New Hope (new + hope)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

New Hope and Help for Forgotten Youth

APRN/PMH, Rita Gill MS
TOPIC: Juvenile sex offender treatment programs have been at the forefront of discussion among some policy-makers and certainly those who provide treatment for these youth. While the research in this area supports the use of community-based treatment strategies, clinicians with strong training background are rare. PURPOSE: There is a need for a certificate training program to develop clinicians who are specifically trained to treat juvenile sex offenders. Through a unique academic/community initiative providing a multimodal approach to treatment, a collaborative 2-day national conference related to treatment of juvenile sex offenders was established. The program core was a 9-month clinical treatment certificate training program. This article describes the community program, and outlines in detail its purpose, goals, trainee requirements, conceptual areas for competency development, and the content areas. CONCLUSIONS: The Mental Health Policy Institute for Leadership and Training of Baltimore and the School of Nursing of the University Maryland jointly recognized a need to address the quality and efficacy of community-based treatment and expand the number of trained clinicians to work with sex offending youth. As a result of positive program evaluations, this community program will be provided annually. [source]

Five-year effects of an anti-poverty program on marriage among never-married mothers

Anna Gassman-Pines
Using data from an experimental evaluation of the New Hope project, an anti-poverty program that increased employment and income, this study examined the effects of New Hope on entry into marriage among never-married mothers. Among never-married mothers, New Hope significantly increased rates of marriage. Five years after random assignment, 21 percent of women assigned to the New Hope condition were married, compared to 12 percent of those assigned to the control group. The New Hope impact on marriage was robust to variations in model specification. The program also increased income, wage growth, and goal efficacy among never-married mothers, and decreased depression. In non-experimental analyses, income and earnings were associated with higher probability of marriage and material hardship was associated with lower probability of marriage. 2006 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management [source]

Fibromyalgia: New Hope for a Medical Dilemma

PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 8 2007
Rollin M Gallagher MD
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

New knowledge and new hope to people with emerging mental disorders

Benedetto Saraceno

Ochratoxin A removal in synthetic and natural grape juices by selected oenological Saccharomyces strains

H. Bejaoui
Abstract Aims:, To assess, for the first time the efficiency in removing ochratoxin A (OTA) from laboratory medium [yeast peptone glucose (YPG)], synthetic grape juice medium (SGM) and natural grape juice by viable and dead (heat and acid-treated) oenological Saccharomyces strains (five S. cerevisiae and one S. bayanus) compared with a commercial yeast walls additive. Methods and Results:, Levels of OTA during its interaction with six oenological Saccharomyces strains (five S. cerevisiae and one S. bayanus) or with a commercial yeast walls additive in YPG medium, in SGM or in natural grape juices was assessed by HPLC after appropriate extraction methods. A significant decrease of OTA levels in YPG medium and SGM was observed for many of the growing strains reaching a maximum of 45%, but no degradation products were detected. With both heat and acid pretreated yeasts, OTA removal was enhanced, indicating that adsorption, not catabolism, is the mechanism to reduce OTA concentrations. Adsorption was also improved when the yeast concentration was increased and when the pH of the medium was lower. Approximately 90% of OTA was bound rapidly within 5 min and up to 72 h of incubation with heat-treated cells of either S. cerevisiae or S. bayanus. A comparative study between heat-treated cells (HC) and commercial yeast walls (YW) (used as oenological additive), introduced at two different concentrations (02 and 67 g l,1) in an OTA-contaminated grape juice, showed the highest efficiency by HC to adsorb rapidly within 5 min the total amount of the mycotoxin. Conclusions:, Oenological S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus were able to remove ochatoxin A from synthetic and natural grape juices. This removal was rapid and improved by dead yeasts having more efficiency than commercial yeast walls. Significance and Impact of the Study:, The efficiency of heat-treated yeasts to remove OTA gives a new hope for grape juice and must decontamination avoiding negative impacts on human health. [source]

Monopsonistic exploitation in contract farming: articulating a strategy for grower cooperation

Sashi Sivramkrishna
Abstract Contract farming has been considered a new hope to instil dynamism in third world agriculture. However, there remains serious concern whether small peasants will be able to benefit from this system since buyers may often be a single large or at most, few large corporations, a typical case of monopsony. In this paper we question the basis of the fears that are often raised in the literature. A clear analytical approach to understanding the (economic) meaning of monopsony helps us articulate a strategy for grower cooperation that could effectively deal with monopsony power in contract farming systems. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

There's new hope for chronic renal insufficiency sufferers.

Article first published online: 28 JUN 200
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Spinal Cord Stimulation as a Novel Approach to the Treatment of Refractory Neuropathic Mediastinal Pain

PAIN PRACTICE, Issue 4 2009
Oren T. Guttman MD
Abstract Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) offers new hope for patients with neuropathic pain. SCS "neuromodulates" the transmission and response to "painful" stimuli. The efficacy of SCS has been established in the treatment of a variety of neuropathic pain conditions and more recently in refractory angina pectoris, peripheral vascular disease, and failed back surgery syndrome. Recent publications suggest that visceral pain could be successfully treated with SCS. We report the first successful use of a spinal cord stimulator in the treatment of refractory neuropathic mediastinal, esophageal, and anterior neck pain following esophagogastrectomy. [source]

The newly synthesized linoleic acid derivative DCP-LA ameliorates memory deficits in animal models treated with amyloid-, peptide and scopolamine

Abstract Background:, In our earlier study, 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA), a newly synthesized linoleic acid derivative with cyclopropane rings instead of cis -double bonds, facilitated hippocampal synaptic transmission by stimulating glutamate release from presynaptic terminals as mediated via ,7 acetylcholine (Ach) receptors under the influence of protein kinase C. The present study assessed the possibility of using DCP-LA as a cognitive enhancer in animal models. Methods:, Amyloid-,1,40 peptide (300 pM/day) or saline was continuously injected in the right lateral ventricle of rats for 2 weeks. Then, the water maze test was carried out, once per day for 7 days, 1 h after the intraperitoneal injection with DCP-LA or saline. In a different set of experiments, rats were intraperitoneally injected with scopolamine (1 mg/kg) and the water maze test was performed twice per day, with the first test taking place 1 h after the intraperitoneal injection with DCP-LA, galantamine or saline, and the second test starting 2 min after the end of the first. Results:, Continuous intraventricular injection with amyloid-,1,40 peptide in the rat lateral ventricle prolonged the latency for acquisition in the water maze test. DCP-LA (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.)) significantly improved the impairment, which reached a level similar to the latency for sham. Furthermore, DCP-LA (1 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly ameliorated learning and memory deficits in rats treated with scopolamine and was, if not more, effective than galantamine, a modest inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase with nicotinic ACh receptor modulation. Conclusion:, The results of the present study show that DCP-LA ameliorates learning and memory deficits induced by amyloid-,1,40 peptide or scopolamine. DCP-LA may thus offer new hope for dementia patients. [source]

Local governance and water resource management: experiences from Northern Namibia

Farhad Hossain
Abstract Like many semi-arid countries in Africa, Namibia has been experiencing water shortage for a long period of time. Prior to its independence in 1990, most of Namibia's water points,namely, the boreholes,served white-Namibians (about 7% of the national population of predominantly German descent) and their commercial farming areas. But their water needs have been satisfied at the expense of those indigenous Namibians and their communal areas (where some 80% of the national population originates). Independence, however, brought with it a new hope for the indigenous population: since 1990, the government has been working diligently to reform the country's local governance, and make local government agencies more effective, efficient and responsive to common people and their needs. This article sheds light on how, within the background of the government's decentralisation efforts, the management and distribution of water resources have changed in an independent Namibia, reporting findings from research conducted in a newly emerged village council in the north of the country. Drawing on historical and contemporary practices, we describe and analyse the role of decentralised local government in water resource management in northern Namibia, where today, more than 50% of the national population (i.e. the indigenous Oshiwambo-speaking people) resides. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Multiple doses of secretin in the treatment of autism: a controlled study

E Sponheim
Dramatic effects on autistic behaviour after repeated injections of the gastrointestinal hormone secretin have been referred in a number of case reports. In the absence of curative and effective treatments for this disabling condition, this information has created new hope among parents. Although controlled studies on the effect of mainly one single dose have not documented any effect, many children still continue to receive secretin. Six children enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study in which each child was its own control. Human synthetic secretin, mean dose 3.4 clinical units, and placebo were administered intravenously in randomized order every 4th wk, on three occasions each. The measurement instruments were the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the aberrant behaviour checklist (ABC). Statistically significant differences were found for placebo in 3 out of 6 children and for secretin in one child, using parental ratings only (VAS scores). Differences were small and lacked clinical significance, which was in accordance with the overall impression of the parents and teachers and visual inspection of graphs. Conclusion: In this placebo-controlled study, multiple doses of secretin did not produce any symptomatic improvement. [source]

Patients' experiences of hope and suffering during the first year following acute spinal cord injury

Vibeke Lohne MNSc
Aims and objectives., The aim of this study was to explore patients' experiences of hope during the first year suffering from spinal cord injury. Background., There is a lack of substantial precision with regard to the concept of hope. Very few qualitative studies focusing on experiences of hope in spinal cord-injured patients have been identified in the literature. In this study, ,hope' was defined as future oriented towards improvement. Design and methods., Data were collected by means of personal interviews (n = 10) at the participants' homes in Norway. A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach, inspired by Ricoeur, was used to extract the meaning of the patients' experiences. The analysis was performed in several steps, as a hermeneutic process. Results., In this study, the findings revealed two main themes: ,The Vicious Circle' and ,Longing'. The vicious circle constituted aspects of suffering, and the common hope experienced by the subjects was therefore to leave the vicious circle. Experiences of suffering were experienced as feelings of loneliness, impatience, disappointment, bitterness and dependency. The ,Longing' was based on the subject's former life and was the source of awaked new hopes, which again was experienced comforting. Conclusions., Experiences of suffering created hope and longing. The meaning of hope was to find a possible way out of the circle and the hoping was experienced as a comfort. Relevance to clinical practice., Implications to nursing practice are listening to the suffering and longing individual and comforting the suffering by pointing towards possible future roads of hope. [source]

Production of ,-globin and adult hemoglobin following G418 treatment of erythroid precursor cells from homozygous ,039 thalassemia patients,

Francesca Salvatori
In several types of thalassemia (including ,039-thalassemia), stop codon mutations lead to premature translation termination and to mRNA destabilization through nonsense-mediated decay. Drugs (for instance aminoglycosides) can be designed to suppress premature termination, inducing a ribosomal readthrough. These findings have introduced new hopes for the development of a pharmacologic approach to the cure of this disease. However, the effects of aminoglycosides on globin mRNA carrying ,-thalassemia stop mutations have not yet been investigated. In this study, we have used a lentiviral construct containing the ,039-thalassemia globin gene under control of the ,-globin promoter and a LCR cassette. We demonstrated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis the production of ,-globin by K562 cell clones expressing the ,039-thalassemia globin gene and treated with G418. More importantly, after FACS and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses, erythroid precursor cells from ,039-thalassemia patients were demonstrated to be able to produce ,-globin and adult hemoglobin after treatment with G418. This study strongly suggests that ribosomal readthrough should be considered a strategy for developing experimental strategies for the treatment of ,0 -thalassemia caused by stop codon mutations. Am. J. Hematol., 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A nitric oxide (NO)-releasing derivative of gabapentin, NCX 8001, alleviates neuropathic pain-like behavior after spinal cord and peripheral nerve injury

Wei-Ping Wu
Nitric oxide (NO) participates, at least in part, to the establishment and maintenance of pain after nerve injury. Therefore, drugs that target the NO/cGMP signaling pathway are of interest for the treatment of human neuropathic pain. Various compounds endowed with NO-releasing properties modulate the expression and function of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the key enzyme responsible for sustained NO production under pathological conditions including neuropathic pain. With this background, we synthesized a new chemical entity, [1-(aminomethyl)cyclohexane acetic acid 3-(nitroxymethyl)phenyl ester] NCX8001, which has a NO-releasing moiety bound to gabapentin, a drug currently used for the clinical management of neuropathic pain. We examined the pharmacological profile of this drug with respect to its NO-releasing properties in vitro as well as to its efficacy in treating neuropathic pain conditions (allodynia) consequent to experimental sciatic nerve or spinal cord injuries. NCX8001 (1,30 ,M) released physiologically relevant concentrations of NO as it induced a concentration-dependent activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (EC50=5.6 ,M) and produced consistent vasorelaxant effects in noradrenaline-precontracted rabbit aortic rings (IC50=1.4 ,M). NCX8001, but not gabapentin, counteracted in a concentration-dependent fashion lipopolysaccharide-induced overexpression and function of iNOS in RAW264.7 macrophages cell line. Furthermore, NCX8001 also inhibited the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF,) from stimulated RAW264.7 cells. NCX8001 (28,280 ,mol kg,1, i.p.) reduced the allodynic responses of spinal cord injured rats in a dose-dependent fashion while lacking sedative or motor effects. In contrast, gabapentin (170,580 ,mol kg,1, i.p.) resulted less effective and elicited marked side effects. NCX8001 alleviated the allodynia-like responses of rats to innocuous mechanical or cold stimulation following lesion of the sciatic nerve. This effect was not shared by equimolar doses of gabapentin. Potentially due to the slow releasing kinetics of NO, NCX8001 alleviated pain-like behaviors in two rat models of neuropathic pain in a fashion that is superior to its parent counterpart gabapentin. This new gabapentin derivative, whose mechanism deserves to be explored further, offers new hopes to the treatment of human neuropathic pain. British Journal of Pharmacology (2004) 141, 65,74. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0705596 [source]