New Hypothesis (new + hypothesis)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Young adults' ideas of cure prior to psychoanalytic psychotherapy

Björn Philips
The study aims to explore systematically the ideas of cure among young adults prior to psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Forty-six individuals aged 18 to 25 years who applied for psychotherapy underwent the Private Theories Interview (PTI). Twenty distinct categories of ideas of cure were identified. Based on these categories, a theoretical model was constructed with the dimensions, Approaching,Distancing and Doing,Receiving. Individuals were classified into types using "ideal type analysis." Seven ideal types were formed: Processing and Understanding, Mastering Through Own Will and Action, Talking, Discordant Ideas, Incoherent Ideas, Getting It Out, and Avoiding or Placing the Solution onto Others. New hypotheses emerged concerning ideas of cure as an important factor for psychotherapy matching, thus potentially predicting premature termination, alliance, and outcome. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 63: 213,232, 2007. [source]

Root dynamics and global change: seeking an ecosystem perspective

Changes in the production and turnover of roots in forests and grasslands in response to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations, elevated temperatures, altered precipitation, or nitrogen deposition could be a key link between plant responses and longer-term changes in soil organic matter and ecosystem carbon balance. Here we summarize the experimental observations, ideas, and new hypotheses developed in this area in the rest of this volume. Three central questions are posed. Do elevated atmospheric CO2, nitrogen deposition, and climatic change alter the dynamics of root production and mortality? What are the consequences of root responses to plant physiological processes? What are the implications of root dynamics to soil microbial communities and the fate of carbon in soil? Ecosystem-level observations of root production and mortality in response to global change parameters are just starting to emerge. The challenge to root biologists is to overcome the profound methodological and analytical problems and assemble a more comprehensive data set with sufficient ancillary data that differences between ecosystems can be explained. The assemblage of information reported herein on global patterns of root turnover, basic root biology that controls responses to environmental variables, and new observations of root and associated microbial responses to atmospheric and climatic change helps to sharpen our questions and stimulate new research approaches. New hypotheses have been developed to explain why responses of root turnover might differ in contrasting systems, how carbon allocation to roots is controlled, and how species differences in root chemistry might explain the ultimate fate of carbon in soil. These hypotheses and the enthusiasm for pursuing them are based on the firm belief that a deeper understanding of root dynamics is critical to describing the integrated response of ecosystems to global change. [source]

Early Evolution of Apocrita (Insecta, Hymenoptera) as Indicated by New Findings in the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, Northeast China

Abstract: The classification and phylogeny of the basal Vespina (= Orussoidea + Apocrita) are reconsidered based primarily on rich and well preserved material from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou in Inner Mongolia, China. Comparatively smooth morphological transitions are traced from a Xiphydriidae-like ancestor toward Orussoidea via the Jurassic family Karatavitidae, and through Karatavitidae and the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous family Ephialtitidae independently to Stephanidae, to Evanioidea, and, via the extinct Jurassic Kuafuidae fam. nov. to the remaining Apocrita. New hypothesis is proposed concerning development of the characteristic wasp-waist of Apocrita, which is supposed to appear independently and in different ways in Evanioidea and in the rest of Apocrita. As a result, six infraorders are proposed for the suborder Vespina with the following taxonomic structure: infraorder Orussomorpha including the only superfamily Orussoidea (Karatavitidae + Paroryssidae + Orussidae), infraorder Stephanomorpha with the only superfamily Stephanoidea (Ephialtitidae + Stephanidae), infraorder Evaniomorpha with the only superfamily Evanioidea of traditional composition, infraorder Ceraphronomorpha with the superfamilies Ceraphronoidea s. str. and monotypical Megalyroidea and Trigonaloidea, and the infraorders Proctotrupomorpha, Ichneumonomorpha, and Vespomorpha of traditional composition. The family Kuafuidae is unplaced to infraorder because it is putatively paraphyletic with respect to Ceraphronomorpha, Proctotrupomorpha, Ichneumonomorpha and Vespomorpha. Described as new are Karatavites junfengi sp. nov., Praeratavites wuhuaensis sp. nov., P. perspicuus sp. nov., Postxiphydria daohugouensis gen. et sp. nov., P. ningchengensis gen. et sp. nov., Postxiphydroides strenuus gen. et sp. nov., Praeratavitoides amabilis gen. et sp. nov., Proapocritus densipediculus sp. nov., P. sculptus sp. nov., P. longantennatus sp. nov., P. formosus sp. nov., P. atropus sp. nov., P. elegans sp. nov., Stephanogaster pristinus sp. nov., Asiephialtites lini sp. nov., Praeproapocritus vulgatus gen. et sp. nov., Sinaulacogastrinus solidus gen. et sp. nov., Sinevania speciosa gen. et sp. nov., Eonevania robusta gen. et sp. nov., Kuafua polyneura gen. et sp. nov. (all from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou), as well as Kuafuidae fam. nov. including Kuafua gen. nov. as well as Arthrogaster Rasnitsyn, 1975, and Leptogastrella Rasnitsyn, 1975 from the Upper Jurassic of Karatau in Kazakhstan. [source]

A Note on the Interdependence between Hypothesis Generation and Information Search in Conducting Analytical Procedures,

Stephen K. Asare
Abstract This study examines the linkage among the initial hypothesis set, the information search, and decision performance in performing analytical procedures. We manipulated the quality of the initial hypothesis set and the quality of the information search to investigate the extent to which deficiencies (or benefits) in either process can be remedied (or negated) by the other phase. The hypothesis set manipulation entailed inheriting a correct hypothesis set, inheriting an incorrect hypothesis set, or generating a hypothesis set. The information search was manipulated by providing a balanced evidence set to auditors (i.e., evidence on a range of likely causes including the actual cause - analogous to a standard audit program) or asking them to conduct their own search. One hundred and two auditors participated in the study. The results show that auditors who inherit a correct hypothesis set and receive balanced evidence performed better than those who inherit a correct hypothesis set and did their own search, as well as those who inherited an incorrect hypothesis set and were provided a balanced evidence set. The former performance difference arose because auditors who conducted their own search were found to do repeated testing of non-errors and truncated their search. This suggests that having a correct hypothesis set does not ensure that a balanced testing strategy is employed, which, in turn, diminishes part of the presumed benefits of a correct hypothesis set. The latter performance difference was attributable to auditors' failure to generate new hypotheses when they received evidence about a hypothesis that was not in the current hypothesis set. This demonstrates that balanced evidence does not fully compensate for having an initial incorrect hypothesis set. These findings suggest the need for firm training and/or decision aids to facilitate both a balanced information search and an iterative hypothesis generation process. [source]

Towards a platform for the metabonomic profiling of different strains of Drosophila melanogaster using liquid chromatography,Fourier transform mass spectrometry

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 22 2009
Muhammad A. Kamleh
A platform based on hydrophilic interaction chromatography in combination with Fourier transform mass spectrometry was developed in order to carry out metabonomics of Drosophila melanogaster strains. The method was able to detect , 230 metabolites, mainly in the positive ion mode, after checking to eliminate false positives caused by isotope peaks, adducts and fragment ions. Two wild-type strains, Canton S and Oregon R, were studied, plus two mutant strains, Maroon Like and Chocolate. In order to observe the differential expression of metabolites, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the different strains were compared using sieve 1.2 software to extract metabolic differences. The output from sieve was searched against a metabolite database using an Excel-based macro written in-house. Metabolic differences were observed between the wild-type strains, and also between both Chocolate and Maroon Like compared with Oregon R. It was established that a metabonomic approach could produce results leading to the generation of new hypotheses. In addition, the structure of a new class of lipid with a histidine head group, found in all of the strains of flies, but lower in Maroon Like, was elucidated. [source]

Modeled interactive effects of precipitation, temperature, and [CO2] on ecosystem carbon and water dynamics in different climatic zones

Abstract Interactive effects of multiple global change factors on ecosystem processes are complex. It is relatively expensive to explore those interactions in manipulative experiments. We conducted a modeling analysis to identify potentially important interactions and to stimulate hypothesis formulation for experimental research. Four models were used to quantify interactive effects of climate warming (T), altered precipitation amounts [doubled (DP) and halved (HP)] and seasonality (SP, moving precipitation in July and August to January and February to create summer drought), and elevated [CO2] (C) on net primary production (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh), net ecosystem production (NEP), transpiration, and runoff. We examined those responses in seven ecosystems, including forests, grasslands, and heathlands in different climate zones. The modeling analysis showed that none of the three-way interactions among T, C, and altered precipitation was substantial for either carbon or water processes, nor consistent among the seven ecosystems. However, two-way interactive effects on NPP, Rh, and NEP were generally positive (i.e. amplification of one factor's effect by the other factor) between T and C or between T and DP. A negative interaction (i.e. depression of one factor's effect by the other factor) occurred for simulated NPP between T and HP. The interactive effects on runoff were positive between T and HP. Four pairs of two-way interactive effects on plant transpiration were positive and two pairs negative. In addition, wet sites generally had smaller relative changes in NPP, Rh, runoff, and transpiration but larger absolute changes in NEP than dry sites in response to the treatments. The modeling results suggest new hypotheses to be tested in multifactor global change experiments. Likewise, more experimental evidence is needed for the further improvement of ecosystem models in order to adequately simulate complex interactive processes. [source]

Automatic mining of the literature to generate new hypotheses for the possible link between periodontitis and atherosclerosis: lipopolysaccharide as a case study

Kristina M. Hettne
Abstract Aim: The aim of the current report was to generate and explore new hypotheses into how, in a pathophysiological sense, atherosclerosis and periodontitis could be linked. Material and Methods: Two different biomedical informatics techniques were used: an association-based technique that generated a ranked list of genes associated with the diseases, and a natural language processing tool that extracted the relationships between the retrieved genes and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Results: This combined approach of association-based and natural language processing-based literature mining identified a hit list of 16 candidate genes, with PON1 as the primary candidate. Conclusions: Further study of the literature prompted the hypothesis that PON1 might connect periodontitis with atherosclerosis in both an LPS-dependent and a non-LPS-dependent manner. Furthermore, the resulting genes not only confirmed already known associations between the two diseases, but also provided genes or gene products that have only been investigated separately in the two disease states, and genes or gene products previously reported to be involved in atherosclerosis. These findings remain to be investigated through clinical studies. This example of multidisciplinary research illustrates how collaborative efforts of investigators from different fields of expertise can result in the discovery of new hypotheses. [source]

Spatially heterogeneous stochasticity and the adaptive diversification of dormancy

E. Rajon
Abstract Diversified bet-hedging, a strategy that leads several individuals with the same genotype to express distinct phenotypes in a given generation, is now well established as a common evolutionary response to environmental stochasticity. Life-history traits defined as diversified bet-hedging (e.g. germination or diapause strategies) display marked differences between populations in spatial proximity. In order to find out whether such differences can be explained by local adaptations to spatially heterogeneous environmental stochasticity, we explored the evolution of bet-hedging dormancy strategies in a metapopulation using a two-patch model with patch differences in stochastic juvenile survival. We found that spatial differences in the level of environmental stochasticity, restricted dispersal, increased fragmentation and intermediate survival during dormancy all favour the adaptive diversification of bet-hedging dormancy strategies. Density dependency also plays a major role in the diversification of dormancy strategies because: (i) it may interact locally with environmental stochasticity and amplify its effects; however, (ii) it can also generate chaotic population dynamics that may impede diversification. Our work proposes new hypotheses to explain the spatial patterns of bet-hedging strategies that we hope will encourage new empirical studies of this topic. [source]

Efficient recognition of protein fold at low sequence identity by conservative application of Psi-BLAST: application,

F. J. Stevens
Abstract Based on a study involving structural comparisons of proteins sharing 25% or less sequence identity, three rounds of Psi-BLAST appear capable of identifying remote evolutionary homologs with greater than 95% confidence provided that more than 50% of the query sequence can be aligned with the target sequence. Since it seems that more than 80% of all homologous protein pairs may be characterized by a lack of significant sequence similarity, the experimental biologist is often confronted with a lack of guidance from conventional homology searches involving pair-wise sequence comparisons. The ability to disregard levels of sequence identity and expect value in Psi-BLAST if at least 50% of the query sequence has been aligned allows for generation of new hypotheses by consideration of matches that are conventionally disregarded. In one example, we suggest a possible evolutionary linkage between the cupredoxin and immunoglobulin fold families. A thermostable hypothetical protein of unknown function may be a circularly permuted homolog to phosphotriesterase, an enzyme capable of detoxifying organophosphate nerve agents. In a third example, the amino acid sequence of another hypothetical protein of unknown function reveals the ATP binding-site, metal binding site, and catalytic sidechain consistent with kinase activity of unknown specificity. This approach significantly expands the utility of existing sequence data to define the primary structure degeneracy of binding sites for substrates, cofactors and other proteins. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Morphological evolution of the lizard skull: A geometric morphometrics survey

C. Tristan Stayton
Abstract Patterns of diversity among lizard skulls were studied from a morphological, phylogenetic, and functional perspective. A sample of 1,030 lizard skulls from 441 species in 17 families was used to create a lizard skull morphospace. This morphospace was combined with a phylogeny of lizard families to summarize general trends in the evolution of the lizard skull. A basal morphological split between the Iguania and Scleroglossa was observed. Iguanians are characterized by a short, high skull, with large areas of attachment for the external adductor musculature, relative to their sister group. The families of the Iguania appear to possess more intrafamilial morphological diversity than families of the Scleroglossa, but rarefaction of the data reveals this to be an artifact caused by the greater number of species represented in Iguanian families. Iguanian families also appear more dissimilar to one another than families of the Scleroglossa. Permutation tests indicate that this pattern is real and not due to the smaller number of families in the Iguanidae. Parallel and convergent evolution is observed among lizards with similar diets: ant and termite specialists, carnivores, and herbivores. However, these patterns are superimposed over the more general phylogenetic pattern of lizard skull diversity. This study has three central conclusions. Different clades of lizards show different patterns of disparity and divergence in patterns of morphospace occupation. Phylogeny imposes a primary signal upon which a secondary ecological signal is imprinted. Evolutionary patterns in skull metrics, taken with functional landmarks, allow testing of trends and the development of new hypotheses concerning both shape and biomechanics. J. Morphol. 263:47,59, 2005. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Metaphors of Protest: A Classification of Motivations for Collective Action

Martijn Van Zomeren
This article proposes a classification of motivations for collective action based in three of Tetlock's (2002) metaphors of social functionalism (i.e., people as intuitive economists, politicians, and theologians). We use these metaphors to map individual- and group-based motivations for collective action from the literature onto the distinction between individuals who are strongly or weakly identified with their social group. We conclude that low identifiers can be best understood as intuitive economists (supported by both early and recent work on collective action), whereas high identifiers can be best thought of as intuitive politicians or theologians (as recent work on social identity has started to explore). Interestingly, our classification reveals a remarkable lack of attention for the intuitive theologian's motivation for collective action. We therefore develop new hypotheses for future research, and derive recommendations for policy and practice from our analysis. [source]

New results concerning the morphology of the most ancient dragonflies (Insecta: Odonatoptera) from the Namurian of Hagen-Vorhalle (Germany)

G. Bechly
The holotype specimen of the ,protodonate'Erasipteroides valentini (Brauckmann in Brauckmann et al., 1985) and the paratype specimen K-13 of the giant ,protodonate'Namurotypus sippeliBrauckmann and Zessin, 1989 from the Upper Carboniferous (Namurian B) of Hagen-Vorhalle (Germany) are redescribed, and a new specimen of Erasipteroides cf. valentini is described. The new evidence is used to refine the groundplan reconstruction of Odonatoptera and the reconstruction of odonatoid phylogeny. Prothoracic winglets for Erasipteroides and the absence of an archaedictyon are documented. Furthermore, a very long and sclerotized ovipositor with gonangulum is described from the female holotype specimen of Erasipteroides valentini, and it is proposed that it was not used for endophytic but for endosubstratic oviposition. The record of prothoracic winglets in early odonatoids, and their presence in fossil Palaeodictyoptera and ,protorthopteres', indicates that the groundplan of Pterygota indeed included three pairs of wings. A phylogenetic analysis suggests that the Palaeozoic giant Meganisoptera and "higher" odonatoids (incl. crowngroup Odonata) together form a monophyletic group which is here named Euodonatoptera. Erasipteroides and the other ,Erasipteridae' are shown to be more closely related to Euodonatoptera than to Eugeropteridae. The description of the male primary genital structures of Namurotypus sippeli is emended and a new interpretation is proposed, including new hypotheses concerning their function. The males of Namurotypus had a paired penis with a pair of lateral parameres, and a pair of leaf-like, but still segmented, gonopods. Segmented leg-like male gonopods are considered as a groundplan character of insects, while a paired penis is regarded as a putative synapomorphy of the palaeopterous insect orders Palaeodictyopteroida, Ephemeroptera, and Odonatoptera. It is proposed that Namurotypus did not mate by direct copulation but retained the archaic deposition of external spermatophores, just like the primarily wingless insects. The sigmoidal male cerci may have been placed behind the female head and used to drag the female over the spermatophore, which is remotely similar to the mating behaviour of some extant arachnids (e.g. Amblypygi). Three hypothetical scenarios regarding the evolution of secondary copulation in modern Odonata are proposed. Neue Erkenntnisse zur Morphologie der ältesten Libellen (Insecta: Odonatoptera) aus dem Namurium von Hagen-Vorhalle (Deutschland) Das Holotypusexemplar der ,Protodonate'Erasipteroides valentini (Brauckmann in Brauckmann et al., Geol. Paläont. Westfalen 3, 1,131, 1985) und das Paratypusexemplar K-13 der riesenwüchsigen ,Protodonate'Namurotypus sippeliBrauckmann and Zessin, 1989 aus dem Oberkarbon (Namurium B) von Hagen-Vorhalle (Deutschland) werden wiederbeschrieben. Die neuen Erkenntnisse werden zu einer Präzisierung der Grundplanrekonstruktion der Odonatoptera und für die Rekonstruktion der Libellenstammesgeschichte verwendet. Für Erasipteroides werden prothorakale Flügelchen beschrieben und das Fehlen eines Archaedictyons wird belegt. Des weiteren wird ein sehr langer und sklerotisierter Ovipositor mit Gonangulum für das weibliche Holotypusexemplar von Erasipteroides valentini beschrieben, und es wird vorgeschlagen, dass dieser nicht zur endophytischen Eiablage, sondern zur endosubstratischen Eiablage diente. Der Nachweis prothorakaler Flügelchen bei frühen Libellen sowie deren Vorkommen bei fossilen Palaeodictyoptera und ,Protorthopteren', deutet darauf hin, dass zum Grundplan der Pterygota drei Flügelpaare gehörten. Eine phylogenetische Analyse legt nahe, dass die riesenwüchsigen Meganisoptera des Paläozoikums und die ,höheren' Odonaten (inkl. Kronengruppe Odonata) gemeinsam eine monophyletische Gruppe bilden, die hier als Euodonatoptera benannt wird. Es wird gezeigt, dass Erasipteroides und die übrigen ,Erasipteridae' näher mit den Euodonatoptera verwandt sind als die Eugeropteridae. Die Beschreibung der primären männlichen Geschlechtsorgane von Namurotypus sippeli wird ergänzt, und eine neue Interpretation sowie neue Hypothesen zu deren Funktion werden vorgestellt. Die Männchen von Namurotypus besaßen einen paarigen Penis mit einem Paar lateraler Parameren und einem Paar blattartiger, aber noch segmentierter Gonopoden. Segmentierte, beinartige, männliche Gonopoden werden als Grundplanmerkmale der Insekten angesehen, während ein paariger Penis als potentielle Synapomorphie der paläopteren Insektenordnungen Palaeodictyopteroida, Ephemeroptera und Odonatoptera betrachtet wird. Es wird vorgeschlagen, dass die Paarung bei Namurotypus nicht durch eine direkte Kopulation ablief, sondern durch das Absetzen freier Spermatophoren, so wie bei den primär flügellosen Insekten. Die sigmoidalen männlichen Cerci könnten hinter dem weiblichen Kopf platziert worden sein, um das Weibchen über die Spermatophore zu dirigieren, ähnlich dem Paarungsverhalten mancher rezenter Spinnentiere (z.B. Amblypygi). Drei hypothetische Szenarien zur Evolution der sekundären Kopulation bei modernen Libellen werden vorgestellt. [source]

Case studies in novel narial anatomy: 2.

The enigmatic nose of moose (Artiodactyla: Cervidae: Alces alces)
Abstract The facial region of moose Alces alces is highly divergent relative to other cervids and other ruminants. In particular, the narial region forms an expanded muzzle or proboscis that overhangs the mouth. The nose of moose provides a case study in the evolution of narial novelty within a phylogenetically well-resolved group (Cervidae). The function of the nasal apparatus of moose remains enigmatic, and new hypotheses are proposed based on our anatomical findings. Head specimens of moose and outgroup taxa were subjected to medical imaging (CT scanning), vascular injection, gross anatomical dissection, gross sectioning, and skeletonization. Moose noses are characterized by highly enlarged nostrils accompanied by specialized musculature, expanded nasal cartilages, and an increase in the connective-tissue pad serving as the termination of the alar fold. The nostrils are widely separated, and the rhinarium that encircles both nostrils in outgroups is reduced to a tiny central patch in moose. The dorsal lateral nasal cartilage is modified to form a pulley mechanism associated with the levator muscle of the upper lip. The lateral accessory nasal cartilage is enlarged and serves as an attachment site for musculature controlling the aperture of the nostril, particularly the lateralis nasi, the apical dilatators, and the rectus nasi. Bony support for narial structures is reduced. Moose show greatly enlarged nasal cartilages, and the entire osseocartilaginous apparatus is relatively much larger than in outgroups. The nasal vestibule of moose is very large and houses a system of three recesses: one rostral and one caudal to the nostrils, and one associated with the enlarged fibrofatty alar fold. As a result of the expanded nasal vestibule, osseous support for the nasal conchae (i.e. turbinates) has retracted caudally along with the bony nasal aperture. The nasoturbinate and its mucosal counterparts (dorsal nasal concha and rectal fold) are reduced. The upturned maxilloturbinate, however, is associated with an enlarged ventral nasal concha and alar fold. Moose are the only species of cervid with these particular characteristics, indicating that this anatomical configuration is indeed novel. Although functional hypotheses await testing, our anatomical findings and published behavioural observations suggest that the novel narial apparatus of moose probably has less to do with respiratory physiology than with functions pertaining specifically to the nostrils. The widely separated and laterally facing nostrils may enhance stereolfaction (i.e. extracting directional cues from gradients of odorant molecules in the environment), but other attributes of narial architecture (enlarged cartilages, specialized musculature, recesses, fibrofatty pads) suggest that this function may not have been the evolutionary driving force. Rather, these attributes suggest a mechanical function, namely, an elaborated nostril-closing system. [source]

The Mathematical Assessment of Long-Range Linguistic Relationships

Brett Kessler
Language classification differs from biological cladistics in that monogenesis cannot be assumed. Before a cladogram or family tree can be accepted, linguists must be convinced that the languages are related at all. Morpheme tables, or word lists, provide a good framework for investigating relatedness, but methodologies for quantifying and assessing the data statistically are still being developed. The comparative method furnished a viable statistic, recurrent sound correspondences, but by no means to see whether they exceeded levels expected by chance. Organizing correspondences into contingency tables permitted hypothesis testing, with Monte Carlo resampling methods providing the flexibility to support a wide variety of test statistics, including different ways of computing sound recurrences and phonetic similarity. Thus, techniques from both the comparative method and multilateral comparison can be deployed with rigorous numeric assessment. Experiments seek to increase the power of the tests to explore new hypotheses and verify long-range language relationships. [source]

Time-series nasal epithelial transcriptomics during natural pollen exposure in healthy subjects and allergic patients

ALLERGY, Issue 2 2010
P. Mattila
To cite this article: Mattila P, Renkonen J, Toppila-Salmi S, Parviainen V, Joenväärä S, Alff-Tuomala S, Nicorici D, Renkonen R. Time-series nasal epithelial transcriptomics during natural pollen exposure in healthy subjects and allergic patients. Allergy 2010; 65: 175,183. Abstract Background:, The role of epithelium has recently awakened interest in the studies of type I hypersensitivity. Objective:, We analysed the nasal transcriptomics epithelial response to natural birch pollen exposure in a time series manner. Methods:, Human nasal epithelial cell swabs were collected from birch pollen allergic patients and healthy controls in winter season. In addition, four specimens at weekly intervals were collected from the same subjects during natural birch pollen exposure in spring and transcriptomic analyses were performed. Results:, The nasal epithelium of healthy subjects responded vigorously to allergen exposure. The immune response was a dominating category of this response. Notably, the healthy subjects did not display any clinical symptoms regardless of this response detected by transcriptomic analysis. Concomitantly, the epithelium of allergic subjects responded also, but with a different set of responders. In allergic patients the regulation of dyneins, the molecular motors of intracellular transport dominated. This further supports our previous hypothesis that the birch pollen exposure results in an active uptake of allergen into the epithelium only in allergic subjects but not in healthy controls. Conclusion:, We showed that birch pollen allergen causes a defence response in healthy subjects, but not in allergic subjects. Instead, allergic patients actively transport pollen allergen through the epithelium to tissue mast cells. Our study showed that new hypotheses can arise from the application of discovery driven methodologies. To understand complex multifactorial diseases, such as type I hypersensitivity, this kind of hypotheses might be worth further analyses. [source]

Physiological Linguistics, and Some Implications Regarding Disciplinary Autonomy and Unification

MIND & LANGUAGE, Issue 1 2007
At least current irreducibility of biology, including biolinguistics, stems in at least some cases from the very nature of what I will claim is physiological, or inter-organ/inter-component, macro-levels of explanation which play a new and central explanatory role in Chomsky's inter-componential (interface-based) explanation of certain (anatomical) properties of the syntactic component of Universal Grammar. Under this new mode of explanation, certain physiological functions of cognitive mental organs are hypothesized, in an attempt to explain aspects of their internal anatomy. Thus, the internal anatomy of the syntactic component exhibits features that enable it to effectively interface with (i.e. function in a coordinated fashion with) other ,adjacent' organs, such as the Conceptual-Intensional (C-I) (,meaning') system and the Sensory- Motor (SM) (,sound') system. These two interface systems take as their inputs the assembled outputs of the syntactic component and, as a result of the very syntactic structure imposed by the syntax (as opposed to countless imaginable alternatives) are then able to assign their (linearized) sound and (compositional) meaning interpretations. If this is an accurate characterization, Chomsky's long-standing postulation of mental organs, and I will argue, the advancement of new hypotheses concerning physiological inter-organ functions, has attained in current biolinguistic Minimalist method a significant unification with foundational aspects of physiological explanation in other areas of biology. [source]

Immunocytochemical identification of interstitial cells of Cajal in the murine fundus using a live-labelling technique

C. J. Stratton
Abstract, Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract play a critical role in the generation of electrical slow waves and as mediators of enteric motor neurotransmission. Kit immunohistochemistry has proven to be a reliable method to identify the location of these cells within the tunica muscularis and to provide information on how the distribution and density of these cells change in a variety of GI motility disorders. Because of the labile nature of Kit or its detection, ultrastructural immunocytochemistry using conventional chemical fixation methods has been difficult. We describe a novel in vivo technique to label ICC within GI tissues. Using antibodies directed against the extracellular domain of the Kit receptor, we have been able to live-label the stomach with Kit while the animal is under anaesthesia and the organ is still receiving normal blood supply. This approach provided optimum maintenance of ultrastructural features with significant binding of antibody to the Kit receptor. The loss of ICC in many human motility disorders suggests exciting new hypotheses for their aetiology. This method will prove useful to investigate the ultrastructural changes that occur in ICC networks in animal models of motility disorders that are associated with the loss of these cells. [source]

Root dynamics and global change: seeking an ecosystem perspective

Changes in the production and turnover of roots in forests and grasslands in response to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations, elevated temperatures, altered precipitation, or nitrogen deposition could be a key link between plant responses and longer-term changes in soil organic matter and ecosystem carbon balance. Here we summarize the experimental observations, ideas, and new hypotheses developed in this area in the rest of this volume. Three central questions are posed. Do elevated atmospheric CO2, nitrogen deposition, and climatic change alter the dynamics of root production and mortality? What are the consequences of root responses to plant physiological processes? What are the implications of root dynamics to soil microbial communities and the fate of carbon in soil? Ecosystem-level observations of root production and mortality in response to global change parameters are just starting to emerge. The challenge to root biologists is to overcome the profound methodological and analytical problems and assemble a more comprehensive data set with sufficient ancillary data that differences between ecosystems can be explained. The assemblage of information reported herein on global patterns of root turnover, basic root biology that controls responses to environmental variables, and new observations of root and associated microbial responses to atmospheric and climatic change helps to sharpen our questions and stimulate new research approaches. New hypotheses have been developed to explain why responses of root turnover might differ in contrasting systems, how carbon allocation to roots is controlled, and how species differences in root chemistry might explain the ultimate fate of carbon in soil. These hypotheses and the enthusiasm for pursuing them are based on the firm belief that a deeper understanding of root dynamics is critical to describing the integrated response of ecosystems to global change. [source]

Foraging on spatially distributed resources with sub-optimal movement, imperfect information, and travelling costs: departures from the ideal free distribution

OIKOS, Issue 9 2010
Shuichi Matsumura
Ideal free distribution (IFD) theory offers an important baseline for predicting the distribution of foragers across resource patches. Yet it is well known that IFD theory relies on several over-simplifying assumptions that are unlikely to be met in reality. Here we relax three of the most critical assumptions: (1) optimal foraging moves among patches, (2) omniscience about the utility of resource patches, and (3) cost-free travelling between patches. Based on these generalizations, we investigate the distributions of a constant number of foragers in models with explicit resource dynamics of logistic type. We find that, first, when foragers do not always move to the patch offering maximum intake rate (optimal foraging), but instead move probabilistically according to differences in resource intake rates between patches (sub-optimal foraging), the distribution of foragers becomes less skewed than the IFD, so that high-quality patches attract fewer foragers. Second, this homogenization is strengthened when foragers have less than perfect knowledge about the utility of resource patches. Third, and perhaps most surprisingly, the introduction of travelling costs causes departures in the opposite direction: the distribution of sub-optimal foragers approaches the IFD as travelling costs increase. We demonstrate that these three findings are robust when considering patches that differ in the resource's carrying capacity or intrinsic growth rate, and when considering simple two-patch and more complex multiple-patch models. By overcoming three major over-simplifications of IFD theory, our analyses contribute to the systematic investigation of ecological factors influencing the spatial distribution of foragers, and thus help in deriving new hypotheses that are testable in empirical systems. A confluence of theoretical and empirical studies that go beyond classical IFD theory is essential for improving insights into how animal distributions across resource patches are determined in nature. [source]

Supplementation with the carotenoids lutein or zeaxanthin improves human visual performance

Jessica Kvansakul
Abstract Background:, Macular pigment (MP) is found in diurnal primate species when vision spans a range of ambient illumination and is mediated by cone and rod photoreceptors. The exact role of MP remains to be determined. In this study we investigate two new hypotheses for possible MP functions. Objective:, As MP absorption coincides partly with that of rhodopsin, MP may reduce rod signal effectiveness in the mesopic range, thus extend the usefulness of cone-mediated vision into the mesopic range. Forward light scatter in the eye can reduce retinal image contrast. If blue light contributes significantly to intraocular scatter, selective blue light absorption by MP could reduce the effects of scatter. Design:, We investigated 34 subjects from a carotenoid supplementation trial. The measurements included high mesopic contrast acuity thresholds (CATs), macular pigment optical density (MPOD), wavefront aberrations, and scattered light. The measurements were made after 6 months of daily supplementation with zeaxanthin (Z, OPTISHARPÔ), lutein (L), a combination of the two (C), or placebo (P), and again after a further 6 months of doubled supplementation. Results:, The data reveal a trend toward lower CATs in all groups supplemented, with a statistically significant improvement in the lutein group (p = 0.001), although there was no correlation with MPOD. Light scattering in the eye and the root-mean-square wavefront aberrations show decreasing trends as a result of supplementation, but no correlation with MPOD. Conclusions:, The results suggest that supplementation with L or Z increases MPOD at the fovea and at 2.5°, and that supplementation can improve CATs at high mesopic levels and hence visual performance at low illumination. [source]

Five years of Homo floresiensis

Leslie C. Aiello
Abstract Since Homo floresiensis was first described in October 2004 there has been a lively debate over its status. Is it a late surviving species of early Homo or merely a modern individual afflicted with disordered growth and one of the many syndromes resulting in microchephaly? Recently the discovery team has published a series of articles providing detailed descriptions of the hominin material, its geomorphological context, and the associated archaeology and faunal material (Morwood and Jungers: J Hum Evol 57 (2009) 437-648). In addition, other researchers have put forward new hypotheses for possible pathologies including Laron's Syndrome and Myxoedematous Endemic (ME) Cretinism. Here I review this new information and conclude that the evidence supports the hypothesis that Homo floresiensis is a late-surviving species of early Homo with its closest morphological affinities to early African pre- erectus/ergaster hominins. Although this hypothesis requires fundamental paradigm changes in our understanding of human evolution, it provides a more economical explanation for H. floresiensis than do the alternatives. None of the current explanations for microcephaly and disordered growth account for the range of features observed in H. floresiensis. Neither do they provide explanations for why a pathological condition in modern humans would mimic so closely the morphology observed in earlier hominins. This conclusion is based on the current evidence for H. floresiensis and on the particular pathological explanations that have appeared in the literature. There is no doubt that controversy over H. floresiensis will continue until new and conclusive evidence is available to settle the debate one way or another. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Population continuity vs. discontinuity revisited: Dental affinities among late Paleolithic through Christian-era Nubians

Dr. Joel D. Irish
Abstract The present study revisits a subject that has been a source of long-standing bioarchaeological contention, namely, estimation of Nubian population origins and affinities. Using the Arizona State University dental anthropology system, frequencies of 36 crown, root, and intraoral osseous discrete traits in 12 late Pleistocene through early historic Nubian samples were recorded and analyzed. Specifically, intersample phenetic affinities, and an indication of which traits are most important in driving this variation, were determined through the application of correspondence analysis and the mean measure of divergence distance statistic. The results support previous work by the author and others indicating that population discontinuity, in the form of replacement or significant gene flow into an existing gene pool, occurred sometime after the Pleistocene. This analysis now suggests that the break occurred before the Final Neolithic. Samples from the latter through Christian periods exhibit relative homogeneity, which implies overall post-Pleistocene diachronic and regional population continuity. Yet there are several perceptible trends among these latter samples that: 1) are consistent with documented Nubian population history, 2) enable the testing of several existing peopling hypotheses, and 3) allow the formulation of new hypotheses, including a suggestion of two post-Pleistocene subgroups predicated on an age-based sample dichotomy. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The Phylogenetic Significance of Anthropoid Paranasal Sinuses

James B. Rossie
Abstract In this study, the phylogenetic significance of anthropoid paranasal sinus anatomy is explored. New information reported in recent years has precipitated new hypotheses of sinus homology and more than doubled the number of anthropoid genera for which confident assessments of sinus identity can be made. As a result, it is likely that the phylogenetic meaning of commonly cited characters such as the ethmoid and frontal sinuses will change. The traditional method of "character mapping" is employed to test hypotheses of sinus homology and to reconstruct the ancestral states for sinus characters in major anthropoid clades. Results show that most sinuses appear to be primitive retentions in anthropoids, with their absences in various genera representing losses. Accordingly, many of these sinuses are potential anthropoid synapomorphies. Anat Rec, 291:1485,1498, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Recent progress in studies of infantile hemangioma

Masatoshi JINNIN
Abstract A hallmark of infantile hemangioma, the most common tumor of infancy, is its dramatic growth after birth, by diffuse proliferation of immature endothelial cells, followed by spontaneous regression. The growth and involution of infantile hemangioma is quite different from other vascular anomalies, which do not regress and can occur at any time during life. Some hemangioma lesions can be extremely disfiguring and destructive to normal tissue and may even be life-threatening. Unfortunately, existing therapeutic approaches have limited success and significant adverse effects of some treatment modalities limit their use. Better understanding of the pathogenesis of hemangioma will enable the development of better therapeutic strategies. Here, we review recent studies and new hypotheses on the pathogenesis of the tumor. Detailed mechanisms of activated vascular endothelial growth factor signaling in tumor cells, identification of their origin and characterization of multipotent stem cells that can give rise to infantile hemangioma are shedding new light on this intriguing vascular tumor. [source]


ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 3 2005
Since little is known about the cuerda seca technique, our aim has been to complete an initial analysis of 11th-century cuerda seca by studying fragments from the 10th century (Pechina, Almería) and the 12th century (Mértola and Almería), so as to establish the diachronic evolution of this technique. Characteristics specific to cuerda seca ceramic glazes were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantitative chemical analysis with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). The chemical compositions of the different-coloured glazes (green, black, yellow and white) have given us valuable indications about the evolution of the technique. The opacification mode and the firing process were also investigated. With the help of cathodoluminescence (CL) and the study of modern ,cuerda seca' glazed ceramics, new hypotheses regarding the number of firing stages, taking into account glaze and paste transformations and their interactions, are put forward. [source]

The new framework for understanding placental mammal evolution

BIOESSAYS, Issue 8 2009
Robert J. Asher
Abstract An unprecedented level of confidence has recently crystallized around a new hypothesis of how living placental mammals share a pattern of common descent. The major groups are afrotheres (e.g., aardvarks, elephants), xenarthrans (e.g., anteaters, sloths), laurasiatheres (e.g., horses, shrews), and euarchontoglires (e.g., humans, rodents). Compared with previous hypotheses this tree is remarkably stable; however, some uncertainty persists about the location of the placental root, and (for example) the position of bats within laurasiatheres, of sea cows and aardvarks within afrotheres, and of dermopterans within euarchontoglires. A variety of names for sub-clades within the new placental mammal tree have been proposed, not all of which follow conventions regarding priority and stability. More importantly, the new phylogenetic framework enables the formulation of new hypotheses and testing thereof, for example regarding the possible developmental dichotomy that seems to distinguish members of the newly identified southern and northern radiations of living placental mammals. [source]

The Legacy of Early Attachments

Ross A. Thompson
The impact of early close relationships on psychological development is one of the enduring questions of developmental psychology that is addressed by attachment theory and research. This essay evaluates what has been learned, and offers ideas for future research, by examining the origins of continuity and change in the security of attachment early in life, and its prediction of later behavior. The discussion evaluates research on the impact of changing family circumstances and quality of care on changes in attachment security, and offers new hypotheses for future study. Considering the representations (or internal working models) associated with attachment security as developing representations, the discussion proposes that (1) attachment security may be developmentally most influential when the working models with which it is associated have sufficiently matured to influence other emerging features of psychosocial functioning; (2) changes in attachment security are more likely during periods of representational advance; and (3) parent,child discourse and other relational influences shape these developing representations after infancy. Finally, other features of early parent,child relationships that develop concurrently with attachment security, including negotiating conflict and establishing cooperation, also must be considered in understanding the legacy of early attachments. [source]

Change in leptin, body composition and other hormones around menarche , a visual representation

LG Bandini
Abstract Aim: To present a visual representation of changes in body composition, leptin, insulin, estradiol and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in relation to menarche in girls. Methods: Participants were a subset of healthy girls (n = 108) enrolled in a longitudinal study of growth and development conducted at the General Clinical Research Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Participants were seen annually from before menarche until 4 years postmenarche for measures of body composition and serum levels of leptin, insulin, estradiol and FSH. Body composition was determined by bioelectrical impedance. Standardized body composition and hormone levels were smoothed and plotted relative to menarche to visualize patterns of change. Results: At menarche, the mean percentage body fat (%BF) of girls was 24.6% (SD = 4.1%) after menarche %BF was ,27%. Leptin levels averaged 8.4 ng/mL (SD = 4.6) at menarche and were ,12 ng/mL after menarche. Changes in leptin levels closely paralleled changes in %BF. Insulin, estradiol and FSH levels followed expected patterns relative to menarche. Leptin began rising closer to menarche than did insulin or the other sex hormones. Conclusion: We provide a visual presentation of hormonal and body composition changes occurring throughout the pubertal period in girls which may be useful in generating new hypotheses related to the timing of menarche. [source]

Neuronal differentiation and long-term survival of newly generated cells in the olfactory midbrain of the adult spiny lobster, Panulirus argus

Manfred Schmidt
Abstract The fate of continuously generated cells in the soma clusters of the olfactory midbrain of adult spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, was investigated by in vivo pulse-chase experiments with the proliferation marker 5-bromo-2,-deoxyuridine (BrdU) combined with immunostainings for neuropeptides of mature neurons. A BrdU injection after a survival time (ST) of 14 h labeled about 100 nuclei in the lateral soma clusters (LC), comprised of projection neurons, and about 30 nuclei in the medial soma clusters (MC), comprised of local interneurons. The BrdU-positive nuclei were confined to small regions at the inside of these clusters, which also contain nuclei in different phases of mitosis and thus represent proliferative zones. After STs of 2 weeks or 3 months, the number of BrdU-positive nuclei was doubled, indicating a mitosis of all originally labeled cells. Dependent on ST, the BrdU-positive nuclei were translocated from the proliferative zones towards the outside of the clusters, where somata of mature neurons reside. Immunostainings with antibodies to the neuropeptides FMRFamide and substance P, both of which label a large portion of somata in the MC and a pair of giant neurons projecting into the LC, revealed that in both clusters the proliferative zones are surrounded by, but are themselves devoid of, labeling. In the MC, some BrdU-positive somata were double-labeled by the FMRFamide antibody after an ST of 3 months, and by the substance P antibody after STs of 6 and 11/14 months, but not after 3 months. In the LC, BrdU-positive somata after an ST of 3 months partially and after 6 and 11/14 months widely overlapped with the arborizations of the giant neurons, indicating the establishment of synaptic input. The experiments show that cells generated in proliferative zones in the LC and MC of adult spiny lobsters after a final mitosis differentiate into neurons within months, survive for at least 1 year, and are integrated into the circuitry of the olfactory midbrain. A new hypothesis about the mechanism of adult neurogenesis in the central olfactory pathway of decapod crustaceans is developed, linking it to neurogenesis during embryonic and larval development. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Neurobiol 48: 181,203, 2001 [source]

Expanding field of purinergic signaling

Geoffrey Burnstock
Abstract This article attempts to paint a broad picture of the extraordinary explosive recent developments in the purinergic signaling field. After a brief historical review and update of purinoceptor subtypes, the focus is on the physiological roles of purines and pyrimidines. These are considered both in terms of short-term signaling in neurotransmission, secretion, and vasodilatation and in long-term (trophic) signaling in development, regeneration, proliferation, and cell death. Examples of trophic signaling include cartilage development in limb buds, glial cell proliferation, development of skeletal muscle, changes in receptor expression in smooth-muscle phenotypes, maturation of testicular spermatids, and bone remodeling. Plasticity of purinoceptor expression in pathological conditions is described, including the increase in the purinergic component of parasympathetic nervous control of the human bladder in interstitial cystitis and outflow obstruction and in sympathetic cotransmitter control of blood vessels in hypertensive rats, the appearance of P2X7 receptors in the glomeruli of the kidney from diabetic and transgenic hypertensive animal models, and up-regulation of P2X1 and P2Y2 receptor mRNA in hearts of rats with congestive heart failure. The role of P2X3 receptors in nociception is considered, and a new hypothesis about purinergic mechanosensory transduction in the gut is explored. A personal view of some of the areas ripe for future development concludes this article, including a discussion of different strategies that could lead to the development of purinergic therapeutic agents. Drug Dev. Res. 52:1,10, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]