New Indicator (new + indicator)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Absence of microfollicular basement membrane: A new indicator in the diagnosis of follicular carcinoma thyroid

DIAGNOSTIC CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 7 2008
Maheswar Sahoo M.D.
Abstract The thyroid follicles represent a biological continuum. Each follicle is closely related to the follicle that is next to it. The important feature of a follicular carcinoma is a microfollicular pattern. We report a case of follicular carcinoma in a 48-year-old female that demonstrates microfollicles which are larger in size and contain more number of follicular cells in cytologic smears (20,29 cells) in contrary to the literature definition of microfollicles containing approximately 6,12 cells. We also demonstrate absence of basement membranes in these microfollicles in histologic sections by Silver Methanamine Stain, which may be an indicator to search for vascular and capsular invasion. This case report also describes postoperative positron emission tomography scan findings. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2008;36:519,522. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Evaluation of Left Ventricular Systolic and Diastolic Global Function: Peak Positive and Negative Myocardial Velocity Gradients in M-Mode Doppler Tissue Imaging

ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 1 2002
Yoshiki Ueno M.D.
Objectives: To evaluate a new indicator of left ventricular global function: Myocardial velocity gradient (MVG) M-mode Doppler tissue imaging (DTI). Background: MVG is a new indicator of regional left ventricular function and global left ventricular diastolic function. However, it is unclear whether MVG also is an indicator of left ventricular global function in comparison with invasive indices. Methods: We performed conventional imaging and M-mode DTI in 85 subjects and calculated MVG at the posterior wall. We obtained satisfactory images in 65 subjects, who we divided into three groups: Noninvasive study group, invasive study group, and hemodialysis group. The noninvasive study group was divided into three subgroups (a younger normal subgroup, an older normal subgroup, and a cardiomyopathy subgroup), and MVG was compared with indices of conventional imaging. In the invasive study group, we compared MVG and indices of conventional imaging with hemodynamic data (peak positive and negative dp/dt, and the time constant T) using a high fidelity micromanometer-tipped catheter. In the hemodialysis group, we compared indices before hemodialysis with those after hemodialysis. Results: Peak positive MVG correlated well with peak positive dp/dt (r = 0.79), and this did not change with hemodialysis (P = 0.87). Peak negative MVG also correlated well with peak positive dp/dt and the time constant T (r = 0.88 and r = 0.80), and this did not change with hemodialysis (P = 0.97). Conclusions: Peak positive and negative MVG are sensitive and load-insensitive indicators of left ventricular function. [source]


DOES MORE TRANSPARENCY GO ALONG WITH BETTER GOVERNANCE?

ECONOMICS & POLITICS, Issue 2 2006
ROUMEEN ISLAM
This paper explores the link between information flows and governance. It develops a new indicator, the transparency index, which measures the frequency with which governments update economic data that they make available to the public. The paper also uses the existence of a Freedom of Information Act and the length of time for which it has been in existence as an indicator reflecting the overall legislative environment for transparency. Measures of the type developed in this paper have hitherto not been used in the cross-country literature on governance and growth. Cross-country regression estimation shows that countries with better information flows as measured by these indices also govern better. [source]


Policy words and policy deeds: the ECB and the euro

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS, Issue 3 2008
Pierre L. Siklos
Abstract This paper examines the role of the European Central Bank (ECB) communication activities on daily eurodollar exchange rate and interest rates. We estimate the relationship between monetary policy and the exchange rate using a technique that explicitly recognizes the joint determination of both the levels and volatilities of these variables. We also consider more traditional estimation strategies as a test of the robustness of our main results. We introduce a new indicator of ECB communication policies that focuses on what the ECB says about the future economic outlook for the euro area along five different economic dimensions. The impact of the ECB communication policies is more apparent in the time-series framework than in the heteroskedasticity estimator approach. Time-series estimates reveal that interest rate changes generally have a much larger impact on exchange rate movements, and their volatility, than do ECB verbal pronouncements. Previous studies that conclude that news effects are significant at the daily frequency may have reached such a conclusion because the measurement of news was too highly aggregated. The endogeneity of the exchange rate,interest rate relationship is more apparent when the proxy for monetary policy is the euro area,US differential than when any other proxy for monetary policy is employed. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Testing and Measuring the Role of Ideas: The Case of Neoliberalism in the International Monetary Fund

INTERNATIONAL STUDIES QUARTERLY, Issue 1 2007
JEFFREY M. CHWIEROTH
How much weight should be assigned to a particular factor in explaining an outcome? How should an abstract concept be linked to empirical indicants? These methodological problems,known as the "how much" and "how to" problems, respectively,have raised serious obstacles for ideational researchers. However, they have generally failed to deal with these problems adequately. To offset the limitations of existing studies, this paper provides new methodological guidance to researchers confronting these problems. In particular, quantitative methods are suggested for managing the "how much" problem, and a new indicator based on an individual's organizational background is proposed to deal with the "how to" problem. To develop the argument, this guidance is applied to examine the effect and measurement of the emergence within the International Monetary Fund of neoliberal ideas prescribing liberalization of capital controls. [source]


Stratum corneum TARC level is a new indicator of lesional skin inflammation in atopic dermatitis

ALLERGY, Issue 9 2010
E. Morita
To cite this article: Morita E, Takahashi H, Niihara H, Dekio I, Sumikawa Y, Murakami Y, Matsunaka H. Stratum corneum TARC level is a new indicator of lesional skin inflammation in atopic dermatitis. Allergy 2010; 65: 1166,1172. Abstract Background:, Management of atopic dermatitis (AD) requires judging the symptoms of local skin lesions and prescribing a suitable treatment. However, no method has been established in which objective measures can be used to evaluate the severity of local symptoms. We established a method for measuring thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) levels in the stratum corneum (scTARC), and examined whether the scTARC can be used as an indicator of the severity of local skin lesions in patients with AD. Methods:, Stratum corneum was obtained from patients with AD by tape-stripping, and scTARC was evaluated using a TARC-specific antibody followed by image analysis. The scTARC was examined to determine correlation with the severity of local skin lesions (the severity of erythema, edema/papule, oozing/crusts, excoriations, lichenification, and xerosis) as well as with the severity scoring of atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) index, serum TARC level, serum IgE level, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, interleukin (IL)-4-producing T cell ratio (Th2 cell ratio), and blood eosinophil count. Results:, The scTARC was correlated with the severity of local skin lesions, especially with the erythema, edema/papule, and oozing/crusts score. The scTARC in the most severe lesions was also correlated with the SCORAD index, serum TARC level, serum IgE level, and blood eosinophil count. The scTARC was not, however, correlated with the serum LDH level and Th2 cell ratio. Conclusion:, An immunofluorescent technique combined with tape-stripping was used to measure scTARC. The scTARC can be used as an indicator of the severity of local acute inflammation in patients with AD. [source]


Further uses of the heat of oxidation in chemical hazard assessment

PROCESS SAFETY PROGRESS, Issue 1 2003
Laurence G. Britton
Flammability: The "net heat of oxidation" technique described in an earlier publication is extended to predicting the lower flammable limits, lower limit flame temperatures, and limiting oxygen concentrations of chlorinated organic fuels having H:Cl ratios greater than unity. A new Rule is derived for predicting the effect of initial temperature on the lower flammable limits and limiting oxygen concentrations of organic fuels. It is suggested that this Rule be used in preference to the modified "Burgess-Wheeler" Rule. The effect of initial pressure is discussed. Instability: Net heats of oxidation (kcal/mol oxygen) for a series of disparate fuel groups are compared with ",HD," the maximum heat of decomposition (cal/g) calculated using CHETAH methodology. Given the reasonable assumption that CHETAH's "maximum heat of decomposition" cannot exceed the net heat of combustion ",HC," examination is made as to whether the ratio of these parameters (each expressed in units of kcal/mol), coined the "Reaction Heat Ratio" (RH), provides a useful new indicator for instability assessment. Of these parameters, the net heat of oxidation (,HC/S) is the best indicator to help assign NFPA Instability Ratings. However, ,HC/S cannot generally be used to assign ratings for organo-peroxides. Also, its performance as an indicator for hazardous polymerization depends on the ,HC/S difference between the reacting monomer and the polymer product, so it should become increasingly unreliable as the monomer ,HC/S approaches -100 kcal/mol oxygen. The ranking method tacitly assumes organic polymers to have a constant heat of oxidation of about -100 kcal/mol oxygen. Errors in this assumption must invalidate the ranking approach where ,HC/S differences are small. Finally, separate "cut-offs" must be used at each NFPA Instability Rating for organo-nitrates versus other organics containing combinations of CHON atoms. Additional materials need to be examined to extend this preliminary analysis. The net heat of oxidation would be a useful additional output parameter of the CHETAH program, if only for its application in flammability assessment. No conclusions are drawn regarding the usefulness of net heat of oxidation or RH in conducting CHETAH hazard assessments, since this procedure requires consideration of several variables. However, the analysis may be helpful to the ASTM E 27.07 subcommittee responsible for developing the program. For example, the -,HD , 700 cal/g cut-off used to assign a "high" CHETAH hazard rating typically corresponds to organic materials rated NFPA 1, the second to lowest hazard rating. [source]


BUSINESS METHOD PATENTS AND U.S. FINANCIAL SERVICES

CONTEMPORARY ECONOMIC POLICY, Issue 3 2010
ROBERT M. HUNT
A decade after the State Street decision, more than 1,000 business method patents are granted each year. Yet, only 1 in 10 is obtained by a financial institution. Most business method patents are also software patents. Have these patents increased innovation in financial services? To address this question, we construct new indicators of research and development intensity based on the occupational composition of financial industries. The financial sector appears more research intensive than official statistics would suggest but less than the private economy taken as a whole. There is considerable variation across industries but little apparent trend. There does not appear to be an obvious effect from business method patents on the sector's research intensity. Looking ahead, three factors suggest that the patent system may affect financial services as it has electronics: (1) the sector's heavy reliance on information technology, (2) the importance of standard setting, and (3) the strong network effects exhibited in many areas of finance. Even today litigation is not uncommon; we sketch a number of significant examples affecting financial exchanges and consumer payments. The legal environment is changing quickly. We review a number of important federal court decisions that will affect how business method patents are obtained and enforced. We also review a number of proposals under consideration in the U.S. Congress. (JEL O31, O34, G20) [source]


The role of indicators in improving timeliness of international environmental reports

ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AND GOVERNANCE, Issue 1 2006
Ulla Rosenström
Abstract Environmental indicators were developed mainly to improve information flows from scientists to policy-makers. This article discusses the importance of timely environmental data and investigates the influence of indicator-based reporting on the data timeliness of environmental reports by international organizations. Timeliness of information contributes to the quality and appeal of the reports, and to their role as early warning tools, and increases their usability by decision-makers in short-term decision cycles. The results of an analysis of 11 international reports by the European Environmental Agency (EEA) and the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) show a considerable time lag of three years on average, with only minor development towards more timely reporting. The results suggest that the introduction of environmental indicators has not improved the timeliness of reporting. In order to overcome these problems, the article recommends some methods for improving timeliness. These include better choice of indicators in smaller sets, use of preliminary data and outlooks, development of new indicators, publishing on the internet and more effective use of internet databases to avoid intermediate levels in data collection. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]


How are new citation-based journal indicators adding to the bibliometric toolbox?

JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Issue 7 2009
Loet Leydesdorff
The launching of Scopus and Google Scholar, and methodological developments in social-network analysis have made many more indicators for evaluating journals available than the traditional impact factor, cited half-life, and immediacy index of the ISI. In this study, these new indicators are compared with one another and with the older ones. Do the various indicators measure new dimensions of the citation networks, or are they highly correlated among themselves? Are they robust and relatively stable over time? Two main dimensions are distinguished,size and impact,which together shape influence. The h-index combines the two dimensions and can also be considered as an indicator of reach (like Indegree). PageRank is mainly an indicator of size, but has important interactions with centrality measures. The Scimago Journal Ranking (SJR) indicator provides an alternative to the journal impact factor, but the computation is less easy. [source]


Gene expression studies in cultured dendritic cells: new indicators for the discrimination of skin sensitizers and irritants in vitro

CLINICAL & EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGY, Issue 6 2009
S. Szameit
Summary Background The replacement of animal tests for the detection of the sensitizing potential of chemicals is of great importance due to current legislation. One promising approach for the development of an in vitro assay is the exposure of immature dendritic cells (iDCs) to contact sensitizers and irritants, followed by an analysis of the maturation status of the cells. Objective The aim of this study was to further investigate the performance of our previously developed targeted microarray, the immune toxicity chip. In addition, we aimed to identify new marker genes for the discrimination of allergens and irritants using whole-genome microarrays. Methods Monocyte-derived iDCs were exposed to contact sensitizers and irritants in concentrations resulting in 10,20% cytotoxicity, as determined by dose,response curves. Changes in gene expression were analysed using the immune toxicity chip and a commercially available whole-genome microarray. Results Using the immune toxicity chip, we could identify a panel of marker genes suitable to discriminate strong allergens and irritants. Analysis with the whole-genome array revealed additional genes that are differentially expressed after allergen exposure, but not after irritant exposure. Hierarchical clustering of these genes showed distinct groups representing the different chemicals. Conclusion Here we show that our test system based on an immune-specific microarray is suitable for the discrimination of strong allergens and irritants. Genes detected as differentially expressed with the whole-genome array and previously not connected to the maturation process of DCs might be suitable candidate genes for the identification of weaker sensitizers. [source]