New Groups (new + groups)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Sex, Rank and Age Differences in the Japanese Macaque (Macaca fuscata yakui) Participation in Inter-Group Encounters

ETHOLOGY, Issue 5 2005
Bonaventura Majolo
In many species interactions among group are often characterized by agonistic behaviour. Although animals may participate in inter-group encounters in different ways, depending on their energetic requirements, reproductive tactics, and/or developmental stage, the proximate causes affecting an animal's participation in inter-group encounters are still poorly understood. Indeed, many studies have analysed the behaviour of males and females during inter-group encounters without considering the importance of additional factors (e.g. rank). This study focuses on wild non-provisioned Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) living on Yakushima Island, Japan. It aims to determine how monkeys of different sex, age, and rank behave during inter-group encounters and it discusses the implications and consequences of their behaviour on group composition and male dispersal. Males participated significantly more than females in inter-group encounters, by displaying more aggressive or affiliative behaviour. High-ranking and/or adult males were more aggressive than low-ranking and/or subadult males during encounters occurring in the mating season and they also showed more herding behaviour. This trend was not found in inter-group encounters occurring during the non-mating season. Finally, males which then emigrated to new groups were low-ranking and/or subadult individuals. Those males displayed more affiliative behaviour towards foreign males than males which did emigrate. These data indicate that in non-territorial species with male dominance over female and high competition for mating partners males play an active, and often aggressive, role during inter-group encounter while female participation is scarce. Factors such as age, rank and period of the year (in seasonally breeding species) have to be taken into considerations when analysing interactions between groups and their effects on group composition and social behaviour. [source]

Models of Civic Responsibility: Korean Americans in Congregations with Different Ethnic Compositions

This article compares different discourses of civic responsibility for Korean American evangelicals in a second-generation Korean congregation and a multiethnic congregation located in the same impoverished ethnic minority community. Those in the second-generation church define civic responsibility through difference from immigrant Koreans. They stress caring for members of their local community and explicitly reject their parents' connection of Christianity to economic mobility. Yet, they find relating to other minorities in their local community difficult because of an implicit belief that the economically impoverished are not hardworking. Korean Americans in the multiethnic church connect Christianity to valuing diversity. A religious individualism that is used to justify diversity also helps Korean Americans stress their commonality with other ethnic minorities and legitimates commitment to community service. These results help researchers rethink how new groups of Americans might influence the relationship of evangelical Christianity to American civic life. [source]

Energy metabolism in young pigs as affected by establishment of new groups prior to transport

Energy metabolism was studied in 9-week-old-pigs as affected by mixing just before transport. In each of three trials, two groups of 20 pigs (two litters of 10) were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: control and mixing. Each group was housed in one of two climatic chambers with each subgroup in one of two pens. In each trial, the two litters within the mixing treatment were mixed, just before transport, at the start of a 2-week experimental period. In the control treatment, the social structure of both litters in each trial was not altered. In both treatments, large alterations of energy partitioning from week 1 to week 2, are probably signs of recovering from transportation and/or adaptation to new feeding and housing conditions. Mixing just before transport did not change total energy metabolism but only increased nonactivity-related heat production by 3.1% for the total experimental period. Most likely, long-term performance is also not affected negatively by mixing. Animals seem to be able to change energy expenditure on activity when more energy is required for other physiological processes. This symptom of possible reallocation of energy between different vital live processes (e.g. behavior, protein turn-over) might be one of the first indications of an impaired well-being. [source]

Measures of Assimilation in the Marriage Market: Mexican Americans 1970,1990

Michael J. Rosenfeld
In 1965 the United States rewrote its immigration laws, and immigration increased sharply as a result. The immigrants and the children of immigrants from the post-1965 period are slowly becoming more influential in U.S. life; the largest of these groups are the Mexican immigrants and the Mexican Americans. The rapid growth of Hispanic and Asian populations in the United States has led to a renewed interest in the question of assimilation; that is, will the new groups assimilate, and if so how long will it take? Will they become part of White America? Will some groups assimilate into the Black-dominated urban underclass (a process Portes called segmented assimilation)? Will some groups remain permanently separate and socially isolated? In this article, I examine the behavior of Mexican Americans and Mexican immigrants in the U.S. marriage market, using census data from 1970, 1980, and 1990. The findings are that Mexican Americans are assimilating with non-Hispanic Whites over time, and the evidence tends to reject the segmented assimilation hypothesis. The interplay between intermarriage and endogamy is studied with log linear models; some variations by geography and U.S. nativity are noted. [source]

Group contribution methods for the prediction of thermophysical and transport properties of ionic liquids

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 5 2009
Ramesh L. Gardas
Abstract Thermophysical and transport properties of ionic liquids are required for the design of processes and products. Yet the experimental data available are scarce and often contradictory. Based on experimental data collected from the literature, group contribution methods were developed for the estimation of viscosity, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, refractive index, isobaric expansivity, and isothermal compressibility, of various families of ionic liquids. Using the Stokes,Einstein relation a correlation for the self-diffusion coefficients with the viscosity is also proposed. The results of the proposed models show average absolute relative deviations generally of the same order of the experimental accuracy of the data. They are easy to use and can provide predictions of property values for ionic liquids never previously studied. The group contribution basis of these models will allow them to be extended to new groups of cations and anions as further data became available. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2009 [source]

Social structure of a polygynous tent-making bat, Cynopterus sphinx (Megachiroptera)

Jay F. Storz
Abstract The social structure of an Old World tent-making bat Cynopterus sphinx (Megachiroptera), was investigated in western India. A combination of census and mark,recapture data over 2 years (1996,98) was used to infer the form of the mating system, compositional stability of social groups and mode of new social group formation. The breeding population of C. sphinx was subdivided into diurnal roosting colonies, each of which contained one to five discrete roosting groups and often one or more solitary bats in adjacent roosts. Bats most frequently roosted in stem tents constructed in the flower/fruit clusters of the kitul palm Caryota urens. Temporal variation in social structure was assessed using visual census data for a subset of the study population over 3 years (1995,98) spanning six consecutive reproductive periods. The sex and age composition of diurnal roosting groups indicated a polygynous harem-forming mode of social organization, as groups invariably contained a single adult male, 1,37 reproductive females and their dependent young (n= 33 harems). Harem size averaged 6.1 adults in the wet season (n= 19, sd= 3.5) and 13.6 adults in the dry season (n= 14, sd= 8.5). The same harem social configuration was maintained year-round, despite a high degree of synchrony and seasonality in the timing of reproduction. Juveniles of both sexes dispersed after weaning and sexually immature bats were never present in harems at the time of parturition. Adult females often remained associated as roostmates from one parturition period to the next, and group cohesion was unaffected by turnover of harem males. Adult females frequently transferred among roosts within the same colony, and harems underwent periodic fissions and fusions. The founding of new harems most often resulted from the fissioning of previously cohesive harems within the same colony. However, some harems contained disproportionate numbers of yearling females, indicating that new groups are also founded by nulliparous females of the same age cohort. A significant degree of heterogeneity in age composition among harems was revealed in the 1998 dry season, but was unrelated to age-stratification of tent roosts. Although formation of new harems may be non-random with respect to age composition of the founders, founding events are not restricted to newly created tents and often involve recolonization of previously occupied roosts. [source]

Services for immigrant women: an evaluation of locations

The Toronto region receives one-quarter of new immigrants to Canada and they become widely dispersed throughout the metropolitan area. Most immigrants arrive with language, social and cultural needs, creating demand for social services from existing agencies. ,How can agencies choose locations that meet the needs of new immigrants?' is the central focus. The results of a study in Metropolitan Toronto of 68 nonprofit agencies that provide a variety of settlement services for immigrant and refugee women are discussed. Immigrant and language groups and the agencies serving them are mapped; the locations of agencies are evaluated. While service agencies are responding to the arrival of new groups and the spatial dispersion of new immigrants, more services in the northern portions of the study area are required. The spatial dispersion of some language groups means that they have poorer access to services than groups that are concentrated in the traditional immigrant reception area. La région de Toronto accueille le quart des immigrants au Canada, et ceux-ci sont dispersés dans l'agglomération torontoise. La plupart d'entre eux ont des exigences linguistiques, sociales et culturelles qui augmentent la demande en services sociaux dispensés par les organismes en place. Ce document porte essentiellement sur la façon dont ces derniers determinent les lieux de prestation de services qui répondront le mieux aux besoins des immigrants. II est également question des résultats d'une étude menée dans la communauté urbaine de Toronto auprés de 68 organismes à but non lucratif offrant un éventail de services d'établissement pour les immigrantes et les réfugiées. Les immigrants et les groupes linguistiques, ainsi que les organismes qui les servent, y sont répertoriés géographiquement. La localisation de ces organismes fait aussi l'objet d'une évaluation. La plupart répondent déjà aux besoins des nouveaux venus et tiennent compte de leur dispersion mais, selon cette étude, il faudrait plus de services dans le nord de l'agglomération torontoise. En raison de cet éparpillement, certains groupes linguistiques ont plus difficilement accès à des services que d'autres qui se trouvent dans les zones d'ancrage habituelles. [source]

Women on the Sidelines: Women's Representation on Committees in Latin American Legislatures

Roseanna Michelle Heath
This article explores how new groups can be marginalized after they gain representation in the legislature. We use data from six Latin American legislatures to examine the effect of institutional and political factors on how traditionally dominant male political leaders distribute scarce political resources,committee assignments,to female newcomers. In general, we find that women tend to be isolated on women's issues and social issues committees and kept off of power and economics/foreign affairs committees as the percentage of legislators who are women increases, when party leaders or chamber presidents control committee assignments, and when the structure of the committee system provides a specific committee to deal with women's issues. Thus, to achieve full incorporation into the legislative arena, newcomers must do more than just win seats. They must change the institutions that allow the traditionally dominant group to hoard scarce political resources. [source]

Local area co-ordination: strengthening support for people with learning disabilities in Scotland

Kirsten Ogilvie Stalker
Accessible summary ,,Local Area Co-ordination is a new, person-centred way of supporting people with learning,,disabilities and their families to have a good life in the community. ,,There are 59 local area co-ordinators in Scotland. ,,There are a lot of differences in the way these local area co-ordinators work; for example,,,who they work for, how many people they support, whether they support children or adults,,and how much money they are paid. ,,People with learning disabilities and their families really like their local area co-ordinators.,,They feel the local area co-ordinator is on their side. ,,Local area co-ordinators have helped people in lots of ways, like finding supports and,,services, getting a paid job and moving house. They help people join new groups and meet,,people. ,,We think the Scottish Government should pay for more local area co-ordinators in Scotland,,and write new guidelines about how to do local area co-ordination. Summary This paper reports the findings of a study commissioned by the Scottish Executive which examined the introduction and implementation of local area co-ordination (LAC) in Scotland. A questionnaire about their posts was completed by 44 local area co-ordinators, interviews were conducted with 35 local area co-ordinators and 14 managers and case studies of LAC practice were carried out in four local authorities. The study found both strengths and weaknesses in the implementation of LAC nationally. There was great unevenness across Scotland in the number of local area co-ordinators employed by local authorities and in their roles and remits. Progress in community capacity building was slow overall and some managers expressed mixed feelings about LAC's usefulness in a climate of scarce resources. Individuals and families, however, were very appreciative of the support received and there was evidence that LAC had made a positive difference to their lives; for example, in relation to increased inclusion, choice and formal and informal supports. Various proposals are made for supporting the future development of LAC. [source]