New Hosts (new + hosts)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

New hosts of Turnip mosaic virus in Zimbabwe

S. Chivasa


EVOLUTION, Issue 6 2008
Pascal L. Zaffarano
Agriculture played a significant role in increasing the number of pathogen species and in expanding their geographic range during the last 10,000 years. We tested the hypothesis that a fungal pathogen of cereals and grasses emerged at the time of domestication of cereals in the Fertile Crescent and subsequently speciated after adaptation to its hosts. Rhynchosporium secalis, originally described from rye, causes an important disease on barley called scald, although it also infects other species of Hordeum and Agropyron. Phylogenetic analyses based on four DNA sequence loci identified three host-associated lineages that were confirmed by cross-pathogenicity tests. Bayesian analyses of divergence time suggested that the three lineages emerged between ,1200 to 3600 years before present (B.P.) with a 95% highest posterior density ranging from 100 to 12,000 years B.P. depending on the implemented clock models. The coalescent inference of demographic history revealed a very recent population expansion for all three pathogens. We propose that Rhynchosporium on barley, rye, and Agropyron host species represent three cryptic pathogen species that underwent independent evolution and ecological divergence by host-specialization. We postulate that the recent emergence of these pathogens followed host shifts. The subsequent population expansions followed the expansion of the cultivated host populations and accompanying expansion of the weedy Agropyron spp. found in fields of cultivated cereals. Hence, agriculture played a major role in the emergence of the scald diseases, the adaptation of the pathogens to new hosts and their worldwide dissemination. [source]


EVOLUTION, Issue 6 2007
Pavel B. Klimov
Coevolutionary associations between hosts and symbionts (or parasites) are often reflected in correlated patterns of divergence as a consequence of limitations on dispersal and establishment on new hosts. Here we show that a phylogenetic correlation is observed between chaetodactylid mites and their hosts, the long-tongued bees; however, this association manifests itself in an atypical fashion. Recently derived mites tend to be associated with basal bee lineages, and vice versa, ruling out a process of cospeciation, and the existence of mites on multiple hosts also suggests ample opportunity for host shifts. An extensive survey of museum collections reveals a pattern of infrequent host shifts at a higher taxonomic level, and yet, frequent shifts at a lower level, which suggests that ecological constraints structure the coevolutionary history of the mites and bees. Certain bee traits, particularly aspects of their nesting behavior, provide a highly predictive framework for the observed pattern of host use, with 82.1% of taxa correctly classified. Thus, the museum survey and phylogenetic analyses provide a unique window into the central role ecology plays in this coevolutionary association. This role is apparent from two different perspectives,as (a) a constraining force evident in the historical processes underlying the significant correlation between the mite and bee phylogenies, as well as (b) by the highly nonrandom composition of bee taxa that serve as hosts to chaetodactylid mites. [source]

Erythropoiesis and Molecular Mechanisms for Sexual Determination in Malaria Parasites

IUBMB LIFE, Issue 4 2000
R. E. L. Paul
Abstract Malaria parasites proliferate asexually within the vertebrate host but must undergo sexual reproduction for transmission to mosquitoes and hence infection of new hosts. The developmental pathways controlling gametocytogenesis are not known, but several protein kinases and other putative signal transduction elements possibly involved in this phenomenon have been found in Plasmodium. Recently, another developmental pathway, that of Plasmodium sex determination (male or female), has been shown to be triggered by erythropoiesis in the host. Rapid progress is being made in our understanding of the molecular basis of mammalian erythropoiesis, revealing kinase pathways that are essential to cellular responses triggered by the hormone erythropoietin. Although the molecular mechanisms whereby this hormone modulates the sex ratio of malaria parasites remain to be elucidated, it probably activates, within the parasite, transduction pathways similar to those found in other eukaryotes. Indeed, enzymes belonging to protein kinase families known to be involved in the response of mammalian cells to erythropoietin (such as the mitogen-activated protein kinases) have been identified in P. falciparum gametocytes. Some of these enzymes differ markedly from their mammalian homologs; therefore, identification of the transduction pathways of the parasite that are responsible for its developmental response to erythropoietin opens the way to the development of transmission-blocking drugs based on kinase inhibitors. [source]

Maximized virulence in a sterilizing pathogen: the anther-smut fungus and its co-evolved hosts

Abstract Host sterilization is a common feature of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Because host reproductive failure may free up resources for pathogen reproduction and transmission, theory predicts that selection on sterilizing pathogens will favour maximum virulence (i.e. complete sterilization). We examined patterns of infection in sexually transmitted anther-smut fungi (Microbotryum) on four of their host species in the Caryophyllaceae. Using controlled fungal matings and experimental inoculations, we compared disease expression in inoculations ranging from host-specific pathogens to hybrids and cross-species treatments. Our data support the existence of host-specific sibling species within the genus Microbotryum based on a low infection rate from cross-inoculations and reduced fitness for hybrid pathogens. These patterns of host specificity and reproductive isolation, however, were not absolute. We did observe some successful cross-species and hybrid infections, but the expression of disease was frequently incomplete, including only partial host sterilization and the failed dehiscence of pathogen spores. The prevalence of these maladapted disease phenotypes may greatly inhibit the emergence of novel host pathogen combinations. Infections by hybrid pathogen genotypes were intermediate, in terms of both infection rate and the normality of disease symptoms, between host-specific and cross-inoculated pathogens. In addition, the frequency with which hybrid and cross-inoculated anther-smut pathogens were able to infect but not sterilize new hosts supports the prediction that sterilizing STDs are under selection to maximize virulence in natural populations. [source]

Dispersal ecology versus host specialization as determinants of ectoparasite distribution in brood parasitic indigobirds and their estrildid finch hosts

Abstract Brood parasitic birds offer a unique opportunity to examine the ecological and evolutionary determinants of host associations in avian feather lice (Phthiraptera). Brood parasitic behaviour effectively eliminates vertical transfer of lice between parasitic parents and offspring at the nest, while at the same time providing an opportunity for lice associated with the hosts of brood parasites to colonize the brood parasites as well. Thus, the biology of brood parasitism allows a test of the relative roles of host specialization and dispersal ecology in determining the host,parasite associations of birds and lice. If the opportunity for dispersal is the primary determinant of louse distributions, then brood parasites and their hosts should have similar louse faunas. In contrast, if host-specific adaptations limit colonization ability, lice associated with the hosts of brood parasites may be unable to persist on the brood parasites despite having an opportunity for colonization. We surveyed lice on four brood parasitic finch species (genus Vidua), their estrildid finch host species, and a few ploceid finches. While Brueelia lice were found on both parasitic and estrildid finches, a molecular phylogeny showed that lice infesting the two avian groups belong to two distinct clades within Brueelia. Likewise, distinct louse lineages within the amblyceran genus Myrsidea were found on estrildid finches and the parasitic pin-tailed whydah (Vidua macroura), respectively. Although common on estrildid finches, Myrsidea lice were entirely absent from the brood parasitic indigobirds. The distribution and relationships of louse species on brood parasitic finches and their hosts suggest that host-specific adaptations constrain the ability of lice to colonize new hosts, at least those that are distantly related. [source]

Genetic continuity of brood-parasitic indigobird species

Abstract Speciation in brood-parasitic indigobirds (genus Vidua) is a consequence of behavioural imprinting in both males and females. Mimicry of host song by males and host fidelity in female egg laying result in reproductive isolation of indigobirds associated with a given host species. Colonization of new hosts and subsequent speciation require that females occasionally lay eggs in the nests of novel hosts but the same behaviour may lead to hybridization when females parasitize hosts already associated with other indigobird species. Thus, retained ancestral polymorphism and ongoing hybridization are two alternative explanations for the limited genetic differentiation among indigobird species. We tested for genetic continuity of indigobird species using mitochondrial sequences and nuclear microsatellite data. Within West Africa and southern Africa, allopatric populations of the same species are generally more similar to each other than to sympatric populations of different species. Likewise, a larger proportion of genetic variation is explained by differences between species than by differences between locations in alternative hierarchical amovas, suggesting that the rate of hybridization is not high enough to homogenize sympatric populations of different species or prevent genetic differentiation between species. Broad sharing of genetic polymorphisms among species, however, suggests that some indigobird species trace to multiple host colonization events in space and time, each contributing to the formation of a single interbreeding population bound together by songs acquired from the host species. [source]

Interspecific hybridization in plant-associated fungi and oomycetes: a review

C. L. Schardl
Abstract Fungi (kingdom Mycota) and oomycetes (kingdom Stramenopila, phylum Oomycota) are crucially important in the nutrient cycles of the world. Their interactions with plants sometimes benefit and sometimes act to the detriment of humans. Many fungi establish ecologically vital mutualisms, such as in mycorrhizal fungi that enhance nutrient acquisition, and endophytes that combat insects and other herbivores. Other fungi and many oomycetes are plant pathogens that devastate natural and agricultural populations of plant species. Studies of fungal and oomycete evolution were extraordinarily difficult until the advent of molecular phylogenetics. Over the past decade, researchers applying these new tools to fungi and oomycetes have made astounding new discoveries, among which is the potential for interspecific hybridization. Consequences of hybridization among pathogens include adaptation to new niches such as new host species, and increased or decreased virulence. Hybrid mutualists may also be better adapted to new hosts and can provide greater or more diverse benefits to host plants. [source]