industry: Growth Imperatives and Limits to Contingency,

Nik Theodore
Abstract: The temporary staffing industry (TSI) in the United States has enjoyed explosive growth since the 1970s, during which time the market for temporary labor has become increasingly complex and diverse. Rather than focus, as has typically been done, on the wider labor market effects of this sustained expansion in temporary employment, this article explores patterns and processes of industrial restructuring in the TSI itself. The analysis reveals a powerfully recursive relationship among evolving TSI business practices, the industry's strategies for building and extending the market, and urban labor market outcomes as the sector has grown through a series of qualitatively differentiated phases of development or "modes of growth." Moreover, the distinctive character of the TSI's geographic rollout raises a new set of questions concerning, inter alia, the links between temping and labor market deregulation, the nature of local competition, the scope for and limits of value-adding strategies, and the emerging global structure of the temp market. This idiosyncratic industry,which has been a conspicuous beneficiary of growing economic instability,has, throughout the past three decades, restructured continuously through a period of sustained but highly uneven growth. In so doing, it has proved to be remarkably inventive in extending the market for contingent labor, but has encountered a series of (possibly structural) obstacles to further expansion in its domestic market. These obstacles, in turn, have triggered an unprecedented phase of international integration in the TSI, along with a new mode of development,global growth. [source]

Soft ontologies, spatial representations and multi-perspective explorability

EXPERT SYSTEMS, Issue 5 2008
Mauri Kaipainen
Abstract: It is against the dynamically evolving nature of many contemporary media applications to be analysed in terms of conventional rigid ontologies that rely on expertise-based fixed categories and hierarchical structure. Many of these rely on sharing ,folksonomies', personal descriptions of information and objects for one's own retrieval. Such applications involve many feedback mechanisms via the community, and have been shown to have emergent properties of complex dynamic systems. We propose that such dynamically evolving information domains can be more usefully described by means of a soft ontology, a dynamically flexible and inherently spatial metadata approach for ill-defined domains. Our contribution is (1) the elaboration of the so far intuitive concept of soft ontology in a way that supports conceptualizing dynamically evolving domains. Further, our approach proposes (2) a whole new mode of interaction with information domains by means of recurring exploration of an information domain from multiple perspectives in search of more comprehensive understanding of it, i.e. multi-perspective exploration. We demonstrate this concept with an example of collaborative tagging in an educational context. [source]

,Erkenntnistheoretische Maschinen': Questions about the Sublime in the Work of Raoul Schrott

Karen Leeder
This paper examines a new mode in recent German poetry. Far from the poetry influenced by the recent re-emergence of ,pop' culture, or the ,Alltagssprache' and ,simple Storys' of much recent writing from the former GDR, a number of poets have concerned themselves with modern science, particularly quantum mechanics and optics. These are among some of the most significant young poets of recent years (Thomas Kling, Franz Josef Czernin, Barbara Köhler, Durs Grünbein, Raoul Schrott etc.), figuring something which might be dubbed a contemporary of the ,poeta doctus'. This new discourse is interesting enough in itself, as poetry and science have, in the twentieth century at least, often been thought to be diametrically opposed. However, closer examination of this work, particularly that of Raoul Schrott (b. 1964), an ,emerging' and, paradoxically, already very distinguished writer, reveals that poetry and science can be understood as pro-foundly analogous; particularly in their use of metaphor. Fascinatingly, the contemporary discourse of science is set alongside classical (mythological) models in his work. They are both understood as finally hopeless projects to humanise the vast indifference of the universe: ,ein anderes sich in die leere/sagen'. The poem as ,epistemological machine' is set to interrogate the places where those human maps, models and vocabularies fail. The real territory of Schrott's work is thus revealed , in Hotels (1995), in essays, in four works of recent prose, and especially in Tropen (1998) , to be the boundaries of perception ,sub limes, where the models of human understanding fall away and point beyond themselves to an experience of the ,sublime'. [source]

Work Roles and Careers of R&D Scientists in Network Organizations

Despite the burgeoning literature on the network organization as a new mode of innovation, we know little about how the flow of knowledge across organizational boundaries is intertwined with careers. This study explores the implications of the network model of R&D organization for the work roles and careers of R&D scientists within the changing relationship between industry and the academia. It examines how firms seek to resolve the tension between science and business by developing closer human resource ties with universities. It argues that firms have sought to construct "extended" internal labour markets (EILMs) between themselves and the universities with which they collaborate, leading to the formation of a hybrid scientific community straddling the two sectors. [source]

Validation of interactive voice response system administration of the short inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire

Manuel Y. Lam BA
Abstract Background: The Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (SIBDQ) is a written, self-administered instrument measuring quality of life in IBD. We assessed the validity of an interactive voice response system (IVRS) as a new mode of administering the SIBDQ. Methods: An IVRS was designed using prerecorded questions to collect data via touchtone telephone. Subjects with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) were randomized into 2 groups with different orders of administration: written, self-administered followed by IVRS (S-I) or IVRS followed by written, self-administered (I-S). Half of the S-I group was also randomized to receive a second IVRS. Sixty-four subjects were studied: 30 in S-I, 34 in I-S. Results: The mean SIBDQ scores were not different between written and IVRS modes (P = 0.26) with r = 0.93. IVRS scores were lower in active than inactive CD (36.1 ± 9.6 versus 54.7 ± 8.6, P < 0.001) and lower in active than inactive UC (40.8 ± 9.6 versus 59.8 ± 10.0, P < 0.001). Mean scores correlated highly with disease activity indices, and were not different between first and second IVRS administrations (P = 0.85) with r = 0.92. IVRS had excellent internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.90). Conclusions: IVRS administration of the SIBDQ yields results similar to written self-administration, with excellent procedural validity, test,retest reliability, and internal consistency. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009) [source]

The status of research on teleworking and an agenda for future research

Yehuda Baruch
Teleworking is a relatively new mode of alternative work arrangements. During its short life, the study of teleworking gained considerable attention in the literature for both its academic relevance and its practical implications for management. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the developments in this area, studying the nature of teleworking, its antecedents, processes and outcomes. Different models and perspectives are presented and analysed with emphasis shared between both positive and negative aspects. Directions for future research on teleworking issues, as well as recommendations for a new research agenda, are offered within a framework of Why, What and How to explore the future of teleworking. [source]

Experimentation of a new mode of batch culture for lactic acid bacteria: cell reuse with an initial period of cell reactivation at acidic pH

Abdeltif Amrane
Abstract Cell reuse was compared with conventional batch culture for lactic acid fermentation, the objective was to simplify the batch process and to alleviate the need for added nitrogen. At high levels of nitrogen supplementation to the culture medium (20,g,dm,3 yeast extract and 5,g,dm,3 each of tryptic and pancreatic casein peptones), similar mean production rates were obtained with partial cell reuse and the conventional batch process, without any additional gain when cells were initially reactivated at acidic pH. On the other hand, cell reuse with an initial period without pH control appeared particularly effective for low levels of nitrogen supplementation (5,g,dm,3 yeast extract): a 57% increase in the mean production rate with regard to the conventional batch process was obtained. © 2001 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Gender and genre variation in weblogs

Susan C. Herring
A relationship among language, gender, and discourse genre has previously been observed in informal, spoken interaction and formal, written texts. This study investigates the language/gender/genre relationship in weblogs, a popular new mode of computer-mediated communication (CMC). Taking as the dependent variables stylistic features identified in machine learning research and popularized in a Web interface called the Gender Genie, a multivariate analysis was conducted of entries from random weblogs in a sample balanced for author gender and weblog sub-genre (diary or filter). The results show that the diary entries contained more ,female' stylistic features, and the filter entries more ,male' stylistic features, independent of author gender. These findings problematize the characterization of the stylistic features as gendered, and suggest a need for more fine-grained genre analysis in CMC research. At the same time, it is observed that conventional associations of gender with certain spoken and written genres are reproduced in weblogs, along with their societal valuations. [source]

Physiological Linguistics, and Some Implications Regarding Disciplinary Autonomy and Unification

MIND & LANGUAGE, Issue 1 2007
At least current irreducibility of biology, including biolinguistics, stems in at least some cases from the very nature of what I will claim is physiological, or inter-organ/inter-component, macro-levels of explanation which play a new and central explanatory role in Chomsky's inter-componential (interface-based) explanation of certain (anatomical) properties of the syntactic component of Universal Grammar. Under this new mode of explanation, certain physiological functions of cognitive mental organs are hypothesized, in an attempt to explain aspects of their internal anatomy. Thus, the internal anatomy of the syntactic component exhibits features that enable it to effectively interface with (i.e. function in a coordinated fashion with) other ,adjacent' organs, such as the Conceptual-Intensional (C-I) (,meaning') system and the Sensory- Motor (SM) (,sound') system. These two interface systems take as their inputs the assembled outputs of the syntactic component and, as a result of the very syntactic structure imposed by the syntax (as opposed to countless imaginable alternatives) are then able to assign their (linearized) sound and (compositional) meaning interpretations. If this is an accurate characterization, Chomsky's long-standing postulation of mental organs, and I will argue, the advancement of new hypotheses concerning physiological inter-organ functions, has attained in current biolinguistic Minimalist method a significant unification with foundational aspects of physiological explanation in other areas of biology. [source]

Bipolariton laser emission from a GaAs microcavity

L. M. Moreira
Abstract Biexciton emission properties were studied in a single GaAs quantum well (QW) semiconductor planar microcavity by photoluminescence measurements at low temperatures. At high pump intensity a bipolariton emission appears close to the lower polariton mode. This new mode appears when we detune the cavity resonance out of the lower polariton branch, showing a laser like behavior. Very small linewidths were measured, lying below 110 µeV and 150 µeV for polariton and bipolariton emission respectively. The input/output power (I/O) measurements show that the bipolariton emission has a weaker coupling efficiency compared to previous results for polariton emission. Varying the pump laser polarization, we were able to show the selection rules for the biexciton particle creation in the quantum well. (© 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Structure of human transthyretin complexed with bromophenols: a new mode of binding

Minakshi Ghosh
The binding of two organohalogen substances, pentabromophenol (PBP) and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP), to human transthyretin (TTR), a thyroid hormone transport protein, has been studied by in vitro competitive binding assays and by X-­ray crystallography. Both compounds bind to TTR with high affinity, in competition with the natural ligand thyroxine (T4). The crystal structures of the TTR,PBP and TTR,TBP complexes show some unusual binding patterns for the ligands. They bind exclusively in the `reversed' mode, with their hydroxyl group pointing towards the mouth of the binding channel and in planes approximately perpendicular to that adopted by the T4 phenolic ring in a TTR,T4 complex, a feature not observed before. The hydroxyl group in the ligands, which was previously thought to be a key ingredient for a strong binding to TTR, does not seem to play an important role in the binding of these compounds to TTR. In the TTR,PBP complex, it is primarily the halogens which interact with the TTR molecule and therefore must account for the strong affinity of binding. The interactions with the halogens are smaller in number in TTR,TBP and there is a decrease in affinity, even though the interaction with the hydroxyl group is stronger than that in the TTR,PBP complex. [source]

The structure of Staphylococcus aureus phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase in complex with 3,-phosphoadenosine 5,-phosphosulfate reveals a new ligand-binding mode

Hyung Ho Lee
Bacterial phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase (PPAT) catalyzes the penultimate step in the coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthetic pathway. It catalyzes the reversible transfer of an adenylyl group from ATP to 4,-phosphopantetheine (Ppant) to form dephospho-CoA (dPCoA) and pyrophosphate. Previous structural studies have revealed how several ligands are recognized by bacterial PPATs. ATP, ADP, Ppant and dPCoA bind to the same binding site in a highly similar manner, while CoA binds to a partially overlapping site in a different mode. To provide further structural insights into ligand binding, the crystal structure of Staphylococcus aureus PPAT was solved in a binary complex with 3,-phosphoadenosine 5,-phosphosulfate (PAPS). This study unexpectedly revealed a new mode of ligand binding to PPAT, thus providing potentially useful information for structure-based discovery of inhibitors of bacterial PPATs. [source]

Organocatalytic Asymmetric Cyanosilylation of Nitroalkenes

Pablo Bernal
New catalyst, new reaction: The unprecedented cyanosilylation of nitroalkenes can be efficiently catalyzed by a bifunctional quinine derivative with tetraalkylammonium cyanide and thiourea moieties. The activation of the nitroalkene by hydrogen bonding to the thiourea, together with the presence of an "active" cyanide, provides a new mode of activation that leads to products in high yields and good selectivities (see scheme). [source]

Discovery and Syntheses of "Superbug Challengers",Platensimycin and Platencin

Kalanidhi Palanichamy
Abstract Bacteria have developed resistance to almost all existing antibiotics known today and this has been a major issue over the last few decades. The search for a new class of antibiotics with a new mode of action to fight these multiply-drug-resistant strains, or "superbugs", allowed a team of scientists at Merck to discover two novel antibiotics, platensimycin and platencin using advanced screening strategies, as inhibitors of bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis, which is essential for the survival of bacteria. Though both these antibiotics are structurally related, they work by slightly different mechanisms and target different enzymes conserved in the bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis. This Focus Review summarizes the synthetic and biological aspects of these natural products and their analogues and congeners. [source]

Performing Women: The Gendered Dimensions of the UK New Research Economy

Catherine Fletcher
This article explores the development and maintenance of familiar gendered employment patterns and practices in UK universities, which are exemplars of new modes of knowledge production, commodification and marketization. After discussing in detail the evidence of gender discrimination in UK higher education and the changes in the academic labour process consequent to the incorporation of universities, at least at the policy level, into the ,knowledge economy', institution-specific data is used to highlight the gendered aspects of the research economy from the three intermeshing perspectives of research culture, research capital and the research production process. This nexus is constructed in such a way as to systematically militate against women's full and equal involvement in research. Lack of transparency, increased competition and lower levels of collegiate activity coupled with networking based on homosociability are contributing to a research production process where women are marginalized. [source]


Madeleine Eriksson
ABSTRACT. Building on theories of internal orientalism, the objective of this study is to show how intra-national differences are reproduced through influential media representations. By abstracting news representations of Norrland, a large, sparsely populated region in the northernmost part of Sweden, new modes of "internal othering" within Western modernity are put on view. Real and imagined social and economical differences between the "rural North" and the "urban South" are explained in terms of "cultural differences" and "lifestyle" choices. The concept of Norrland is used as an abstract essentialized geographical category and becomes a metonym for a backward and traditional rural space in contrast to equally essentialized urban areas with favoured modern ideals. Specific traits of parts of the region become one with the entire region and the problems of the region become the problems of the people living in the region. I argue that the news representations play a part in the reproduction of a "space of exception", in that one region is constructed as a traditional and undeveloped space in contrast to an otherwise modern nation. A central argument of this study is that research on identity construction and representations of place is needed to come to grips with issues of uneven regional development within western nations. [source]

Interdisciplinary team leadership: a revisionist approach for an old problem?

Antoinette McCallin BA, MA (Hons)
Understanding of interdisciplinary teamwork is evolving. During health care restructuring, leaders across organizations have challenging responsibilities when work groups must integrate changing organizational values with new modes of service delivery. In this environment, a well-functioning interdisciplinary team in which clinicians work as member-leaders has the potential to further organizational change and foster improvements in patient outcomes. In this paper it is argued that the term interdisciplinary team leadership should be embraced cautiously as it may be a revisionist approach to an old problem, namely a means to modify existing theories of leadership that have been vague and continue to be poorly understood despite considerable effort to explicate knowledge over several decades. Preliminary research suggests that interdisciplinary team leadership is a model of shared leadership that requires more development if it is to become the cornerstone of interdisciplinary team practice in a radically reforming health sector. Stewardship is proposed as a potential philosophy for interdisciplinary team leadership, and a new, shared leadership role of practice leader is suggested. [source]

Hybrid Rayleigh, Raman and two-photon excited fluorescence spectral confocal microscopy of living cells

Vishnu Vardhan Pully
Abstract A hybrid fluorescence,Raman confocal microscopy platform is presented, which integrates low-wavenumber-resolution Raman imaging, Rayleigh scatter imaging and two-photon fluorescence (TPE) spectral imaging, fast ,amplitude-only' TPE-fluorescence imaging and high-spectral-resolution Raman imaging. This multi-dimensional fluorescence,Raman microscopy platform enables rapid imaging along the fluorescence emission and/or Rayleigh scatter dimensions. It is shown that optical contrast in these images can be used to select an area of interest prior to subsequent investigation with high spatially and spectrally resolved Raman imaging. This new microscopy platform combines the strengths of Raman ,chemical' imaging with light scattering microscopy and fluorescence microscopy and provides new modes of correlative light microscopy. Simultaneous acquisition of TPE hyperspectral fluorescence imaging and Raman imaging illustrates spatial relationships of fluorophores, water, lipid and protein in cells. The fluorescence,Raman microscope is demonstrated in an application to living human bone marrow stromal stem cells. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Jonathan Edwards and the Language of Nature: The Re-Enchantment of the World in the Age of Scientific Reasoning

Avihu Zakai
For a long time Jonathan Edwards (1703-58) was thought of more as a preacher of hellfire and revival than as a theologian, and rather as a Calvinist theologian than a philosopher of importance, and he was dismissed accordingly. Yet Edwards was more than a hellfire preacher, more than a theologian. This New England divine was one of the rare individuals anywhere to recognize and answer the challenges posed to traditional Christian belief by the emergence of new modes of thought in early modern history - the new ideas of the scientific thought and the Enlightenment. His force of mind is evident in his exposition of the poverty of mechanical philosophy, which radically transformed the traditional Christian dialectic of God's utter transcendence and divine immanence by gradually dimin-ishing divine sovereignty with respect to creation, providence, and redemption, thus leading to the disenchantment of the world. Edwards constructed a teleological and theological alternative to the prevailing mechanistic interpretation of the essential nature of reality, whose ultimate goal was the re-enchantment of the world by reconstituting the glory of God's majestic sovereignty, power, and will within the order of creation. [source]

High-energy femtosecond fiber lasers based on pulse propagation at normal dispersion

F.W. Wise
Abstract The generation and stable propagation of ultrashort optical pulses tend to be limited by accumulation of excessive nonlinear phase shifts. The limitations are particularly challenging in fiber-based devices, and as a result, short-pulse fiber lasers have lagged behind bulk solid-state lasers in performance. This article will review several new modes of pulse formation and propagation in fiber lasers. These modes exist with large normal cavity dispersion, and so are qualitatively distinct from the soliton-like processes that have been exploited effectively in modern femtosecond lasers but which are also quite limiting. Self-similar evolution can stabilize high-energy pulses in fiber lasers, and this leads to order-of-magnitude increases in performance: fiber lasers that generate 10 nJ pulses of 100 fs duration are now possible. Pulse-shaping based on spectral filtering of a phase-modulated pulse yields similar performance, from lasers that have no intracavity dispersion control. These new modes feature highly-chirped pulses in the laser cavity, and a theoretical framework offers the possibility of unifying our view of normal-dispersion femtosecond lasers. Instruments based on these new pulse-shaping mechanisms offer performance that is comparable to that of solid-state lasers but with the major practical advantages of fiber. [source]

Since we seem to agree, why are the outcomes so difficult to achieve?

Terry Rhodes
There is mounting evidence from faculty and employers that a broad set of skills and abilities are essential for student success as graduates, citizens, and employees. The traditional approach to general education with an emphasis on exposure to a menu of knowledge no longer suffices. Graduates need to be able to integrate their learning, apply it in real-world settings, and use it to address complex and unscripted problems. Examining the emergent research on student learning and key factors that deepen and enhance learning in essential areas for all students at our institutions leads us to developing new modes of measuring and assessing for learning among our students. One such new approach, the VALUE project, using rubrics and portfolios of student work, is described and discussed as a way to engage students in assessing their own leaning, while giving faculty useful information, and institutions reportable results for accountability. [source]

Anton Chekhov and English Nostalgia

Svetlana O. Klimenko
Anton Chekhov is the most frequently performed foreigner on the British stage, and, significantly, he is also the most often rewritten playwright in British drama. However, we still seem to be lacking a scholarly insight into this established phenomenon, dubbed in modern theatre history ,British Chekhov'. The remarkable quantity and quality of reincarnations of Chekhov in English are still interpreted by the academic community in terms of either sheer statistics or pure sentiment. Even more significantly, there appears to be no link between the ever revolutionary, and dispersed, developments in modern British drama , with playwrights finding ever new modes of looking back in anger, and the proliferation of British Chekhov, a body of a few repeatedly recycled plays, produced by the same playwrights, looking back in nostalgia. The present article offers a textually based and contextually informed analysis of Chekhov's metamorphoses in English. The analysis demonstrates the ways in which the transmigration of Chekhov's grammar, syntax and discourse structure from Russian to English brings out the essential nostalgic motif in his drama and elevates it to the level of universal human longing. The consideration of Anton Chekhov's fate in Britain, thus, transgresses the limits of a mere case study in the impossibility of translation, and opens up a discussion of the impossibility of representation itself as a common, and growing, concern of all twentieth century art. [source]