New Guidelines (new + guideline)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

New Guidelines to Improve Cytological Reporting and Treatment of Cervical Lesions

Article first published online: 31 DEC 200
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

New guideline for tramadol usage following adverse drug reactions reported to the Iranian pharmacovigilance center,

K. Gholami Pharm D
Abstract Background Tramadol was introduced as injection and oral form to Iranian Pharmaceutical Market in 2002. Shortly after, the injection form of the drug was observed at the top of suspected drug list of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) received monthly by Iranian Pharmacovigilance Center (IPC). Objectives To detect, assess and report total number of Tramadol-induced ADRs received by IPC. To assess the frequency of reported Tramadol-induced ADRs before and after interventions. To design a guideline for prevention of probable ADRs due to Tramadol injection. Methods A descriptive study was conducted on spontaneous reporting received by IPC from April 2002 to February 2005. All ADRs suspected to be induced by Tramadol registered in the database during mentioned period were analysed. To assess the effect of different interventions based on Spontaneous Reporting System, the trend of reporting frequency of Tramadol-induced ADRs was evaluated before and after interventions. Results There were 337 cases of Tramadol-induced ADRs describing 939 reactions, reported to IPC during the study period. Although causal relationship had not been established, three cases of deaths appeared among the reports. The severity of reactions led to implementation of limitations on injectable Tramadol distribution to community pharmacies and the restriction of its use to hospitals only. Since most adverse reactions were dose-dependent, the drug potency of injectable Tramadol available in the country changed from 100,mg to 50,mg. The assessment of ADR reports received by IPC showed that the frequency of adverse reactions registered in the centre was reduced considerably following these interventions. Conclusion Designing a detailed programme by Pharmacovigilance Centres and closely monitoring of newly marketed pharmaceutical products is highly recommended. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Determinants of influenza vaccination timing

Byung Kwang Yoo
Abstract New guidelines recommend different influenza vaccination timing for different subpopulations due to the limited availability of flu shots (FS). This study's objectives are to develop a theoretical model to demonstrate why some individuals choose to receive an early FS while others choose a late FS and to empirically explore the determinants of vaccination timing. Empirical results generally supported the theoretical results. Individuals vary their FS timing in response to variations in perceived risks, chronic condition levels reflecting their risk of influenza infection, and opportunity costs, measured by the presence of medical care other than an FS. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

New guidelines for cardiac risk assessment prior to non-cardiac surgery

FA Pickett
To cite this article: Int J Dent Hygiene DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-5037.2009.00427.x Pickett FA. New guidelines for cardiac risk assessment prior to non-cardiac surgery. Abstract:, The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) has established guidelines to determine the risk for non-cardiac procedures, such as oral procedures, when individuals have experienced severe cardiac disease, including myocardial infarction. This is the first time the ESC has developed consensus guidelines to assist practitioners in managing care for cardiac patients receiving medical or dental procedures. Factors for risk assessment are described and management for oral care is discussed. [source]

New guidelines , a golden opportunity

No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST): New guidelines

Yoshiaki Tsuchida MD
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

NOGG guideline on the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis

PRESCRIBER, Issue 22 2008
MRPharmS, Steve Chaplin MSc
Steve Chaplin describes the new guideline on the management of osteoporosis in men and postmenopausal women from the National Osteoporosis Guideline Group. Copyright © 2008 Wiley Interface Ltd [source]

Latest news and product developments

PRESCRIBER, Issue 21 2008
Article first published online: 2 DEC 200
Osteoporosis guideline A new guideline on the management of osteoporosis in men over 50 and post-menopausal women has been published by the National Osteoporosis Guideline Group (, a group of organisations representing health professionals and patients, with funding from several pharmaceutical companies. The guideline recommends using the FRAX tool ( to assess the 10-year fracture risk in individuals with risk factors to facilitate targeting DXA scans to measure bone mineral density. Patients who have already sustained a fragility fracture should be treated without risk assessment. Treatment recommendations are similar to those published in draft NICE guidance on primary and secondary prevention, selecting alendronate as the drug of first choice for most patients. Efalizumab efficacy A multicentred postapproval trial has demonstrated long-term efficacy and a favourable safety profile for efalizumab (Raptiva) in moderate to severe chronic plaque psoriasis. The CONTROL II study, presented in September at the 17th EADV congress in Paris, was conducted at 170 sites in 18 European countries and involved 1255 patients who had failed to respond to traditional systemic therapies. In this non-blinded study, 68 per cent of participants achieved the primary efficacy end-point and showed improvement within the first 12 weeks; control was maintained in responding patients who continued treatment. Adverse effects were graded as mild or moderate and similar to those reported in earlier studies. There was no evidence of an increase in malignancies or infections. New oral anticoagulant Rivaroxaban (Xarelto), an oral factor Xa inhibitor, has been introduced for the prevention of venous thrombo-embolism in patients undergoing elective hip or knee replacement surgery. Compared with the low molecular weight heparin enoxaparin (Clexane), rivaroxaban has been shown to reduce the risk of venous thrombosis by 70 per cent after hip replacement and by 49 per cent after knee replacement; the risk of bleeding was similar. At the recommended dose of 10mg once daily, prophylaxis after hip surgery lasts five weeks and costs £157; prophylaxis after knee surgery lasts two weeks and costs £63. New products UCB Pharma has introduced lacosamide (Vimpat) as adjunctive treatment of partial-onset epilepsy with or without secondary generalisation in patients aged 16 and over. A month's treatment at the recommended maintenance dose of 100-200mg twice daily costs approximately £73-£140. A new non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRI) is available for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in combination with a boosted protease inhibitor (PI) and other antiretrovirals in treatment-experienced adults. Etravirine (Intelence) costs approximately £320 for one month's treatment at the recommended dose of 200mg twice daily. Voltarol Pain-Eze (diclofenac) 12.5mg tablets are now available without prescription; a pack of 18 tablets costs £5.99. Atypicals and EPS risk Atypical antipsychotics are not associated with a significantly lower risk of extra-pyramidal symptoms than first-generation agents such as perphenazine (Fentazin), a new analysis of the CATIE study has shown (Br J Psychiatry 2008;193:279,88). CATIE was a large trial comparing the efficacy and safety of antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia in which perphenazine was a representative first-generation agent (Am J Psychiatry 2006;163:611,22). This analysis found no differences in the risk of parkinsonism, dystonia, akathisia or tardive dyskinesia between perphenazine and the newer antipsychotics; use of antiparkinsonian medication was higher with risperidone and lower with quetiapine (Seroquel). Mental health website A new website offering information about mental illnesses and drug treatment has been launched by the United Kingdom Psychiatric Pharmacy Group (UKPPG), the College of Mental Health Pharmacists (CMHP), the Pharmaceutical Schizo-phrenia Initiative (PSI) and the National Institute for Mental Health in England (NIMHE). includes information about 17 mental illnesses and a large number of drug treatments. It offers links to other sites offering information and downloadable leaflets, help to identify the local mental health trust and downloadable charts comparing treatments for each indication. [source]

Knowledge of oral health professionals of treatment of avulsed teeth

Nestor Cohenca
Abstract,,, The management and immediate treatment of an avulsed permanent tooth will determine the long-term survival of the tooth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of oral health professionals on the new guidelines for emergency treatment of avulsed teeth. A 12-item questionnaire was distributed among general dentists, specialists, dental hygienists and dental assistants attending Continuing Education courses at the School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, between 2003 and 2004. This study reports only on the general practitioners who comprised 83% of the participants. The results revealed an uneven pattern of knowledge among them regarding the emergency management of an avulsed tooth. Statistically significant associations were related to the participants' previous dental trauma education and their age. In conclusion, there is a need to improve the knowledge of general dentists in the current guidelines for emergency treatment of avulsed teeth. [source]

I PREVENT Bacterial Resistance.

An Update on the Use of Antibiotics in Dermatologic Surgery
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Prophylaxis may be given to prevent a surgical wound infection, infective endocarditis (IE), or infection of a prosthetic joint, but its use before cutaneous surgery is controversial. Our aim was to review the current literature and provide a mnemonic to assist providers in appropriately prescribing prophylactic antibiotics. METHODS AND MATERIALS We reviewed the current literature, including the new guidelines provided by the American Heart Association (AHA). RESULTS The new AHA guidelines recommend prophylaxis for patients with high risk of an adverse outcome from IE instead of high risk of developing IE. The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons and the American Dental Association also provide guidelines. Given the paucity of conclusive studies, prophylaxis against a surgical wound infection is based more on clinical judgment. CONCLUSION The mnemonic we propose, "I PREVENT," represents: Immunosuppressed patients; patients with a Prosthetic valve; some patients with a joint Replacement; a history of infective Endocarditis; a Valvulopathy in cardiac transplant recipients; Endocrine disorders such as uncontrolled diabetes mellitus; Neonatal disorders including unrepaired cyanotic heart disorders (CHDs), repaired CHD with prosthetic material, or repaired CHD with residual defects; and the Tetrad of antibiotics: amoxicillin, cephalexin, clindamycin, and ciprofloxacin. [source]

Paediatric emergency guidelines: Could one size fit all?

Sarah Dalton
Abstract Objectives: The development of clinical practice guidelines (CPG) is a core task in EDs and CPGs are widely used. The process of CPGs development in Australian and New Zealand ED is unknown. We aim to describe this process in paediatric EDs and examine the feasibility of developing collaborative guidelines. Methods: A piloted questionnaire regarding CPG development, dissemination, implementation and evaluation was circulated to all 13 Paediatric Research in Emergency Departments International Collaborative (PREDICT) sites. Specific questions regarding feasibility of combined guidelines were included. Results: All PREDICT EDs participated in the survey. All used CPGs in EDs and 12/13 had ED-specific guidelines. EDs had an average of 77 guidelines with approximately 5 new guidelines generated annually. Staff at most sites (10/13) also accessed guidelines from external sources. Most hospitals (10/13) had a guideline committee, generally comprising of senior ED and general paediatric staff. Guidelines were usually written by committee members and 10/13 hospitals adopted modified external guidelines. An average committee met six times a year for 90 min and involved seven clinicians. Most sites did not have a project manager or dedicated secretarial support. Few hospitals included literature references (3/13) or levels of evidence (1/13) in their guidelines. Most did not consider implementation, evaluation or teaching packages. Most sites (10/13) supported the development of collaborative guidelines. Conclusions: Paediatric EDs expend significant resources to develop CPGs. Collaborative guidelines would likely decrease duplication of effort and increase the number of available, current and evidence-based CPGs. [source]

ARRIVE: new guidelines for reporting animal research

Gordon B. Drummond
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Guidelines for the Management of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Japan: 2009 Revised Edition

HELICOBACTER, Issue 1 2010
Masahiro Asaka
Abstract Background:, Over the past few years, the profile of Helicobacter pylori infection has changed in Japan. In particular, the relationship between H. pylori and gastric cancer has been demonstrated more clearly. Accordingly, the committee of the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research has revised the guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori infection in Japan. Materials and Methods:, Four meetings of guidelines preparation committee were held from July 2007 to December 2008. In the new guidelines, recommendations for treatment have been classified into five grades according to the Minds Recommendation Grades, while the level of evidence has been classified into six grades. The Japanese national health insurance system was not taken into consideration when preparing these guidelines. Results:,Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy achieved a Grade A recommendation, being useful for the treatment of gastric or duodenal ulcer, for the treatment and prevention of H. pylori -associated diseases such as gastric cancer, and for inhibiting the spread of H. pylori infection. Levels of evidence were determined for each disease associated with H. pylori infection. For the diagnosis of H. pylori infection, measurement of H. pylori antigen in the feces was added to the tests not requiring biopsy. One week of proton-pump inhibitor-based triple therapy (including amoxicillin and metronidazole) was recommended as second-line therapy after failure of first-line eradication therapy. Conclusion:, The revised Japanese guidelines for H. pylori are based on scientific evidence and avoid the administrative restraints that applied to earlier versions. [source]

Symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis: paracetamol or NSAIDs?

SUMMARY The clinical management of osteoarthritis (OA) is today symptomatic, its main goals being relief of pain and improvement of function. Therapy should be multimodal and composed of non-pharmacological, pharmacological and, if necessary, surgical procedures. Paracetamol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are evidence-based drugs for the symptomatic relief of OA. Newly published comparative studies have shown that NSAIDs are more effective than paracetamol , in contrast to studies from the early 1990s. Some studies have documented that more severe pain and the presence of inflammation can predict better response from NSAIDs than from paracetamol; on the other hand other studies have not confirmed this. Patient preference studies have shown that patients favour NSAIDs, but up to 40% consider paracetamol at least as effective as NSAIDs. With regard to efficacy, safety and cost, the majority of new guidelines recommend paracetamol as a first-choice analgesic for patients with OA of the knee or hip, and the use of NSAIDs only in cases of inadequate effect of paracetamol and especially in the presence of inflammation. There is much evidence that OA is a phasic disease and it may be that NSAIDs are useful during identifiable periods of inflammatory activity and can be avoided at other times. The concept of the short-term use of NSAIDs during flares and the use of a simple analgesic in the long term seems to be the best variant for the majority of patients with optimal benefit/risk and cost-effectiveness. [source]

High-yielding capacity building in irrigation system management: targeting managers and operators,,

Thierry Facon
développement des capacités; gestion du système; Asie Abstract Irrigation management is facing complex challenges evolving with the transformation of agriculture, competition over resources, environmental concerns, without forgetting the critical objective of food production. Managers are ill prepared to meet these challenges and the FAO called for and initiated a massive retraining programme of engineers and managers on irrigation system modernization to address these issues, starting in Asia. Results from this first generation of interventions confirmed the lack of success of many investments and institutional reforms, gaps in capacity and training and the potential for achieving significant improvements at minimal cost by focusing on system operation. The FAO prepared new guidelines for improving system operation and management (MASSCOTE) based on service-oriented management concepts, tested them through training workshops in Nepal, India and China and is disseminating them through a second-generation training programme building on first- generation knowledge synthesis. This paper presents the FAO's strategic approach to capacity building on service-oriented management. It builds on the major lessons drawn from past programmes and is based on three interrelated thrusts: at the system, state and regional/global levels. Concepts, methodologies, lessons learned on upscaling to policy and long-term investment planning, limitations and conditions for success and future programme development are discussed. Copyright © 2008 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. La gestion de l'irrigation est confrontée à des défis complexes en évolution avec la transformation de l'agriculture, la concurrence sur les ressources, les préoccupations environnementales, sans oublier l'objectif critique de la production alimentaire. Les gestionnaires sont mal préparés pour répondre à ces défis et la FAO a lancé un vaste programme de nouvelle formation des ingénieurs et cadres sur la modernisation des systèmes d'irrigation pour traiter ces questions, en commençant par l'Asie. Les résultats de cette première génération d'interventions ont confirmé le manque de succès de beaucoup d'investissements et de réformes institutionnelles, les lacunes dans les capacités et la formation et les possibilités de parvenir à des améliorations significatives à peu de frais en se concentrant sur le fonctionnement du système. La FAO a élaboré de nouveaux guides pour améliorer l'exploitation et la gestion des systèmes (MASSCOTE) basés sur les concepts de service, les a testés par des ateliers de formation au Népal, en Inde et en Chine et les a diffusés par une deuxième génération de programmes de formation s'appuyant sur la synthèse des connaissances de première génération. Cet article présente l'approche stratégique de la FAO pour le renforcement des capacités de gestion orientée sur le service. Il s'appuie sur les principaux enseignements tirés des précédents programmes et repose sur trois axes étroitement liés: au niveau du système, de l'état et régional/mondial. Les concepts, les méthodes, les leçons apprises sur les politiques et la planification des investissements à long terme, les limites et les conditions du succès, et le développement des programmes futurs sont discutés. Copyright © 2008 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Pre-operative fasting: a nationwide survey of German anaesthesia departments

Background: Shorter pre-operative fasting improves clinical outcome without an increased risk. Since October 2004, German Anaesthesiology Societies have officially recommended a fast of 2 h for clear fluids and 6 h for solid food before elective surgery. We conducted a nationwide survey to evaluate the current clinical practice in Germany. Methods: Between July 2006 and January 2007, standardized questionnaires were mailed to 3751 Anaesthesiology Society members in leading positions requesting anonymous response. Results: The overall response rate was 66% (n=2418). Of those, 2148 (92%) claimed familiarity with the new guidelines. About a third (n=806, 34%) reported full adherence to the new recommendations, whereas 1043 (45%) reported an eased fasting practice. Traditional Nil per os after midnight was still recommended by 157 (7%). Commonest reasons reported for adopting the new guidelines were: ,improved pre-operative comfort' (84%), and ,increased patient satisfaction' (83%); reasons against were: ,low flexibility in operation room management' (19%), and ,increased risk of aspiration' (13%). Conclusion: Despite the apparent understanding of the benefits from reduced pre-operative fasting, full implementation of the guidelines remains poor in German anaesthesiology departments. [source]

O knowledge, where art thou?

Evidence, suspected appendicitis
Abstract Background, Much effort goes into developing and publishing guidelines which physicians fail to implement. We feel that major discrepancies still exist between theory and reality and that the translational approach to this aspect of medical care has not yet established itself. We therefore decided to investigate in an exemplary audit how liberally inappropriate imaging is used in our emergency department (ED) to rule out acute appendicitis. Material and methods, Our electronic medical record ED database ,Qualicare' ( was searched using the ,appendicitis' sub data base. The frequency and accuracy of abdominal imaging was determined in patients with clinically suspected appendicitis on admission over a 5-year period at a university hospital emergency unit. Results, In total, 272 (41.2%) of the 577 patients were male and 305 (46.3%) were female. The attending physicians ordered abdominal X-rays in 133 patients, abdominal ultrasounds in 319, and abdominal computerized tomography (CT) scans in 93 patients. 125 patients underwent more than one imaging procedure. In all, 85/125 patients received a combination of X-rays, ultrasound and CT scanning! Discussion, Physicians are often insecure about indications for surgery and therefore order useless imaging procedures. The reliability of such procedures in excluding acute appendicitis is limited, which was confirmed by our results. Although evidence-based medicine guidelines exist, they are neglected for many reasons. Future academic efforts should therefore focus more on knowledge translation and the implementation of existing knowledge by heightening awareness, rather than on simply creating new guidelines. [source]

Treatment Strategies in Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: An Evidence-Based Review of Clinical Trial Results and Treatment Guidelines: Report on a Roundtable Discussion

With the availability of new data and the recent release of new European and US guidelines, contemporary care paradigms for the treatment of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS), including those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, are likely to undergo substantial changes. In recognition of this shifting landscape as well as the impact of new guidelines on care models for the treatment of patients with NSTE ACS, a roundtable was convened on October 25, 2007, to discuss the implications of these changes. The purpose of this review is to summarize the presentations and subsequent discussions from the roundtable, which examined the guidelines and evidence from a variety of perspectives, and to explore the best ways to incorporate new treatment paradigms into everyday clinical care. The multiple viewpoints expressed by the roundtable attendees illustrate the recognition that at this point, consensus has not been reached on the optimum algorithm for treatment of these patients. This article focuses on issues discussed during the roundtable from the perspective of the practicing cardiologist. [source]

In vitro susceptibility-testing in Aspergillus species

MYCOSES, Issue 5 2008
Cornelia Lass-Flörl
Summary Aspergillus species are the most common causes of invasive mould infections in immunocompromised patients. The introduction of new antifungal agents and recent reports of resistance emerging during treatment of Aspergillus infections have highlighted the need for in vitro susceptibility-testing. Various testing procedures have been proposed, including macrodilution and microdilution, agar diffusion, disc diffusion and Etest. At present, one of the most widely used assays is the M38-A reference method for filamentous fungi, published by the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute and the Etest. Recently, the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility-testing (EUCAST) has charged its Antifungal Susceptibility-testing Subcommittee (AFST-EUCAST) with the preparation of new guidelines for in vitro susceptibility-testing of antifungals against Aspergillus spp. (EUCAST-AFST-ASPERGILLUS) defining breakpoints. This paper reviews the available methods for antifungal susceptibility-testing in Aspergillus spp. as well as the scant data regarding the clinical implications of in vitro testing. [source]

Anatomically based guidelines for systematic investigation of the central somatosensory system and their application to a spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) patient

U. Rüb
Dysfunctions of the somatosensory system are among the clinical signs that characterize a variety of polyglutamine or CAG-repeat diseases. Deficits within this system may hinder the perception of potential threats, be detrimental to somatomotor functions, and result in uncoordinated movements, ataxia, and falls. Despite the considerable clinical relevance of such deficits, however, no systematic pathoanatomical studies of the central somatosensory system in polyglutamine diseases are currently available. The present paper has two goals: (1) re-commendation of an economical tissue sampling method and optimized histological processing of this tissue to allow rapid and reliable evaluation of the structural integrity of all known relay stations and interconnecting fibre tracts within this complex system, and (2) the proposal of guidelines for a rapid and detailed pathoanatomical investigative procedure of the human central somatosensory system. In so doing, we draw on the current state of neuroanatomic research and apply the methods and guidelines proposed here to a 25-year-old female patient with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). The use of 100 µm serial sections through the SCA2 patient's central somatosensory components showed that obvious neuronal loss occurred in nearly all of the relay stations of this system (Clarke's column; cuneate, external cuneate and gracile nuclei; spinal, principal and mesencephalic trigeminal nuclei; ventral posterior lateral and ventral posterior medial nuclei of the thalamus), whereas the majority of interconnecting fibre tracts (dorsal spinocerebellar tract; cuneate and gracile fascicles; medial lemniscus; spinal trigeminal tract, trigeminal nerve and mesencephalic trigeminal tract) displayed signs of atrophy accompanied by demyelinization. These pathological findings suffice to explain the patient's impaired senses of vibration, position and temperature. Moreover, together with the lesions seen in the motor cerebellothalamocortical feedback loop (pontine nuclei, deep cerebellar nuclei and cerebellar cortex, ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus), they also account for the somatomotor deficits that were observed in the young woman (gait, stance, and limb ataxia, falls, and impaired writing). In proposing these new guidelines, we hope to enable others to study the hitherto unknown morphological counterparts of somatosensory dysfunctions in additional CAG-repeat disease patients. [source]

A New Food Guide in Japan: The Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top

Nobuo Yoshiike MD
The Dietary Guidelines for Japanese, released in 2000, provides the basics of a healthy diet for the people of Japan. In July 2005, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan jointly released a new pictorial guide, The Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top, to help people implement the Dietary Guidelines for Japanese. It guides people as to what kinds and how much food they should eat each day to promote health. This paper describes the nature of the diet and the theoretical framework applied in the development of the new guidelines. [source]

Latest news and product developments

PRESCRIBER, Issue 6 2007
Article first published online: 8 JUN 200
Initial macrolide better for pneumonia? An observational study has suggested that initial treatment with a macrolide antibiotic (such as erythromycin) may be more effective than a fluoroquinolone (like ciprofloxacin) or tetracycline as initial treatment for community acquired pneumonia and bacteraemia (Chest 2007;131:466-73). The US review of 2209 hospital episodes found that macrolide therapy was associated with a 40 per cent lower risk of death during hospital stay or within 30 days and of hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge. By contrast, no such benefit was apparent with fluoroquinolones or tetracycline. Two-year safety data for inhaled insulin Compared with sc insulin, inhaled insulin (Exubera) is associated with a small early decrease in lung function in the first three months of therapy but no further difference for up to two years (Diabetes Care 2007;30: 579-85). The comparative trial found that FEV1 declined at a mean rate of 0.051 litres per year with inhaled insulin and 0.034 litres per year with sc insulin, but there was no significant difference in the rates of decline after three months. Inhaled insulin was associated with a higher incidence of cough (37.6 vs 13.1 per cent) but a lower incidence of severe hypoglycaemic events (2.8 vs 4.1 events per 100 subject- months) and mean weight gain was 1.25kg less. Fracture risk warning with rosiglitazone GlaxoSmithKline has warned US prescribers that rosiglitazone may be associated with an increased risk of fractures. The company says information for prescribers in Europe will follow shortly. The warning comes from the ADOPT study (N Engl J Med 2006;355:2427-43), which found a significantly higher incidence of fractures of the humerus, hand and foot among women taking rosiglitazone (9.3 per cent) than with metformin (5.1 per cent) or glibenclamide (3.5 per cent). There was no difference in fracture incidence among men. The company recommends that fracture risk should be considered for women taking or about to take rosiglitazone. Oral treatment for grass pollen allergy A new treatment for allergic rhinitis due to grass pollen allergy has been introduced by ALK-Abelló. Grazax is a sublingual tablet containing a stan-dardised dose of allergen from the pollen of timothy grass. Treatment should be initiated by a specialist four months before the onset of the allergy season and continued throughout the season. Adverse effects include oral and ear pruritus, nasopharyngitis and mouth oedema. A month's treatment at the recommended dose of one tablet daily costs £67.50. Frequent analgesics linked with hypertension Men who take analgesics regularly have an increased frequency of hypertension, a US study has shown (Arch Intern Med 2007;167:394-9). The US Health Professionals Follow-Up study evaluated the use of NSAIDs, paracetamol and aspirin in 16 031 men with normal blood pressure and followed them up for four years. Compared with those who did not report analgesic use, the risk of hypertension was increased by 38 per cent for NSAID use, 34 per cent for paracetamol and 26 per cent for aspirin, all for for six or seven days a week. Similar risks were found when anal- gesic use was determined according to the number of tablets taken. The authors acknowledge the increased risk is modest, but point out that the implications may nonetheless be important because analgesics are widely used. Multiples do most pharmacist MURs Uptake of medicines use reviews (MURs) by pharmacists was modest in 2005 and most reviews were carried out by pharmacy chains rather than independent contractors, a new study has shown (Pharm J 2007;278:218-23). The survey of PCTs and SHAs in England and Wales found that, although 38 per cent of community pharmacies claimed payments for the service, 84 per cent of MURs were carried out by pharmacy chains. Uptake was low, amounting to only 7 per cent of the maximum possible number of MURs. Patients see information needs differently There is a mismatch in the perceptions of patients and health professionals about the purpose of written information about medicines, a systematic review has concluded (Health Technol Assess 2007;11:1-178). Some health professionals believe the main purpose of information is to promote compliance, whereas patients want information to help them make decisions about their treatment, including not taking it. In particular, patients want information on adverse effects, but health professionals have reservations about providing it. Aspirin for all women over 65? All women over 65 should take low-dose aspirin if the benefits are likely to outweigh the risk of adverse effects, according to new guidelines from the American Heart Association on preventing cardiovascular disease in women (published online 19 Feb 2007;doi: 10.1161/circulationaha.107.181546). The guidelines have moved away from the long-established Framingham model of risk assessment to categorising three levels of risk: high (heart disease or other relevant disease present), at risk (at least one risk factor) and optimal (healthy lifestyle, no risk factors). Low-dose aspirin is recommended for all women at high risk, for women aged 65 or over when reducing the risk of MI or ischaemic stroke outweighs the risk of adverse effects, and for younger women when reducing the risk of ischaemic stroke outweighs that of toxicity. Combination inhaler therapy Combining an inhaled long-acting bronchodilator with a steroid reduces COPD exacerbations but not all-cause mortality, a three-year trial has shown (N Engl J Med 2007;356:775-89). However, inhaled steroids appear to increase the risk of pneumonia. The TORCH trial randomised 6112 patients (FEV1<60 per cent predicted) to treatment with salmeterol 50µg plus fluticasone 500µg (Seretide) twice daily, salmeterol (Serevent) or fluticasone (Flixotide) as monotherapy, or placebo. All-cause mortality rates were 12.6, 13.5, 16.0 and 15.2 per cent respectively; the risk of death was 17 per cent lower with combined therapy, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. The combination reduced the incidence of exacerbations by 25 per cent and improved health status and FEV1. Use of fluticasone was not associated with more ocular or bone disorders, but there was an increased incidence of pneumonia among users (19.6 per cent with combined therapy and 18.3 per cent with fluticasone vs 12.3 per cent with placebo). Seretide is currently licensed in the UK for use in patients with FEV1 <50 per cent predicted. Tamoxifen long- term benefits Women with breast cancer who take tamoxifen for five to eight years continue to have a lower risk of recurrence for 10-20 years, long-term follow-up of two blinded trials has shown (J Nat Cancer Inst 2007; 99:258-60, 272-90). The frequency of adverse effects was markedly reduced when treatment ended, changing the balance of risk and benefit. Copyright © 2007 Wiley Interface Ltd [source]

The new ATS/ERS guidelines for assessing the spirometric severity of restrictive lung disease differ from previous standards

RESPIROLOGY, Issue 5 2007
Ashutosh N. AGGARWAL
Background and objectives: The ATS/ERS Task Force on Lung Function Testing recently proposed guidelines for the interpretation of pulmonary function tests and suggested that a reduction in FEV1 be used for categorizing both obstructive and restrictive abnormalities. This changes the severity stratification algorithm of restrictive patterns diagnosed by spirometry, that are currently categorized based on reduction in VC. This study examined the level of agreement between these two categorization schemes. Methods: Spirometry records of 2527 adult patients evaluated over 1 year were retrieved; 361 of these patients showed a restrictive pattern. Severity of airway restriction was separately assessed in these patients using the indicative schemes provided in the new ATS/ERS and the earlier ATS guidelines. Results: There were 212 (58.7%) patients with a restrictive pattern who had identical severity categorization using both guidelines. In most instances of discordance, the severity categorization differed only by a single stratum. Of 149 discordant results, 91 (60.1%) were placed in a better category, and 58 (39.9%) in a worse category, when using the new ATS/ERS recommendations. Overall weighted kappa estimate for agreement between the two schemes of categorization was 0.649. Conclusion: Based on spirometry results, the level of severity of restriction cannot be described interchangeably between the old and new guidelines for all patients. The new guidelines tend to give lower severity scores for restrictive lung diseases in up to 25% of patients. [source]

REVIEW ARTICLE: The Immune System in Pregnancy: A Unique Complexity

Gil Mor
Citation Mor G, Cardenas I. The immune system in pregnancy: a unique complexity. Am J Reprod Immunol 2010 Abstract Placental immune response and its tropism for specific viruses and pathogens affect the outcome of the pregnant woman's susceptibility to and severity of certain infectious diseases. The generalization of pregnancy as a condition of immune suppression or increased risk is misleading and prevents the determination of adequate guidelines for treating pregnant women during pandemics. There is a need to evaluate the interaction of each specific pathogen with the fetal/placental unit and its responses to design the adequate prophylaxis or therapy. The complexity of the immunology of pregnancy and the focus, for many years, on the concept of immunology of pregnancy as an organ transplantation have complicated the field and delayed the development of new guidelines with clinical implications that could help to answer these and other relevant questions. Our challenge as scientists and clinicians interested in the field of reproductive immunology is to evaluate many of the ,classical concepts' to define new approaches for a better understanding of the immunology of pregnancy that will benefit mothers and fetuses in different clinical scenarios. [source]

ARRIVE: new guidelines for reporting animal research

Gordon B. Drummond
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Expanding the Criteria of Organ Procurement from Donors with Prostate Cancer: The Application of the New Italian Guidelines

A. D'Errico-Grigioni
Prostate cancer (CaP) represents the most prevalent malignancy in men more than 60-year-old, posing a problem in organ procurement from elderly subjects. However, most of the currently diagnosed CaP are low-grade and intraprostatic, with low metastatic risk, and there is recent evidence that most patients are overdiagnosed. The Italian National guidelines about organ acceptance from neoplastic donors changed in March 2005, extending the pool of potential candidates with CaP and introducing the function of a second opinion expert. Between 2001 and February 2005, 40 candidate donors with total PSA,10 and/or positive digital rectal examination underwent histopathological analysis of the prostate: 15 (37.5%) donors harboured CaP, and 25 (62%) were judged at ,standard risk'. After the introduction of the new guidelines in 2005, the second opinion expert judged at ,standard risk' 48 of 65 donors, while 17 of 65 needed histopathological analysis. Four (6.2%) donors harboured CaP, and 61 (94%) where judged at ,standard risk', with a significant increase of donated and actually transplanted organs. The application of the new guidelines and the introduction of a second opinion expert allowed a significant extension of the ,standard risk' category also to CaP patients, decreasing the histopathological examinations and expanding the donor pool. [source]

Detecting changes in simulated events using partial-interval recording and momentary time sampling,

John T. Rapp
In a series of three studies, we evaluated simulated data with reversal designs to determine whether partial-interval recording (PIR) and momentary time sampling (MTS) detected changes that were evident with continuous measures. The results from Study 1 showed that MTS with interval sizes up to 30,s detected most of the moderate and large changes in duration events and MTS with interval sizes up to 1,min detected most large changes in duration events. By comparison, PIR with 10-s intervals detected approximately half of all changes in duration events. The results of Study 2 showed that only 10-s PIR reliably detected most small, moderate, and large changes in frequency events. The results of Study 3 showed that PIR with 10-s intervals generated a relatively high percentage of false positives for duration events, whereas MTS did not. As a whole, the results support previous findings, but also provide new guidelines for the use of PIR and MTS. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Local area co-ordination: strengthening support for people with learning disabilities in Scotland

Kirsten Ogilvie Stalker
Accessible summary ,,Local Area Co-ordination is a new, person-centred way of supporting people with learning,,disabilities and their families to have a good life in the community. ,,There are 59 local area co-ordinators in Scotland. ,,There are a lot of differences in the way these local area co-ordinators work; for example,,,who they work for, how many people they support, whether they support children or adults,,and how much money they are paid. ,,People with learning disabilities and their families really like their local area co-ordinators.,,They feel the local area co-ordinator is on their side. ,,Local area co-ordinators have helped people in lots of ways, like finding supports and,,services, getting a paid job and moving house. They help people join new groups and meet,,people. ,,We think the Scottish Government should pay for more local area co-ordinators in Scotland,,and write new guidelines about how to do local area co-ordination. Summary This paper reports the findings of a study commissioned by the Scottish Executive which examined the introduction and implementation of local area co-ordination (LAC) in Scotland. A questionnaire about their posts was completed by 44 local area co-ordinators, interviews were conducted with 35 local area co-ordinators and 14 managers and case studies of LAC practice were carried out in four local authorities. The study found both strengths and weaknesses in the implementation of LAC nationally. There was great unevenness across Scotland in the number of local area co-ordinators employed by local authorities and in their roles and remits. Progress in community capacity building was slow overall and some managers expressed mixed feelings about LAC's usefulness in a climate of scarce resources. Individuals and families, however, were very appreciative of the support received and there was evidence that LAC had made a positive difference to their lives; for example, in relation to increased inclusion, choice and formal and informal supports. Various proposals are made for supporting the future development of LAC. [source]

The BSG/ACPGBI guidelines for colonoscopic screening: what are we missing?

A. Subramanian
Abstract Introduction, Before publication of the British Society of Gastroenterology and Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland guidelines in 2002, screening for people with a family history of colorectal cancer was sporadic and largely dependant on unvalidated local guidelines. Since 1990 we have been screening patients with both high and moderate risk family histories of colorectal cancer using local protocols which were more liberal than the new guidelines. In this study, we have analysed the pathology that would have been missed if we had been using the new guidelines in the period 1990,2002. Method, A total of 399 consecutive patients with a positive family history of colorectal malignancy underwent screening endoscopy according to local guidelines. Demographic, endoscopic and pathologic data were prospectively collected. Patients were retrospectively divided into those who would have been screened under the new guidelines (group 1) and those who would not (group 2). The recorded pathology was graded as significant or insignificant and the findings compared between the two groups. Results, A total of 399 patients underwent 557 endoscopies of which 278 (50%) were indicated under the new guidelines (group 1) and 279 (50%) were not indicated (group 2). A significant pathology or carcinoma was found in 15.8% of group 1 endoscopies and 10.0% of group 2 endoscopies. This difference was significant. Conclusion, If we had been using the new guidelines in the period 1990,2002, we would not have performed 279 (50%) of the 557 procedures, but would not have discovered significant pathology in 10% of the moderate risk endoscopies representing 39% of the significant pathology, which was actually present in this population. [source]