New Infections (new + infections)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Presence of High Numbers of Transcriptionally Active Helicobacter pylori in Vomitus from Bangladeshi Patients Suffering from Acute Gastroenteritis

HELICOBACTER, Issue 4 2009
Anders Janzon
Abstract Background:,Helicobacter pylori is one of the most prevalent human bacterial pathogens; however, its transmission pathways remain unknown. New infections of H. pylori during outbreaks of gastroenteritis have been suggested previously, and to explore this transmission route further H. pylori was quantified in vomitus and diarrheal stool of patients suffering from acute gastroenteritis in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Materials and Methods:, Vomitus and stool samples from 28 patients seeking care at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research hospital were analyzed for presence of H. pylori and other pathogens using quantitative culturing, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and H. pylori stool antigen test. Bacterial gene expression was analyzed using reverse transcriptase real-time PCR. Results:, The results of real-time PCR show that 23 (88%) of the 26 vomitus samples and 17 (74%) of the 23 stool samples were H. pylori positive, while stool antigen test show that 14 (67%) of the 21 stool samples were H. pylori positive. H. pylori could not be isolated by culture. Analysis using quantitative culture and real-time PCR to detect Vibrio cholerae showed strong correlation between these methods, and validating real-time PCR. Analysis of H. pylori virulence gene transcription in vomitus, diarrheal stool, antral and duodenal biopsy specimens, and in vitro cultures showed that cagA, flaA, and ureA were highly transcribed in vomitus, biopsy specimens, and cultures, whereas hpaA and vacA were expressed at lower levels. No H. pylori gene expression was detected in diarrheal stool. Conclusions:, We conclude that high numbers of transcriptionally active H. pylori are shed in vomitus, which indicates that new infections may be disseminated through vomiting. [source]


Horizontal transmission of Wolbachia in a Drosophila community

ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
Eleanor R. Haine
Abstract., 1.,Wolbachia bacteria are reproductive parasites of arthropods and infect an estimated 20% of all insect species worldwide. In order to understand patterns of Wolbachia infection, it is necessary to determine how infections are gained or lost. Wolbachia transmission is mainly vertical, but horizontal transmission between different host species can result in new infections, although its ecological context is poorly understood. Horizontal transmission is often inferred from molecular phylogenies, but could be confounded by recombination between different Wolbachia strains. 2.,This study addressed these issues by using three genes: wsp, ftsZ, and groE, to study Wolbachia infections in fruit- and fungus-feeding Drosophila communities in Berkshire, U.K. 3.,Identical sequences were found for all three genes in Drosophila ambigua and Drosophila tristis. This suggests horizontal transmission of Wolbachia between these two previously unstudied Drosophila species, which may be the result of the two host species sharing the same food substrates or parasites. 4.,Wolbachia infections might be lost from species due to curing by naturally occurring antibiotics and the presence of these is likely to vary between larval food substrates. 5.,It was investigated whether Wolbachia incidence was lower in fungus-feeding than in fruit-feeding Drosophila species, but no significant difference based on food substrate was found. [source]


Presence of High Numbers of Transcriptionally Active Helicobacter pylori in Vomitus from Bangladeshi Patients Suffering from Acute Gastroenteritis

HELICOBACTER, Issue 4 2009
Anders Janzon
Abstract Background:,Helicobacter pylori is one of the most prevalent human bacterial pathogens; however, its transmission pathways remain unknown. New infections of H. pylori during outbreaks of gastroenteritis have been suggested previously, and to explore this transmission route further H. pylori was quantified in vomitus and diarrheal stool of patients suffering from acute gastroenteritis in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Materials and Methods:, Vomitus and stool samples from 28 patients seeking care at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research hospital were analyzed for presence of H. pylori and other pathogens using quantitative culturing, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and H. pylori stool antigen test. Bacterial gene expression was analyzed using reverse transcriptase real-time PCR. Results:, The results of real-time PCR show that 23 (88%) of the 26 vomitus samples and 17 (74%) of the 23 stool samples were H. pylori positive, while stool antigen test show that 14 (67%) of the 21 stool samples were H. pylori positive. H. pylori could not be isolated by culture. Analysis using quantitative culture and real-time PCR to detect Vibrio cholerae showed strong correlation between these methods, and validating real-time PCR. Analysis of H. pylori virulence gene transcription in vomitus, diarrheal stool, antral and duodenal biopsy specimens, and in vitro cultures showed that cagA, flaA, and ureA were highly transcribed in vomitus, biopsy specimens, and cultures, whereas hpaA and vacA were expressed at lower levels. No H. pylori gene expression was detected in diarrheal stool. Conclusions:, We conclude that high numbers of transcriptionally active H. pylori are shed in vomitus, which indicates that new infections may be disseminated through vomiting. [source]


Prevention and treatment of hepatitis C in injection drug users

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 5B 2002
Brian R. Edlin 3180 18th St.
Injection drug users constitute the largest group of persons infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the United States, and most new infections occur in drug users. Controlling hepatitis C in the U.S. population, therefore, will require developing, testing, and implementing effective prevention and treatment strategies for persons who inject drugs. Fortunately, a substantial body of research and clinical experience exists on the prevention and management of chronic viral diseases among injection drug users. The need to implement interventions to stop the spread of HCV among drug users is critical. The capacity of substance-use treatment programs need to be expanded to accommodate all who want and need treatment. Physicians and pharmacists should be educated in how to provide access to sterile syringes and to teach safe injection techniques, both of which are lifesaving interventions. The treatment of hepatitis C in drug users requires an interdisciplinary approach that brings together expertise in treating hepatitis and caring for drug users. Treatment decisions should be made individually by patients with their physicians, based on a balanced assessment of risks and benefits and the patient's personal values. Physicians should carefully assess, monitor, and support adherence and mental health in all patients, regardless of whether drug use is known or suspected. Research is needed to better understand how best to prevent and treat hepatitis C in substance users. In the meantime, substantial progress can be made if existing knowledge and resources are brought to bear. [source]


Changes in circulation of B and non-B HIV strains: Spotlight on a reference centre for infectious diseases in Northern Italy

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, Issue 6 2008
Fausto Baldanti
Abstract Stored demographic data and HIV RT and protease sequences of 877 HIV patients attending for the first time the HIV/AIDS outpatient clinics of a reference Infectious Diseases centre in Northern Italy between 1999 and 2006 were stratified by 3-year spanning periods according to date of HIV infection. In the period 1980,1982, new infections were entirely caused by HIV-1 subtype B strains and were all diagnosed in injection drug users, 88.9% of whom were males. Injection drug users accounted for 12.8% of new infections in 2004,2006. The frequency of heterosexually-transmitted infections consistently increased until 2000 (from almost none to 51.5%) remaining stable afterwards. About half of heterosexual patients were females. HIV infections among homosexual men increased from 0% in 1980,1982 to 15,21% between 1998 and 2006. Overall, the frequency of non-B subtypes HIV strains increased from 0% in 1980,1982 to 20.3% in 2004,2006 with a greater impact in heterosexuals (from 0% in 1980,1982 to 30.5% in 2004,2006). In conclusion, a picture of the changing scenario of circulating HIV types and subtypes in a reference Infectious Diseases centre in Northern Italy over the past 26 years is provided. A progressive modification in risk factors for HIV infection and a significant increase in the frequency of non-B HIV strains were observed. J. Med. Virol. 80:947,952, 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Management of HIV and AIDS in the African context

ORAL DISEASES, Issue 2002
R Wood
The initial response to the African HIV epidemic was to concentrate on the prevention of new infections. There is now an urgent need to address the health care requirements of large numbers of already infected individuals. The spectrum of disease in the African setting is dominated by tuberculosis, bacterial and protozoan infections. In much of Africa, health services are overwhelmed by the care of terminally ill AIDS patients. In the absence of specific HIV therapy, health care resources are being increasingly utilised, but with little survival benefit for the individual. Resources available for treating patients vary considerably between the richer and poorer countries of the continent. Primary prevention of opportunistic infections and maternal child transmission are at present affordable and cost-effective interventions. Whilst antiretroviral therapies may presently be unaffordable in much of Africa, they represent a modality that can have a major effect on HIV survival. The challenge is to improve the health and longevity of HIV-infected individuals with the rational use of the limited health resources available in Africa today. [source]


A review of vaccines for HIV prevention

THE JOURNAL OF GENE MEDICINE, Issue 1 2003
Matilu Mwau
Abstract HIV/AIDS has become the most devastating pandemic in recorded history. It has killed 40 million people in the last 20 years and the World Health Organisation estimated that at least 14 000 new infections occurred daily in 2001. There will be up to 100 million new infections in the next 10 years (for current updates, visit http://www.unaids.org/epidemic_update/). Most HIV infections occur in the developing world, and the adverse social and economic impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, particularly in the developing world, is unprecedented. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has had significant effects on HIV/AIDS in the developed world. The drugs have acted to prolong survival, reduce the viral load, and to alleviate suffering. However, the incidence of side effects and resistance is high and the drugs are unaffordable and unavailable in the developing world. HAART regimens are difficult to comply with. Public health efforts to modify the behaviour, attitude and culture that accelerate the spread of HIV/AIDS have had only modest success. There is urgent need for a prophylactic and/or therapeutic HIV vaccine. This is a review of the obstacles and current trends in HIV vaccine development. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


The mouth in HIV/AIDS: markers of disease status and management challenges for the dental profession

AUSTRALIAN DENTAL JOURNAL, Issue 2010
NW Johnson
Abstract There are over 30 million people in the world with HIV infection and, whilst the rate of new infections is slowing, this number continues to grow. Although in Australia the overall prevalence of HIV infection in adults aged 15,49 is officially estimated at only 0.2%, representing less than 20 000 people living with HIV and AIDS, our geographical area contains populations with prevalences exceeding 10 times this. Oral health professionals must therefore practise safe, standard infection control at all times and be aware of the oral manifestations of HIV disease. These are predominantly opportunistic infections with fungi such as Candida albicans or with viruses of the herpes family, particularly herpes simplex, herpes zoster and Epstein-Barr virus infections. Warts or papillomas may arise due to human papilloma viruses , even in individuals on effective antiretroviral therapy. Rare types of fungal infection can occur, and severe bacterial infections, notably tuberculosis, are an ever-present risk. Susceptibility to periodontal breakdown is somewhat enhanced by the effects of HIV disease itself, and caries activity may increase because the patient neglects attention to diet and oral hygiene. Restorative and periodontal care need, therefore, to be maintained at a high level. Oral opportunistic infections cause much distress and the diagnosis and management of these is the responsibility of our profession. [source]


Reconstructing and predicting the hepatitis C virus epidemic in Greece: increasing trends of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma despite the decline in incidence of HCV infection

JOURNAL OF VIRAL HEPATITIS, Issue 4 2004
V. Sypsa
Summary., In this study, a comprehensive methodology for modelling the hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic is proposed to predict the future disease burden and assess whether the recent decline in the incidence of HCV may affect the future occurrence of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases. Using the prevalence of HCV, the distribution of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients within the various transmission groups and their infection-onset times, it was possible to reconstruct the incident infections per year in the past that progressed to CHC in Greece. The natural history of the disease was simulated in subcohorts of newly infected subjects using transition probabilities derived either empirically between fibrosis stages 0,4 or from literature review. Annual estimates of the incidence and prevalence of CHC by fibrosis stage, HCC and mortality in Greece were obtained up to 2030. HCV incidence peaked in the late 1980s at five new infections/10 000 person-years. Under the assumption of 20,100% decline in HCV incidence after 1990, the cumulative number of incident cirrhosis and HCC cases from 2002,2030 was projected to be lower by 9.6,48.2% and 5.9,29.5%, respectively, than that estimated under the assumption of no decline. However, the prevalent cirrhotic/HCC cases and HCV-related deaths are predicted to decline in the next 30 years only under the assumption of complete elimination of new HCV infections after 1990. Despite the progress in the reduction of HCV transmission, primary prevention does not seem adequate to reverse the rise in the incidence of cirrhosis and HCC. [source]