New Goals (new + goal)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Has Time Come for New Goals in Human Islet Transplantation?

R. Lehmann
The enthusiasm regarding clinical islet transplantation has been dampened by the long-term results. Concerns about the associated risks of life-long immunosuppression and the striking imbalance between potential recipients and available donor pancreata warrant changes in some of the current goals. Islet transplantation will never be a cure of type 1 diabetes in the majority of patients with no secondary complications, but is a valid option for a limited number of patients with brittle diabetes waiting for an organ or after organ transplantation. Furthermore, insulin independence should not be the main goal of islet transplantation, but avoidance of severe hypoglycemia and good glycemic control, which can be achieved with a relatively small functional beta-cell mass. Therefore, initially one islet infusion is sufficient. Retransplantation at a later time point remains an option, if glucose control deteriorates. Efforts to improve islet transplantation should no longer focus on islet isolation and immunosuppression, but rather on the low posttransplant survival rate of islets caused by activation of the coagulation pathway and the limited oxygen delivery to the islets. Transplantation of smaller islets be it naturally small or size tailored reaggregated islets has the potential to facilitate these processes. [source]

The compendium of anatomical variants: New goals and format

Joel A. Vilensky
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

The Future of Regions: Why the Competitiveness Imperative Should not Prevail over Solidarity, Sustainability and Democracy

Riccardo Petrella
The thesis here submitted for debate and criticism is as follows: if today's governing principles that inspire policy choices and priority setting in our societies (which claim to be "knowledge- based societies") are to remain in place in the course of the coming five to ten years, the relative position of the less developed regions (and cities) vis--vis the most developed ones will again deteriorate, even though per capita real purchasing power might also slightly increase in the less developed regions. The if-hypothesis, however, is not the only possible pattern of future developments. Because present economic and political leaders are, in general, the promoters and supporters of today's predominant principles, the only way to make possible alternative future developments based on solidarity, sustainability and democracy is that citizens themselves take the initiative, locally and globally, to modify present practices and define new goals and new priorities. In consideration of the results obtained in recent years by civil social movements and protests, one may reasonably consider it as a possible scenario. [source]


D. A. K. Watters
The Pacific Islands Project began in 1995 and in its early years had a focus on providing specialist services that were not available in the 10 island nations visited. In 2002 Nauru was added and PIP Phase III will end its 9 month bridging/extension phase in September 2007. During the last 12 years Fiji School of Medicine has commenced a postgraduate medical training program in surgery similar to that has been in existence in PNG since 1975. There are now a growing number of Pacific-trained surgeons who can select suitable cases, do some of the surgery, and supervise the postoperative care. Increasingly visiting teams have focused on transferring skills and building local capabilities (capacity building). The RACS, the Project Director and the speciality coordinators have managed the first three phases of the project in Australia. Phase III had on-going evaluation by an internal RACS committee under the chairmanship of Professor Hamish Ewing. AusAid also externally reviewed the project late in 2006. That review was generally complimentary as to what has been achieved but also points to some new goals for the future. At the time of writing this abstract the future direction of PIP is yet to be decided and designed. This will be done mid 2007. However, it is to be hoped there will be a new program, focused on capacity building, that is managed in the Pacific and employs the skills of Pacific Island Specialists wherever possible. RACS is likely to continue to play an important role in sourcing visiting specialists, organising training positions, arranging courses. We have much expertise to offer but there is no longer any need for us to set the agendas. [source]

Breastfeeding Rates in Hong Kong: A Comparison of the 1987 and 1997 Birth Cohorts

BIRTH, Issue 3 2002
Gabriel M. Leung MD
ABSTRACT: Background: Low breastfeeding rates are an issue of international public health concern. Anecdotal reports suggest very low breastfeeding rates in Asia, but no population-based studies have been conducted in the region. To determine the secular trend in breastfeeding practice in an Asian postindustrialized metropolitan community, we examined data from two population-based birth cohorts of Hong Kong infants in 1987 and 1997. Methods: Annual population rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration were estimated from the birth cohorts, considering the change in breastfeeding rates over 10 years with correction for sociodemographic and birth characteristics. Factors associated with breastfeeding practice were identified using multivariate logistic regression modeling in a pooled analysis of individual data of both cohorts. Results: Overall, 26.8 percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding in 1987, and the rate increased to 33.5 percent in 1997. The rate would have been 27.4 percent in 1987 if the distributions of method of delivery, birthweight, birth order, maternal age, education, and employment status had been the same as in 1997. Only 7.6 percent of infants remained on the breast for more than 1 month in 1987 compared with 20.4 percent a decade later. Similarly, the rate for breastfeeding more than 3 months increased from 3.9 to 10.3 percent. Total breastfeeding duration was significantly longer in 1997 than 10 years earlier. Conclusions: This is the first systematic report of secular variations of breastfeeding rates in Asia. Hong Kong should set higher but realistic goals for breastfeeding that emphasize both initiation and maintenance. Given the wide latitude for improvement in terms of readily modifiable risk factors, such as smoking and cesarean section, these new goals should focus on improving rates in these targeted groups where breastfeeding rates are lowest. (BIRTH 29:3 September 2002) [source]