New Identities (new + identity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Constructivist Implications of Material Power: Military Engagement and the Socialization of States, 1972,2000

The research presented in this article examines one aspect of state socialization, the extent to which transnational military-to-military interactions have served as an effective mechanism of the democratic political socialization of states. Military organizations are very interesting when we consider avenues by which state socialization might occur because military organizations are an influential part of governments, and members share common beliefs and values as soldiers and officers that transcend borders. Thus, it would seem that a state's military structure is one likely channel whereby politically relevant individuals might learn new ideas and have the capability to reform existing institutional structures. The socialization process described in this study is three level: (1) individuals acquire new ideas; (2) coercion, incentives, and persuasion aid in institutionalizing these ideas in the underlying political structure of the state; and (3) once institutionalized, these new ideas/identity of the state influence the material and ideational structure of international society. Using Cox Proportional Hazard models and an original data set encompassing over 160 states during the years 1972,2000, the analyses find U.S. military-to-military contacts to be positively and systematically associated with liberalizing trends. This finding provides evidence that constructivist mechanisms do have observable effects, and that ideationally based processes play an important role in U.S. national security. [source]


ABSTRACT This essay considers the process of remediation in two North American reproductions of the song-and-dance sequence Jaan Pehechaan Ho from the 1965 "Bollywood" film Gumnaam. The song was used in the opening sequence of the 2001 U.S. independent film Ghost World as a familiar-but-strange object of ironic bewilderment and fantasy for its alienated teenage protagonist Enid. But a decade before Ghost World's release, Jaan Pehechaan Ho had already become the lynchpin of a complex debate about cultural appropriation and multicultural identity for an "alternative" audience in the United States. I illustrate this through an ethnographic analysis of a 1994 videotape of the Heavenly Ten Stems, an experimental rock band in San Francisco, whose performance of the song was disrupted by a group of activists who perceived their reproduction as a mockery. How is Bollywood film song, often itself a kitschy send-up of American popular culture, remediated differently for different projects of reception? How do these cycles of appropriation create overlapping conditions for new identities,whether national, diasporic, or "alternative",within the context of transcultural media consumption? In drawing out the "ghost world" of Bollywood's juxtapositions, I argue that the process of remediation produces more than just new forms and meanings of media, but is constitutive of the cosmopolitan subjects formed in its global circulations. [source]

Education and the Dangerous Memories of Historical Trauma: Narratives of Pain, Narratives of Hope

ABSTRACT The purpose of this article is to explore the meanings and implications of dangerous memories in two different sites of past traumatic memories: one in Israel and the other in Cyprus. Dangerous memories are defined as those memories that are disruptive to the status quo, that is, the hegemonic culture of strengthening and perpetuating existing group-based identities. Our effort is to outline some insights from this endeavor,insights that may help educators recognize the potential of dangerous memories to ease pain and offer hope. First, a discussion on memory, history and identity sets the ground for discussing the meaning and significance of dangerous memories in the history curriculum. Next, we narrate two stories from our longitudinal ethnographic studies on trauma and memory in Israel and Cyprus; these stories are interpreted through the lens of dangerous memories and their workings in relation to the hegemonic powers that aim to sustain collective memories. The two different stories suggest that collective memories of historical trauma are not simply "transmitted" in any simple way down the generations,although there are powerful workings that support this transmission. Rather, there seems to be much ambivalence in the workings of memories that under some circumstances may create openings for new identities. The final section discusses the possibilities of developing a pedagogy of dangerous memories by highlighting educational implications that focus on the notion of creating new solidarities without forgetting past traumas. This last section employs dangerous memories as a critical category for pedagogy in the context of our general concern about the implications of memory, history and identity in educational contexts. [source]

Aesthetics of Celebration, Tension and Memory: Nigeria Urban Art History

Adérónké Adésolá Adésŕnyŕ
This essay, among other things, addresses the question of origin of Nigerian Urban art, a genre basically found in urban spaces. It highlights the various nomenclatures by which the genre has been tagged to date and provides a robust debate on the pioneer and later urban artists in the country noting the characteristics and nuances of their art. Besides establishing the character of Nigerian urban art as compelling and significant to understanding the aesthetic sensibilities and nuances of the producer culture, issues of identity, training, authorship, patronage, social memory and social responsibility, morality and immorality and how they inform, shape and complicate the creative endeavors of urban artists are brought to the fore. In this insightful interrogation of history, people and spaces one finds the emergence of a new artistic order in which Nigerian urban artists establish and expand their own idioms, unite politics with art, engage their own audiences, cultivate their own clientele, tell their own stories and that of the society, create and endorse new identities, and increasingly expand their socioeconomic space. Their creative formats essentially transform into markets where people, products and services unite. They also serve as cultural lenses through which one gain insights into class struggle in a postcolonial society and how a critical mass of the Nigerian public interprets leadership, commerce, and culture. [source]

Britain in Europe/the British in Spain: exploring Britain's changing relationship to the other through the attitudes of its emigrants

Karen O'Reilly
This article explores Britain's changing relationship towards the outside in the context of contemporary British migration to the Costa del Sol. Historically, the British abroad have (apparently) retained a myth of the glorious homeland, to which they will eventually return, but the critique of colonialism both challenged the ethno-centrism of the colonisers and questioned the validity of the descriptions of colonial life. More recently, Britain has been forced to shed some of its ,great nation'/uncontaminated island mentality and to attempt to embrace both Europe and the rest of the developed world. At the same time the ,race relations' approach has been exchanged for a multiculturalist one at home. But the relationship with the outside remains ambivalent: Europe is embraced one day and spurned the next; racism remains a problem in Britain; and the British abroad seem to retain a ,little England' mentality. The British who have migrated to Spain in the last few decades are especially interesting. Their compatriots back home denigrate their behaviour and impute to them a longing for home which they do not have. They, themselves, fail to integrate into Spanish society yet talk of Spain as their home and construct new identities based on symbols of Spanishness. Dangling between two countries and two cultures, the British in Spain are, in many ways, symbolic of Britain's ambivalence to the outside and to its self. [source]

9.,Human Rights: Historical Learning in the Shadow of Violence

Article first published online: 18 FEB 200, Richard T. Peterson
This paper emphasizes the historical dimension of human rights understood as a social ethic. Rather than timeless principles, human rights and the universality proper to them emerge in a process of suffering, conflict, political assertion, and institutional change. We can understand them as historical yet also universal by seeing that human rights arise in processes of social learning that take place in an increasingly globalized world. Such learning often has advanced in the face of dramatic violence, for example, the bombing of Hiroshima. But the demands on a global social ethic today are not only a matter of responding to threats and acts of dramatic violence in isolation. Attention to the example of Hiroshima suggests that the problem of violence is bound up with other questions about the regulation of emerging technical powers in a context of inequality and social conflict. To what extent can an ethic centered on human rights provide an ethics that can inform effective responses to these problems? To consider the promise of human rights, we look more closely at the kind of social learning they involve and explore in particular the role of social movements in forging new identities and reciprocities along with normative claims proper to a global public sphere (the anti-apartheid movement provides an example). We go on to see that these political experiences can inform interpretations of historical experience that can inform a widened sense of historical possibilities, both those missed in the past and those that confront us today. While this argument may thicken our sense of the promise of a human rights ethic, it remains speculative, not least because of the limited effectiveness of these norms in practice today. We close with the suggestion that nonetheless a coherent ethical response is possible, one that in the wealthy parts of the globe might take the form of an ethic of democratic responsibility. This would both represent a distinctive kind of learning and perhaps contribute to a wider advance of human rights. [source]

Transformational change: A historical review

William L. White
Recovery from alcoholism can occur through a process of psychological death and rebirth. Generating a new person within a body once occupied by another, transformational change (TC) stands as a life-defining experience demarcating before (old self) and after (new self). The TC experiences of 7 individuals (Handsome Lake, John Gough, Francis Murphy, Jerry McAuley, Bill Wilson, Marty Mann, and Malcolm X) are presented here. Their recoveries from addiction catalyzed larger abstinence-based mutual aid, advocacy, or religious/cultural revitalization movements. Psychotherapists are encouraged to respect the healing power of the TC experience, avoid aborting the TC experience via superficial amelioration of its more disquieting manifestations, interpret the TC experience in ways that solidify and sustain the change process, and help bridge the TC experience and the construction of a new identity and lifestyle. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol/In Session. [source]

Decay in time for a one-dimensional two-component plasma

Robert Glassey
Abstract The motion of a collisionless plasma is described by the Vlasov,Poisson (VP) system, or in the presence of large velocities, the relativistic VP system. Both systems are considered in one space and one momentum dimension, with two species of oppositely charged particles. A new identity is derived for both systems and is used to study the behavior of solutions for large times. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


This essay approaches the complex structure of the Christian's identity from the perspective of the crucifixion of Christ. Central to this approach are the concepts of recognition and representation, which are employed to clarify presuppositions of Christian identity that can be seen as theologically and philosophically prior to the doctrinal conceptions of reconciliation and atonement. The cross can be seen as a gift only if it is simultaneously conceived of as a possibility for receiving a new identity through the recognition of God both as the other represented and representing the human on the cross. On the basis of recognition and representation, implications concerning the more doctrinal formulation of Christology, anthropology and soteriology are spelled out. [source]

Constructing Identities in Early Iron Age Thessaly: The Case of the Halos Tumuli

Ioannis Georganas
This paper examines the Early Iron Age tumulus,cemetery of Halos in south,eastern Thessaly, with its unique cremation pyre,cairn combination. As there are no parallels for such combination of burial practices either in Thessaly or in any other area of the Greek world, it has usually been suggested that the tumuli were erected by people foreign to Thessaly, most probably of a northern origin. This paper presents evidence suggesting a local custom closely related to the desire to create a new identity. [source]

Exploring new advanced practice roles in community nursing: a critique

Kay Aranda
Attempts to ,modernize' the English National Health Service (NHS) have included significant workforce re-design, including the development of new, advanced roles in nursing. There is a wealth of evidence documenting and evaluating such roles in hospital and, to a lesser extent, in community settings. This paper builds on this work, drawing on recent post structural and sociological analyzes to theorize these roles, locating them within broader social and cultural changes taking place in healthcare and exploring how understandings of new roles in community nursing are in the process of being constructed. Building on a literature review, the paper draws out what an analysis of new advanced nursing roles in the community reveals about competing conceptualizations of the nursing mandate, the ambivalence and ambiguity that practitioners experience in shaping ,new' identities (the shaping of subjectivities), and the often implicit ideological positions that underpin such developments. [source]