New Ingredient (new + ingredient)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Quality control in scholarly publishing: A new proposal

Stefano Mizzaro
The Internet has fostered a faster, more interactive and effective model of scholarly publishing. However, as the quantity of information available is constantly increasing, its quality is threatened, since the traditional quality control mechanism of peer review is often not used (e.g., in online repositories of preprints, and by people publishing whatever they want on their Web pages). This paper describes a new kind of electronic scholarly journal, in which the standard submission-review-publication process is replaced by a more sophisticated approach, based on judgments expressed by the readers: in this way, each reader is, potentially, a peer reviewer. New ingredients, not found in similar approaches, are that each reader's judgment is weighted on the basis of the reader's skills as a reviewer, and that readers are encouraged to express correct judgments by a feedback mechanism that estimates their own quality. The new electronic scholarly journal is described in both intuitive and formal ways. Its effectiveness is tested by several laboratory experiments that simulate what might happen if the system were deployed and used. [source]

Bifidobacterium longum lysate, a new ingredient for reactive skin

Audrey Guéniche
Please cite this paper as: Bifidobacterium longum lysate, a new ingredient for reactive skin. Experimental Dermatology 2010; 19: e1,e8. Abstract:, Reactive skin is characterized by marked sensitivity to physical (heat, cold, wind) or chemical (topically applied products) stimuli and by the impairment of the skin barrier's ability to repair itself. Several lines of evidence suggest that beyond their capacity to positively influence the composition of intestinal microbiota, some probiotic bacteria can modulate the immune system both at local and systemic levels, thereby improving immune defense mechanisms and/or down-regulating immune disorders such as allergies and intestinal inflammation. Several recent human clinical trials clearly suggest that probiotic supplementation might be beneficial to the skin. Using a probiotic lysate, Bifidobacterium longum sp. extract (BL), we demonstrated first in vitro, and then in a clinical trial, that this non-replicating bacteria form applied to the skin was able to improve sensitive skin. The effect of BL were evaluated first on two different models. Using ex vivo human skin explant model we found a statistically significant improvement versus placebo in various parameters associated with inflammation such as a decrease in vasodilation, oedema, mast cell degranulation and TNF-alpha release. Moreover, using nerve cell cultures in vitro, we showed that after 6 h of incubation in culture medium (0.3,1%), the probiotic lysate significantly inhibited capsaicin-induced CGRP release by neurones. Then, a topical cream containing the active extract was tested in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Sixty-six female volunteers with reactive skin were randomly given either the cream with the bacterial extract at 10% (n = 33) or the control cream (n = 33). The volunteers applied the cream to the face, arms and legs twice a day for two months. Skin sensitivity was assessed by stinging test (lactic acid) and skin barrier recovery was evaluated by measuring trans-epidermal water loss following barrier disruption induced by repeated tape-stripping at D1, D29 and D57. The results demonstrated that the volunteers who applied the cream with bacterial extract had a significant decrease in skin sensitivity at the end of the treatment. Moreover, the treatment led to increase skin resistance against physical and chemical aggression compared to the group of volunteers who applied the control cream. Notably, the number of strippings required to disrupt skin barrier function was significantly increased for volunteers treated with the active cream. Clinical and self-assessment scores revealed a significant decrease in skin dryness after 29 days for volunteers treated with the cream containing the 10% bacterial extract. Since in vitro studies demonstrated that, on one hand, isolate sensitive neurones release less CGRP under capsaicin stimulation in the presence of the bacterial extract and, on the other hand, increased skin resistance in volunteers applying the test cream, we speculate that this new ingredient may decrease skin sensitivity by reducing neurone reactivity and neurone accessibility. The results of this studies demonstrate that this specific bacterial extract has a beneficial effect on reactive skin. These findings suggest that new approaches, based on a bacteria lysate, could be developed for the treatment and/or prevention of symptoms related to reactive skin. [source]

The importance of exposure estimation in the assessment of skin sensitization risk

Michael K. Robinson
The development of new ingredients and products for the consumer market requires a thorough assessment of their potential for skin sensitization and the possible clinical manifestation of allergic contact dermatitis. The process by which low molecular weight chemicals induce and elicit skin sensitization reactions is complex and dependent on many factors relevant to the ability of the chemical to penetrate the skin, react with protein, and trigger the cell-mediated immune response. These major factors include inherent potency, chemical dose, duration and frequency of exposure, vehicle or product matrix, and occlusion. The fact that a chemical is a contact allergen does not mean that it cannot be formulated into a consumer product at levels well tolerated by most individuals. Many common ingredients (e.g., fragrances, preservatives) are known skin allergens. However, all allergens show dose-response and threshold characteristics. Therefore, one should be able to incorporate these chemicals into products at levels that produce acceptably low incidences of skin sensitization under foreseeable conditions of exposure. The critical exposure determinant for evaluating skin sensitization risk is dose per unit area of skin exposed. Use of this parameter allows for comparative assessments from different types of skin sensitization tests (including cross-species comparisons), and, at least for known potent allergens, there is remarkable similarity in threshold dose/unit area determinations across species. The dose/unit area calculation enables a judgment of the sensitization risk for different product types. This is illustrated using the chemical preservative methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) as a case study. [source]