New Ground (new + ground)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Breaking New Ground in Juvenile Justice Settings: Assessing for Competencies in Juvenile Offenders

ABSTRACT The field of juvenile justice has made great strides in developing a research base of effective practices and principles, including an understanding of risk factors and needs that contribute to juvenile offending. However, the research base and practice of systematic assessment has not yet fully incorporated youth, family, and community strengths. To address this need, three juvenile justice agencies in the northwestern United States participated in a pilot study to develop and implement an assessment tool (the Youth Competency Assessment) and process that would identify and utilize strengths to help balance the risk and needs focus of their assessment and case planning practices. This article provides descriptions and implementation strategies of the three pilot sites. The article concludes with recommended system changes and policy interventions to support ongoing utilization of this kind of strength-based tool in juvenile justice settings, and a clear set of recommendations for other communities wishing to implement strength-based assessment in their own agencies. [source]

Universal Owners: challenges and opportunities

James Hawley
This special issue of Corporate Governance is devoted to the concept of "universal ownership" (UO) and grows out of a conference of universal owners, institutional investors, investment professionals and academics held in April 2006 at Saint Mary's College of California, under the sponsorship of the Center for the Study of Fiduciary Capitalism (A report of the conference is available at Four of the seven articles in this issue are based on papers presented at the conference, while an additional three (by Lydenberg, Syse and Gjessing, and Lippman et al.) were written specifically for this issue. The conference purposefully developed a practitioners' perspective on universal ownership and these articles reflect this orientation, although each article in its own way breaks new ground which academics, policy researchers and practitioners can and should develop. [source]

Economic voting: The effect of political context, volatility and turnout on voters' assignment of responsibility

Voters' assignment of responsibility for the state of the national economy is assumed to vary according to the context of the election. Building on previous research, the importance of the political context , clarity of responsibility and availability of alternatives , is analysed. The study also breaks new ground by introducing two new contexts of importance: volatility, seen from a systemic perspective, and the trend in turnout. The contextual hypothesis is confirmed. The universal economic effect as such is very weak indeed. However, given a favourable political and institutional environment (clear responsibility structure and availability of alternatives), an economic effect appears. Tests including the new contexts created on the basis of behavioural patterns in the electorate (system volatility and turnout trend) identify elections where the economic effects are even stronger. [source]

The United Nations Convention on the Assignment of Receivables in International Trade: insolvency aspects

Spiros V. Bazinas
Breaking new ground, the UN Convention on the Assignment of Receivables in International Trade refers all priority conflicts with respect to receivables to the law of single and easily determinable jurisdiction, and one that is most likely going to be the insolvency jurisdiction, namely to the law of the assignor's place of business or, in the case of places of business in more than one State, the assignor's central administration. In the case of an insolvency proceeding in another jurisdiction, the mandatory rules of that juridiction displace any priority rule of the law of the assignor's location only if that priority rule is manifestly contrary to the public policy of that jurisdiction. In such a case, the balance of the priority rules of the law of the assignor's location prevails over the priority rules of the insolvency jurisdiction with the exception of rules relating to preferential rights. In any case, the Convention ensures that priority rules do not interfere with basic insolvency rights, such as those relating to stays, avoidance actions and to the performance of contracts or maintenance of the estate. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Full Stop: an extraordinary appeal for an extraordinary aspiration , putting leadership theory into practice

Giles Pegram
The National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC)'s Full Stop campaign was launched in March 1999 with one single aim,to end cruelty to children. The Full Stop Appeal was designed to ensure that sufficient financial resources would be in place to support such an extraordinary aspiration. It is the biggest charitable appeal ever attempted in the UK and aims to raise £250m. This paper outlines how the charity applied the leadership model of fundraising to its strategy, the lessons it has learned over the past four years, and how successful it has been. Having already raised more than £100m, Full Stop has broken new ground in its sector, revolutionised the NSPCC's fundraising capacity and, more importantly, has had far-reaching consequences for its mission to end cruelty to children. Copyright © 2003 Henry Stewart Publications [source]

Another Road to Maastricht: The Christian Democrat Coalition and the Quest for European Union

Karl Magnus Johansson
This article breaks new ground in our understanding of the Maastricht outcome by examining the role of the European People's Party (EPP) and its member parties. Special emphasis is placed on the meetings of Christian Democrat leaders. At the time of the 1991 parallel Intergovernmental Conferences, six out of 12 heads of government met in the EPP. The article argues that the Treaty on European Union was facilitated by the transnational coalition of the Christian Democrats and by the shared ideological identity of this federalist movement. This weakens the intergovernmental approach to European integration. [source]

Residential Facilities in the Community for People with Intellectual Disabilities: How Neighbours' Perceptions are Affected by the Interaction of Facility and Neighbour Variables

C. Schwartz
The present paper reports a study of neighbours' perceptions of community-based residential facilities for people with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Whereas earlier studies have researched the effect of single variables, the present paper breaks new ground by taking a multidimensional perspective. It analyses neighbourhood acceptance as a variable explainable by interactions between facility variables and the nature of the neighbourhood population itself. Two hundred and eight neighbours of 36 urban community facilities for people with IDs were surveyed, plus the facility managers. The individual characteristics of the neighbours which were found to relate to facility impact included: having young children at home; having a disabled family member; knowing that the neighbourhood contained a facility; and visiting the facility. Pertinent facility variables were: size, degree of supervision, and the pre- and post-entry strategies used by managers to gain local acceptance for the facility. Most importantly, the present study found that none of these variables can be considered or used in isolation. The direction of their effect can be positive or negative according to the variables which they interact with. Theoretical aspects of the findings are discussed and interventions are suggested which might improve the community integration of people with IDs. [source]

A structure/function study of polyaminoamide dendrimers as silica scale growth inhibitors

Konstantinos D Demadis
Abstract Dendrimers have attracted immense attention during the last decade due to their interesting properties both from a basic and an applied research viewpoint. Encapsulation of metal nanoparticles for catalysis, drug delivery and light harvesting are only some applications of dendrimers that are breaking new ground. A novel application of dendrimer technology is described in the present paper that relates to industrial water treatment. Industrial water systems often suffer from undesirable inorganic deposits. These can form either in the bulk or on metallic surfaces, such as heat exchangers or pipelines. Silica (SiO2) scale formation and deposition is a major problem in high-silica-containing cooling waters. Scale prevention rather than removal is highly desired. In this paper, benchtop screening tests on various silica inhibition chemistries are reported, with emphasis on materials with a dendrimeric structure. Specifically, the inhibition properties of commercially available STARBURST® polyaminoamide (PAMAM) dendrimers generations 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 are investigated in detail together with other commonly-used scale inhibitors. Experimental results show that inhibition efficiency largely depends on structural features of PAMAM dendrimers such as generation number and nature of the end groups. PAMAM dendrimers are effective inhibitors of silica scale growth at 40 ppm dosage levels. PAMAM dendrimers also act as silica nucleators, forming SiO2,PAMAM composites. This occurs because the SiO2 formed by incomplete inhibition interacts with cationic PAMAM-1 and -2. The general scope of silica formation and inhibition in industrial waters is also discussed. Copyright © 2005 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Review article: Breaking new ground with Rett syndrome

A. M. Kerr
First page of article [source]

New opportunities in biological and chemical crystallography

John R. Helliwell
Banerjee [Proc. R. Soc. (1933), 141, 188,193] offered a new way of approaching the crystallographic phase problem which not only broke new ground beyond the `trial and error' structure solution method of that time but also heralded the extremely powerful direct methods of crystallography of the modern era from the 1970s onwards in chemical crystallography. Some 200000 crystal structures are known today. More complex crystal structures such as proteins required new experimental and theoretical methods to solve the phase problem. These are still evolving, and new methods and results involving synchrotron radiation at softer X-ray wavelengths (2,Å) are reported. In addition, an overview is given of the new opportunities that are possible for biological and chemical crystallography, especially via harnessing synchrotron radiation and neutron beams. [source]

High Power Diode Lasers for Industrial Applications

Wolfgang Horn
New wavelengths, high brightness and increasing reliability are breaking new ground for diode lasers. The higher brightness allows direct fiber coupling of several 100 W in 200 ,m and 400 ,m fibers and therefore i.e. the pumping of fiber lasers. Such high power fiber coupled laser diodes combined with fast beam deflection units (galvo scanners) have been implemented in industrial processes and used for quasi-simultaneous welding of polymers, heat treatment in the sub millimeter range or selective soldering in solar cell production. Besides pumping of solid state lasers, high power diode lasers become more and more a competitive tool for many applications in material processing. [source]

Disaggregate Wealth and Aggregate Consumption: an Investigation of Empirical Relationships for the G7*

Joseph P. Byrne
To date, studies of wealth effects on consumption have mainly used aggregate wealth definitions on a single-country basis. This study seeks to break new ground by analysing disaggregated financial wealth in consumption functions for G7 countries. Contrary to earlier empirical work, we find that illiquid financial wealth (i.e. securities, pensions and mortgage debt) tends to be a more important long-run determinant of consumption than liquid financial wealth. These results imply potential instability in consumption functions employing aggregate wealth. Our results are robust using SURE; when testing with a nested specification; and when using a linear model. [source]

Mapping the motivations and intentions of technology orientated entrepreneurs

R & D MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2003
Elizabeth Chell
The role of entrepreneurs in stimulating growth in the small business economy has received significant interest in the last three decades. This growing interest is prompted, in part, by the government's assumption that the establishment and expansion of existing small firms could be greatly enhanced by the promotion of entrepreneurial education programmes in colleges and universities. Whilst there has been significant interest in the role, type and effect of entrepreneurs in the economy, few studies have examined the effect of entrepreneurial programmes on the progression of an idea through to commercialisation. This is because such research, whilst seemingly desirable, is problematic. Evidence can be gleaned through the development of suitable conceptual frameworks and methods, to assess the role and impact of entrepreneurial programmes on the commercialisation of products or processes, and the enhancement of entrepreneurial capabilities. To address this problem, the research will examine different approaches and frameworks that have been developed and applied hitherto. The objective of this will be to highlight the difficulties in assessing the motivations, cognitive and behavioural changes of entrepreneurs. Also, the research will demonstrate the need to undertake adequate controls, which illustrate possible improvement in entrepreneurial capabilities, networks, and credibility in comparison to students that embarked on courses without entrepreneurial elements. The process will confine itself to business development within the higher education (HEI) context. The MSEC has as its remit to provide opportunity, education, awareness and training to foster entrepreneurship within science and engineering departments across four universities in Greater Manchester. This setting will provide a unique situation in which to investigate the development of germinal technology businesses from the inception of an idea to the point of incubation, prototype development and investment. There is a requirement to understand the needs of the virgin entrepreneur, possible obstacles to commercialisation and the process of new venture creation. The methodology to be adopted has been identified, and forges new ground on combining positivist and phenomenological paradigms. The multi,paradigm approach supports the use of critical incident technique to reveal greater insights in to the personal and cognitive development of virginal entrepreneurs, the suitability of enterprise programmes to act as catalysts for venture creation, and their role in supporting technology transfer. The research will not only confine itself to examining undergraduate and postgraduate projects within MSEC's business creation unit, but will also continue to assess the experience of entrepreneurs' when they leave the programme. The research also documents the economic contribution of the programme, in terms of generation of new technology,based firms and the impact of entrepreneurs joining established small firms. Ultimately the aim is to build a long,term picture of the role of enterprise programmes in HEIs that will inform policy and practice. [source]

Imagining The Sociological Imagination: the biographical context of a sociological classic

John D. Brewer
Abstract Charles Wright Mills's arguments in The Sociological Imagination are very popular and this paper focuses on the biographical context in which his programmatic statements were occasioned. This breaks new ground by locating The Sociological Imagination and earlier programmatic statements in the professional and personal travails that motivated them. This approach is adopted in order to display the intersection between biography and sociology in Mills's life and career, a feature that he made a central part of sociology's promise. The paper utilizes this approach to reflect on the reasons why The Sociological Imagination became so popular and was able to transcend Mills's general unpopularity at the time of his death; and as part of the explanation of why the dismissal of the book on its publication contrasts with the contemporary view, enabling it to transpose successfully to a time significantly different than at its writing. [source]

Shifting Environmental Governance in a Neoliberal World: US AID for Conservation

ANTIPODE, Issue 3 2010
Catherine Corson
Abstract:, By exploring the shifting and uneven power relations among state, market and civil society organizations in US environmental foreign aid policy-making, this article forges new ground in conversations about conservation and neoliberalism. Since the 1970s, an evolving group of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) has lobbied the US Congress to support environmental foreign assistance. However, the 1980s and 1990s rise of neoliberalism laid the conditions for the formation of a dynamic alliance among representatives of the US Congress, the US Agency for International Development, environmental NGOs and the private sector around biodiversity conservation. In this alliance, idealized visions of NGOs as civil society and a countering force to corporations have underpinned their influence, despite their contemporary corporate partnerships. Furthermore, by focusing on,international,biodiversity conservation, the group has attracted a broad spectrum of political and corporate support to shape public policy and in the process create new spaces for capital expansion. [source]

Inclusion or control? commissioning and contracting services for people with learning disabilities

Liam Concannon
Accessible summary ,,The rise of new public management has seen the role of the social worker becoming increasingly administrative and less about face to face contact with service users. ,,When commissioning managers seek to help people with learning disabilities plan their services, who actually makes the decisions? ,,Direct payments are proposed as the answer for people with learning disabilities to take the lead, but is this a real shift in power from managers to service users? This paper examines what commissioning and contracting means for people with learning disabilities. It asks if the voices of service users are heard when it comes to planning their services and, more significantly, are their choices respected and acted upon by commissioners? The government believes the introduction of direct payments will change the way social care is administered, by placing both the decision-making and funding, firmly in the hands of people with learning disabilities. However, the question remains as to how far this can be successful, considering the complicated administration and financial processes involved. The paper explores new ground in terms of research by investigates the effects that new public management, in the form of commissioning and contracting, has on the lives of people with learning disabilities. It looks at the relationship between the service user, care manager and commissioner, and asks whether management structures help individuals or actually create further barriers to participation and inclusion. Summary This paper seeks to critically assess the impact made by the introduction of commissioning and contracting as a new culture of social care in learning disability services. It offers an evaluation of the growth in importance of the user as consumer. Does the commissioning and the contract process give users with learning disabilities a greater influence over their services and ultimately their lives? It is suggested that far from empowering people with learning disabilities to have a say in the services they want, the emerging culture of business contracts and new public management transfers power firmly back into the hands of professionals making the decisions. Social work practice is changing in response to major shifts in social trends and at the behest of market values. Traditional models are being rejected and the challenge for social work is to adapt itself to operate within a competency based paradigm. The paper argues that at the centre of this new culture is a government use of a system of performance management that successfully drives down cost. Thus there remain contradictions between the adoption of a mixed economy of care; services planning; consumerism; resource constraints; and the communication difficulties experienced by many people with learning disabilities. [source]