New Genus (new + genus)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences


Selected Abstracts


TAXONOMIC STUDY OF TWO NEW GENERA OF FUSIFORM GREEN FLAGELLATES, TABRIS GEN.

JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2 2009

On the basis of LM, we isolated strains of two species of fusiform green flagellates that could be assigned to former Chlorogonium (Cg.) Ehrenb. One species, "Cg."heimii Bourr., lacked a pyrenoid in its vegetative cells and required organic compounds for growth. The other was similar to Cg. elongatum (P. A. Dang.) Francé and "Cg."acus Nayal, but with slightly smaller vegetative cells. Their molecular phylogeny was also studied based on combined 18S rRNA, RUBISCO LSU (rbcL), and P700 chl a -apoprotein A2 (psaB) gene sequences. Both species were separated from Chlorogonium emend., Gungnir Nakada and Rusalka Nakada, which were formerly assigned to Chlorogonium. They were accordingly assigned to new genera, Tabris Nakada gen. nov. and Hamakko (Hk.) Nakada gen. nov. as T. heimii (Bourr.) Nakada comb. nov. and Hk. caudatus Nakada sp. nov., respectively. Tabris is differentiated from other genera of fusiform green flagellates by its vegetative cells, which only have two apical contractile vacuoles and lack a pyrenoid in the chloroplast. Hamakko, on the other hand, is distinguishable by the fact that its pyrenoids in vegetative cells are penetrated by flattened thylakoid lamellae. [source]


HETEROGENEITY OF THE CYANOBACTERIAL GENUS SYNECHOCYSTIS AND DESCRIPTION OF A NEW GENUS, GEMINOCYSTIS,

JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
Jana Korelusová
The study and revision of the unicellular cyanobacterial genus Synechocystis was based on the type species S. aquatilis Sauv. and strain PCC 6803, a reference strain for this species. Uniformity in rRNA gene sequence, morphology, and ultrastructure was observed in all available Synechocystis strains, with the exception of the strain PCC 6308, which has been considered by some to be a model strain for Synechocystis. This strain differs substantially from the typical Synechocystis cluster according to both molecular (<90% of similarity, differences in 16S,23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer [ITS] secondary structure) and phenotypic criteria (different ultrastructure of cells). This strain is herein classified into the new genus Geminocystis gen. nov., as a sister taxon to the genus Cyanobacterium. Geminocystis differs from Cyanobacterium by genetic position (<94.4% of similarity) and more importantly by its different type of cell division. Because strain PCC 6308 was designated as a reference strain of the Synechocystis cluster 1 in Bergey's Manual, the members of this genetic cluster have to be revised and reclassified into Geminocystis gen. nov. Only the members of the Synechocystis cluster 2 allied with PCC 6803 correspond both genetically and phenotypically to the type species of the genus Synechocystis (S. aquatilis). [source]


DESCRIPTION OF A NEW GENUS OF PFIESTERIA -LIKE DINOFLAGELLATE, LUCIELLA GEN.

JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
INCLUDING TWO NEW SPECIES: LUCIELLA MASANENSIS SP., NOV. (DINOPHYCEAE)
A new genus of Pfiesteria -like heterotrophic dinoflagellate, Luciella gen. nov., and two new species, Luciella masanensis sp. nov. and Luciella atlantis sp. nov., are described. These species commonly occur with other small (<20 ,m) heterotrophic and mixotrophic dinoflagellates in estuaries from Florida to Maryland and the southern coast of Korea, suggesting a possible global distribution. An SEM analysis indicates that members of the genus Luciella have the enhanced Kofoidian plate formula of Po, cp, X, 4,, 2a, 6,, 6c, PC, 5+s, 5,, 0p, and 2,,. The two four-sided anterior intercalary plates are diamond shaped. The genus Luciella differs from the other genera in the Pfiesteriaceae by a least one plate in the plate tabulation and in the configuration of the two anterior intercalary plates. An SSU rDNA phylogenetic analysis confirmed the genus as monophyletic and distinct from the other genera in the Pfiesteriaceae. The morphology of Luciella masanensis closely resembles Pfiesteria piscicida Steid. et J. M. Burkh. and other Pfiesteria -like dinoflagellates in size and shape, making it easily misidentified using LM. Luciella atlantis, in contrast, has a more distinctive morphology. It can be distinguished from L. masanensis and other Pfiesteria -like organisms by a larger cell size, a more conical-shaped epitheca and hypotheca, larger rhombic-shaped intercalary plates, and an asymmetrical hypotheca. The genus Luciella is assigned to the order Peridiniales and the family Pfiesteriaceae based on plate tabulation, plate pattern, general morphology, and phylogenetic analysis. [source]


SOFT-TISSUE PRESERVATION OF THE HIND GUT IN A NEW GENUS OF CLADID CRINOID FROM THE MISSISSIPPIAN (VISEAN, ASBIAN) AT ST ANDREWS, SCOTLAND

PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
THOMAS W. KAMMER
Abstract:, Soft-tissue preservation of the hind gut, or anal sac, in the tegmen of Tubulusocrinus (gen. nov.) doliolus (Wright) from the Mississippian (Visean, Asbian) Pittenweem Formation at St Andrews, Scotland, is the first of its kind known in crinoids; it sheds important new light on the nature of the cladid tegmen. Many cladid crinoids had a calcite-plated anal sac that may have functioned like a chimney to prevent fouling of the ambulacra. The tubular, uncalcified anal sac of Tubulusocrinus may have functioned like a hose by pointing down current between the arms to avoid fouling of the ambulacra. Its smaller size may also have required less energy to produce than a heavy-plated sac. The hind gut is apparently preserved by haematite replacement, which was probably altered from original authigenic pyrite that formed soon after catastrophic burial. [source]


A Review Of Two De Koninck Retzioid Brachiopod Species, And Description Of A New Genus From The Carboniferous Of Europe

PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 5 2000
Fernando Alvarez
A new neoretziid brachiopod genus, Coveenia, from the Lower Carboniferous of western Europe is erected; the type species is Coveenia ulothrix (de Koninck, 1843), and C. buchiana (de Koninck, 1843, sensu 1887) and C. tilsleia sp. nov. are included, diagnosed and described. Neotypes are selected and illustrated for C. ulothrixC. buchiana. [source]


Morphogenesis in the Marine Spirotrichous Ciliate Apokeronopsis crassa (Claparède & Lachmann, 1858) n. comb. (Ciliophora: Stichotrichia), with the Establishment of a New Genus, Apokeronopsis n. g., and Redefinition of the Genus Thigmokeronopsis

THE JOURNAL OF EUKARYOTIC MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
CHEN SHAO
ABSTRACT. Morphogenetic events during the division of the marine spirotrichous ciliate, Apokeronopsis crassa (Claparède & Lachmann 1858) n. comb. were investigated. Compared with members of the well-known genera Thigmokeronopsis, Uroleptopsis, and Pseudokeronopsis, A. crassa has one row of buccal cirri, high number of transverse cirri, clearly separated midventral rows, lacks thigmotactic cirri and a gap in adoral zone, its undulating membranes (UMs) anlage forms one cirrus and marginal rows and dorsal kineties form apokinetally during division. All these characteristics indicate that this organism represents a new taxon at the generic level, and hence a new genus is suggested, Apokeronopsis n. g. It is defined as thus: Pseudokeronopsidae with Pseudokeronopsis -like bicorona of frontal cirri and one marginal row on each side; one row of two or more buccal cirri in ordinary position; two midventral rows distinctly separated, hence of cirri that are not in a typical zig-zag pattern; high number of transverse cirri, caudal cirri absent, and frontoterminal cirri present; thigmotactic cirri absent, many macronuclear nodules fuse into many masses as well as marginal and dorsal kineties form apokinetally during morphogenesis. At the same time, the genus ThigmokeronopsisWicklow, 1981 is redefined, and one new combination, Apokeronopsis antarctica (Petz, 1995) n. comb. is proposed. The morphogenetic events of A. crassa are characterized as follows: (1) In the proter, the adoral zone of membranelles and UMs are completely renewed by the oral primordium. The UM anlage is formed apokinetally on the dorsal wall of the buccal cavity and is hence clearly separated from the frontoventral-transverse (FVT) cirral anlagen in the proter. (2) Frontoventral-transverse cirral anlagen are generated de novo in the outermost region of the cortex to the right of the old UMs. (3) A row of buccal cirri arises from FVT cirral streak I. (4) The marginal rows and dorsal kineties originate de novo in both dividers; no caudal cirri are formed. (5) The last FVT-streak contributes two frontoterminal cirri. (6) The many macronuclear nodules fuse into many masses (about 50 segments) during division, unlike a singular or branched mass as described in other urostylids. [source]


New Genus of the Subfamily Geotrupinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Geotrupindae) from the Jehol Biota

ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 4 2010
Georgiy V. NIKOLAJEV
Abstract: Parageotrupes incanus gen. et sp. nov. (Scarabaeoidea: Geotrupidae: Geotrupinae) is described and illustrated from the Yixian Formation of western Liaoning province, China. [source]


New Genus and Species of Fossil Dragonflies (Insecta: Odonata) from the Yixian Formation of Northeastern China

ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 3 2006
ZHANG Binglan
Abstract, Two well-preserved fossil dragonflies from the Late Mesozoic Yixian Formation, Liaoning Province, China are described and assigned to a new genus, Sopholibellula gen. nov. in Araripelibellulidae Bechly, 1996, closely related to the type genus Araripelibellula. This new genus differs from Araripelibellula in the following characters: origins of RP and MA distinctly separated at arculus in both pairs of wings; anal loop wider and shorter, with Y-shaped veins inside; MA and IR2 not zigzag; several small intercalary veins present in the postdiscoidal area of hindwing; cells smaller and much more dense, especially in the apex and hind margin; bigger in size. Structures, including head, abdomen and parts of legs, were first described in details of this family. [source]


A New Genus of Psittacosauridae (Dinosauria: Ornithopoda) and the Origin and Early Evolution of Marginocephalian Dinosaurs

ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 1 2003
YOU Hailu
Abstract, An almost complete juvenile dinosaur skull with lower jaw was discovered from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation in Beipiao, Liaoning Province, China. Here, the specimen is described and a cladistic analysis is performed in order to find its phylogenetic relationships. The result shows that this specimen represents a new genus of Psittacosauridae, Hongshanosaurus houi, gen. et sp. nov., and confirms the monophyletic status for Ceratopsia and Marginocephalia. However, Heterodontosaurus is found to be the sister taxon to Marginocephalia, rather than a basal Ornithopoda. [source]


LATE ORDOVICIAN BRACHIOPODS FROM THE DULANKARA FORMATION OF THE CHU-ILI RANGE, KAZAKHSTAN: THEIR SYSTEMATICS, PALAEOECOLOGY AND PALAEOBIOGEOGRAPHY

PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
LEONID E. POPOV
Abstract:, Brachiopods from the late Ordovician (late Caradoc) Dulankara Formation of the Chu-Ili Range, Kazakhstan, are reviewed. Those from the upper two members of the formation, the Degeres and Akkol members, are systematically described. New genera from the Dulankara Formation are Nikitinamena (Plectambonitoidea: Leptellinidae), with type species Nikitinamena bicostata sp. nov., and Weberorthis (Orthoidea: Plectorthidae), with type species Mimella brevis Rukavishnikova. Another new genus is Glyptomenoides (Strophomenoidea: Glyptomenidae), with type species Rafinesquina girvanensis Salmon from the Caradoc of Girvan, Scotland. Other new species from the Dulankara Formation are Holtedahlina orientalis, Platymena tersa, Christiania proclivis, Leangella (Leangella) paletsae, Metambonites subcarinatus, Ogmoplecia nesca and Plectorthis licta. The ecology and assemblages of all three members of the Dulankara Formation are identified or reviewed, and their palaeogeographical significance assessed: the Chu-Ili Terrane (on which the Dulankara Formation was situated during the Ordovician) formed part of the relatively low-latitude peri-Gondwanan complex of terranes, and was probably not far from North and South China. The faunal links suggested between the Dulankara brachiopods and contemporary faunas from Australia are now perceived to be weaker than previously thought. [source]


Forty-nine new host plant species for Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

ENTOMOLOGICAL SCIENCE, Issue 4 2008
Alvin M. SIMMONS
Abstract The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is a worldwide pest of numerous agricultural and ornamental crops. In addition to directly feeding on plants, it also acts as a vector of plant viruses of cultivated and uncultivated host plant species. Moreover, host plants can affect the population dynamics of whiteflies. An open-choice screening experiment was conducted with B-biotype B. tabaci on a diverse collection of crops, weeds, and other indigenous plant species. Five of the plant species were further evaluated in choice or no-choice tests in the laboratory. The results reveal 49 new reproductive host plant species for B. tabaci. This includes 11 new genera of host plants (Arenaria, Avena, Carduus, Dichondra, Glechoma, Gnaphalium, Molugo, Panicum, Parthenocissus, Trianthema, and Triticum) for this whitefly. All species that served as hosts were acceptable for feeding, oviposition, and development to the adult stage by B. tabaci. The new hosts include three cultivated crops [oats (Avena sativa L.), proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.), and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)], weeds and other wild species, including 32 Ipomoea species, which are relatives of sweetpotato [I. batatas (L.) Lam.)]. Yellow nutsedge, Cyperus esculentus L., did not serve as a host for B. tabaci in either open-choice or no-choice tests. The results presented herein have implications for whitefly ecology and the numerous viruses that B. tabaci spreads to and among cultivated plants. [source]


New taxonomic concepts for the important forest pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica and related fungi

FEMS MICROBIOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 2 2006
Marieka Gryzenhout
Abstract Species of Cryphonectria include some of the world's most important and devastating tree pathogens. Largely through the application of DNA sequence phylogenies, the taxonomy of these fungi has undergone major changes in recent years. Cryphonectria, including the chestnut blight pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica, has been restricted to species that have semi-immersed stromata, orange and pulvinate conidiomata, and one-septate ascospores. Other species of Cryphonectria with different morphological characteristics have been transferred to new genera that are strongly supported by phylogenetic data. This review represents a summary of the taxonomic changes to species of Cryphonectria sensu lato, and we discuss the impact that these changes might have on the understanding of their ecology, pathology and worldwide distribution. [source]


Biology and taxonomy of encrusting alcyoniid soft corals in the northeastern Pacific Ocean with descriptions of two new genera (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Octocorallia)

INVERTEBRATE BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
Catherine S. McFadden
Abstract. In this paper we summarize current knowledge of the distribution, ecology, and reproductive biology of 4 encrusting species in the soft coral family Alcyoniidae, with descriptions of 2 new genera and 2 new species. The new genus Discophyton is erected for Alcyonium rudyi, a species common in the lower intertidal of exposed rocky headlands from Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada south to Point Lobos, California, USA. Discophyton rudyi n. gen. & n. comb. propagates extensively by clonal fission, giving rise to characteristic aggregations of small, regularly spaced, disc-shaped colonies. We describe 2 new species and place them in a new genus, Thrombophyton. Thrombophyton coronatum n. gen. & n. sp. forms irregularly shaped, membranous colonies on rock surfaces; it occurs subtidally along the southern California coast from the Palos Verdes Peninsula to San Diego and on the California Islands. Thrombophyton trachydermum n. gen. & n. sp. has a similar, membranous growth form; it occurs both intertidally and subtidally on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, and in the San Juan Archipelago, Washington, and intertidally in central California, USA. Alcyonium pacificum, reported for the first time from North American waters, occurs in subtidal kelp beds around the Aleutian islands of Attu and Adak; its mushroom-shaped colonies are raised above the substrate on a short stalk. D. rudyi, T. trachydermum, and A. pacificum are all gonochores that reproduce in late summer; in contrast, T. coronatum appears to reproduce in the spring. D. rudyi and T. coronatum brood larvae internally to a late planula stage. A key to species is presented for all shallow-water soft corals known to occur in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. [source]


TAXONOMIC STUDY OF TWO NEW GENERA OF FUSIFORM GREEN FLAGELLATES, TABRIS GEN.

JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2 2009

On the basis of LM, we isolated strains of two species of fusiform green flagellates that could be assigned to former Chlorogonium (Cg.) Ehrenb. One species, "Cg."heimii Bourr., lacked a pyrenoid in its vegetative cells and required organic compounds for growth. The other was similar to Cg. elongatum (P. A. Dang.) Francé and "Cg."acus Nayal, but with slightly smaller vegetative cells. Their molecular phylogeny was also studied based on combined 18S rRNA, RUBISCO LSU (rbcL), and P700 chl a -apoprotein A2 (psaB) gene sequences. Both species were separated from Chlorogonium emend., Gungnir Nakada and Rusalka Nakada, which were formerly assigned to Chlorogonium. They were accordingly assigned to new genera, Tabris Nakada gen. nov. and Hamakko (Hk.) Nakada gen. nov. as T. heimii (Bourr.) Nakada comb. nov. and Hk. caudatus Nakada sp. nov., respectively. Tabris is differentiated from other genera of fusiform green flagellates by its vegetative cells, which only have two apical contractile vacuoles and lack a pyrenoid in the chloroplast. Hamakko, on the other hand, is distinguishable by the fact that its pyrenoids in vegetative cells are penetrated by flattened thylakoid lamellae. [source]


TAXONOMY AND MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF THE RED ALGAL GENUS LENORMANDIA (RHODOMELACEAE, CERAMIALES),

JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 1 2002
Louise E. Phillips
The genus Lenormandia Sonder is currently composed of nine species from Australia and New Zealand. Some of these are well known, but others are rare and ill defined. Material of all nine species has been examined and found to fall into three discrete morphological groups forming highly supported clades on analysis of 18S rDNA sequences. The first group contains four Australian-endemic species and includes the type species L. spectabilis Sonder. Plants have a cleft apex that is not inrolled, a distinctive rhombic surface areolation pattern caused by a one- to two-layered medulla of interlocking cells, lack pseudopericentral cells, and produce their reproductive structures on the blade surfaces. The type species of the genus Lenormandiopsis, L. latifolia (Harvey et Greville) Papenfuss, was found to belong to this group and is thus returned to Lenormandia where it was originally placed. Species falling into the other two groups are removed to new genera that are being described separately. One extremely rare species of Lenormandia from southwestern Australia is transferred to the delesseriacean genus Phitymophora. [source]


The late Sandbian , earliest Katian (Ordovician) brachiopod immigration and its influence on the brachiopod fauna in the Oslo Region, Norway

LETHAIA, Issue 1 2008
JESPER HANSEN
Bulk samples of brachiopods from the middle and upper parts of the Arnestad Formation and the entire Frognerkilen Formation in the Oslo Region demonstrate major vertical changes in the Sandbian to Katian amphicratonic fauna of this part of the Baltic Province. The main influx of new taxa occurred in the upper part of the Arnestad Formation (uppermost Sandbian), and in the succeeding Frognerkilen Formation (basal Katian). Faunal change is initially reflected in an increase in diversity and not as a replacement of the previously incumbent genera, which remain throughout the studied sequence. The majority of the new genera migrated from the East Baltic Region or through this region from Avalonia, while the marginal Laurentian taxa first occupied the Scandinavian part of Baltica. Six taxa migrated from Laurentia, three from Avalonia, two from Gondwana and one apparently originated on the South China palaeoplate. The faunal shifts and immigration of brachiopods appear to have been in response to an initial transgression together with the movement of Baltica into more warm temperate latitudes, but the diverse faunas developed both against a background of subsequent regression and in response to an offshore shift of biofacies. The new amphicratonic fauna was thus generated by faunal shifts from elsewhere in the Baltic Province to the marginal environments of the Oslo Region together with more exotic elements from neighbouring continents and microcontinents. [source]


NEW CLADID AND FLEXIBLE CRINOIDS FROM THE MISSISSIPPIAN (TOURNAISIAN, IVORIAN) OF ENGLAND AND WALES

PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 5 2007
THOMAS W. KAMMER
Abstract:, The modern study of fossil crinoids began with J. S. Miller who, in 1821, described specimens from southern England, nearby Wales and other regions, and named several common Early Carboniferous genera. Later, in 1950,60, James Wright monographed all known Early Carboniferous crinoids from the British Isles. In spite of such previous scrutiny, we recognize here two new genera among species already described: Glamorganocrinus gen. nov. (type species: Ophiurocrinus gowerensis Wright, 1960) from South Wales and Mendipocrinus gen. nov. (type species: Poteriocrinus latifrons Austin and Austin, 1847) from southern England. These new genera increase the number of advanced cladid genera in the Ivorian Substage of the Tournaisian in western Europe to 18, and the total number of crinoid genera to 36. A review of species assigned to Mespilocrinus has led to the recognition of M. granulifer De Koninck and LeHon, 1854 as a nomen dubium. A new species of Mespilocrinus, M. wrighti sp. nov., is described from the Ivorian of South Wales; this is the most highly derived species of the genus, as based on a phylogenetic analysis including ten species and 13 characters, with Pycnosaccus as the outgroup. A single, well-ordered tree resulted from this analysis. Interpretation of this tree suggests that the centre of evolution for Mespilocrinus was North America, where three species appeared during the Kinderhookian (early Tournaisian), rapidly achieving morphological disparity within the genus. This radiation event was part of the overall explosive radiation of crinoids following the Late Devonian mass extinction event when crinoid diversity was at a global minimum during the Frasnian. Recovery began during the Famennian, followed by an explosive radiation in the Tournaisian. [source]


Cladistic Analysis of A Problematic Ammonite Group: the Hamitidae (Cretaceous, Albian,turonian) and Proposals for New Cladistic Terms

PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 4 2002
Neale MonksArticle first published online: 24 NOV 200
The Hamitidae are a family of mid,Cretaceous heteromorph ammonites including lineages leading to four other families. Problems are outlined in trying to describe the phylogeny of completely extinct groups such as these heteromorph ammonites using the existing cladistic terminology, which is largely concerned with extant taxa and their ancestors. To solve these problems, two new terms are proposed: ,crown groups and ,stem groups, which are equivalent to crown and stem groups in terms of the evolutionary history of a clade, but are not defined on the basis of extant taxa. Instead they are defined by the topology of the phylogenetic tree, the ,crown group being a clade defined by synapomorphies but which gave rise to no descendants. A ,stem group is a branch of a phylogenetic tree which comprises the immediate sister groups of a given ,crown group but is not itself a clade. Examples of these terms are described here with reference to the phylogeny of the Hamitidae and their descendants. The Hamitidae are paraphyletic and form ,stem groups to a number of ,crown groups, namely the Anisoceratidae, Baculitidae, Scaphitidae, and Turrilitidae. The definitions of the genera and subgenera are refined with respect to the type species and the clades within which they occur, and four new genera are described: Eohamites, Helicohamites, Sziveshamites, and Planohamites. [source]


Upper Devonian Sponges from the Holy Cross Mountains, Central Poland

PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
J. Keith Rigby
The rich fauna of Late Devonian (Late Frasnian) siliceous sponges from the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland is composed of 15 species and 11 genera. Both astylospongid demosponges (lithistids) and hexactinosan hexactinellids are present. The following new genera and/or species are proposed: D regulara Rigby and Pisera sp. nov., Jazwicella media Rigby and Pisera gen. et sp. nov., Astyloscyphia irregularia Rigby and Pisera gen. et sp. nov., A. turbinata Rigby and Pisera gen. et sp. nov., Astylotuba modica Rigby and Pisera gen. et sp. nov., Paleoregulara cupula Rigby and Pisera gen. et sp. nov., Paleoramospongia bifurcata Rigby and Pisera gen. et sp. nov., Cordiospongia conica Rigby and Pisera gen. et sp. nov., Paleocraticularia elongata Rigby and Pisera gen. et sp. nov., P gigantia Rigby and Pisera gen. et sp. nov., Polonospongiadevonica Rigby and Pisera gen. et sp. nov., P fistulata Rigby and Pisera gen. et sp. nov., Urnospongia modica Rigby and Pisera gen. et sp. nov., and Conicospongia annulata Rigby and Pisera gen. et sp. nov. The investigated fauna contains the youngest astylospongiids known and the oldest well-preserved, and most diversified Palaeozoic hexactinosans. The sponge fauna constituted a significant element of a brachiopod-coral-sponge assemblage that inhabited a deep slope of the local Dyminy Reef structure, during its final phase of growth, in a clearly hemipelagic setting. This fauna is limited to the intrashelf depression within an incipiently drowned carbonate platform. [source]


New arthropods from the Lower Devonian Hunsru¨ck Slate (Lower Emsian, Rhenish Massif, western Germany)

PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 2 2001
Derek E. G. Briggs
Four new genera and species of arthropod, Cambronatus brasseliWingertshellicus backesiEschenbachiellus wuttkensis and Magnoculus blindi, are described from the Hunsru¨ck Slate (Lower Emsian) of Germany. All four occur in the Wingertshell Member in the vicinity of Bundenbach. They preserve remarkable details of the ventral morphology, including the appendages, as a result of pyritization. In each case the body consists of just two tagmata, a cephalon and a large number of similar trunk somites. Both CambronatusWingertshellicus have fluke-like appendages making up a tail fan. The affinities of these arthropods lie with the Crustacea, apart from Magnoculus, which is an arachnomorph, but they do not fall within those clades with modern representatives. They show that morphologies other than those represented by trilobites and modern arthropod groups persisted long after the Cambrian, at least in muddy bottom marine settings. [source]


A New Family Of Coleoids From The Lower Jurassic Of Osteno, Northern Italy

PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 6 2000
Alessandro Garassino
The discovery of well preserved and almost complete fossil coleoid cephalopods near Osteno in northern Italy has allowed the original study of a single specimen by Pinna (1972) to be enhanced. The unusual structure of the ten arms, showing a clear differentiation in the shape of the arm hooks (long and thin on six arms and short and stocky on the other four), is a distinctive character which is not present in any Jurassic family of coleoids known to date. We distinguish two new genera: Ostenoteuthis, with the species O. siroi sp. nov., and Uncinoteuthis, with the species U. cuvieri sp. nov. The new family Ostenoteuthidae (Order uncertain) is erected for them. The systematic position of this family within the fossil coleoids is discussed. [source]


Lower Devonian Chonetoidean Brachiopods From Bac Bo, North Viêt Nam

PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 6 2000
Patrick R. Racheboeuf
Recent investigations of the Lower Devonian fauna of North Viêt Nam have provided abundant invertebrates, among which chonetoidean brachiopods are especially common. Their good preservation has allowed the revision of eight of the nine species described in the literature. The North Vietnamese chonetoidean fauna is mainly characterized by the diversity of representatives of the Family Strophochonetidae (strophochonetines and parachonetines), which includes nine species. Three new genera, namely TulynetesBacbonetesCyrtochonetes, and two species, namely Bacbonetes janvieriChlupacina nariensis, are described. The occurrence of Perichonetes mirabilisChlupacina nariensis, and plicanoplitid brachiopods establishes the extension of the south-west China pelagic Nandan Facies to eastern Bac Bo. The Lower Devonian chonetoidean fauna of eastern Bac Bo is closely allied to that of south-west and central China belonging to the Yangtzé microcontinent, whilst the fauna of western Bac Bo appears to be more closely allied with that of the northern Gondwanaland margin. One new additional chonetoidean genus, Orthochonetes, is described in a note added to the systematic section. [source]


High diversity Pleistocene rainforest Dasyurid assemblages with implications for the radiation of the dasyuridae

AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2009
JONATHAN CRAMB
Abstract It is commonly accepted that dasyurids (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae) radiated in the late Miocene or early Pliocene in response to a drying trend in Australia's climate as evidenced from the high diversity of dasyurids from modern arid environments compared with Miocene rainforest assemblages. However, mid-Pleistocene dasyurid assemblages from cave deposits at Mt Etna, Queensland are more diverse than any previously known from rainforest habitats. New taxa will be described elsewhere, but include three new genera as well as new species of Dasyurus, Antechinus and Phascogale. Comparison of dasyurids from Mt Etna sites that are interpreted as rainforest palaeoenvironments with fossil and extant assemblages indicate that they are at least as diverse as those from modern arid environments. Thus Neogene diversification of dasyurids occurred in both arid and rainforest habitats, but only the former survived continuing aridification. Hence, aridification cannot be invoked for the diversification of all dasyurid lineages. [source]


Molecular systematics of cowries (Gastropoda: Cypraeidae) and diversification patterns in the tropics

BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, Issue 3 2003
CHRISTOPHER P. MEYER
This study produces a nearly comprehensive phylogeny for the marine gastropod group Cypraeidae (cowries) and uses this topology to examine diversification patterns in the tropics. The dataset is based on molecular sequence data from two mitochondrial genes and includes 210 evolutionary significant units (ESUs) from 170 recognized species (>80%). Systematics for the group is revised based on well-supported clades, and tree topology is generally consistent with previously proposed classification schemes. Three new genera are introduced (Cryptocypraea gen. nov, Palmulacypraea gen. nov, and Contradusta gen. nov) and two previous genera are resurrected (Perisserosa and Eclogavena). One new tribe is proposed (Bistolidini). Topologies produced by a range of transition:transversion (Ti:Tv) weighting schemes in parsimony are pooled and evaluated using maximum likelihood criteria. Extensive geographical coverage shows persistent, large-scale geographical structure in sister-groups. Genetic divergence between subspecies is often equivalent or even greater than that between recognized species. Using ESUs as a metric, diversity throughout the Indo-West Pacific (IWP) increases by 38%. Intra- and inter-regional diversification patterns show that the IWP is the centre for speciation in cowries. The other major tropical regions of the world are inhabited by a predominantly relictual fauna; from a cowrie's eye-view. Good dispersal ability begets larger ranges, increased extinction resistance and morphological stasis; whereas shorter larval duration results in smaller ranges, higher speciation rates, but also higher turnover. Larval duration and dispersal ability appear correlated with ocean productivity as taxa with longer-lived larvae are associated with oligotrophic conditions; whereas taxa with shorter larval durations are associated with eutrophic, continental conditions. This tendency is carried to the extreme in temperate or upwelling regions where a planktonic phase is completely lost and crawl-away larvae evolve multiple times. A strong phylogenetic trend supports these observations as lineages leading up to and including the derived Indo-West Pacific Erroneinae clade contain taxa predominantly restricted to continental habitats and have undergone the greatest evolutionary radiations in their respective regions. © 2003 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2003, 79, 401, 459. [source]


New Taxa of Chrysomelidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) from Rovno Amber, Late Eocene

ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 4 2010
Konstantin NADEIN
Abstract: Leaf beetles Chrysomelidae of Rovno amber, from the Late Eocene, are recorded and described. Chrysomelidae of Rovno amber are represented by three subfamilies: Galerucinae (Alticini), Chrysomelinae, and Eumolpinae. Two new genera and three new species of Alticini: Manobiomorpha Nadein, gen. nov. (type species Manobiomorpha eocenica Nadein, sp. nov.), Psyllototus Nadein, gen. nov. (type species Psyllototus progenitor Nadein, sp. nov.), and Crepidodera decolorata Nadein et Perkovsky, sp. nov. are described. A new chrysomeline genus and species Paleophaedon minutus Nadein gen. nov. et sp. nov. is described. Probable trophic association of Crepidodera decolorata sp. nov., the taxonomic positions of Manobiomorpha gen. nov. and Psyllototus gen. nov., and the composition of leaf beetle faunas of Middle and Late Eocene of Europe are discussed. [source]


Two New "Notostracans", Chenops gen. nov. and Jeholops gen. nov. (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: ?Notostraca) from the Yixian Formation, Northeastern China

ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 4 2010
Thomas A. HEGNA
Abstract: The Early Cretaceous Jehol biota of northeastern China contains a diverse group of notostracans, including two genera, Chenops and Jeholops, described here. Chenops is characterized by a combination of an ovate carapace, narrow anal plate, equant distal endites and endopod on the anterior thoracic limbs. In addition to the new species, Chenops yixianensis, the genus also provisionally includes Prolepidurus oblongus Oleynikov, 1968. Jeholops, however, is monotypic, represented by the new species Jeholops hongi. It is characterized by a combination of kazacharthran and notostracan features unique to this taxon. Both new genera are provisionally placed in the taxon Notostraca. More detailed work exploring the morphology of exceptionally-preserved branchiopod crustaceans is needed. The difficulties in placing fossil notostracans into a phylogenetic framework are discussed. [source]


Amphistemon and Thamnoldenlandia, two new genera of Rubiaceae (Spermacoceae) endemic to Madagascar

BOTANICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, Issue 4 2010
INGE GROENINCKX
Amphistemon and Thamnoldenlandia are described as two new genera of Rubiaceae endemic to Madagascar. The two novelties belong to the predominantly herbaceous tribe Spermacoceae. Amphistemon is unique within the tribe in having its stamens inserted at two levels in the corolla tube. The genus includes two species: the subshrub A. humbertii and the geoxylic herb A. rakotonasolianus. Thamnoldenlandia includes only one species, T. ambovombensis, which differs from most other Spermacoceae in being a medium-sized shrub with winged seeds. We present a detailed description of Amphistemon and Thamnoldenlandia, including observations of pollen and seeds. A molecular phylogenetic study based on atpB - rbcL, petD, rps16 and trnL - trnF sequences demonstrates that the two new genera belong to the Hedyotis,Oldenlandia complex of tribe Spermacoceae. Amphistemon and Thamnoldenlandia are sister taxa and share a common ancestor with the Madagascan endemic genus Astiella. A second, but not closely related, Madagascan clade includes the endemic genera Lathraeocarpa and Gomphocalyx and the Afro-Madagascan genus Phylohydrax. This indicates that the Madagascan endemic members of Spermacoceae are the result of at least two independent colonization events, most likely by long-distance dispersal from the African mainland. © 2010 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 163, 447,472. [source]


Phylogenetics and classification of the pantropical fern family Lindsaeaceae

BOTANICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, Issue 3 2010
SAMULI LEHTONEN
The classification and generic definition in the tropical,subtropical fern family Lindsaeaceae have been uncertain and have so far been based on morphological characters only. We have now studied the evolutionary history of the Lindsaeaceae by simultaneously optimizing 55 morphological characters, two plastid genes (rpoC1 and rps4) and three non-coding plastid intergenic spacers (trnL-F, rps4-trnS and trnH-psbA). Our data set included all genera associated with Lindsaeaceae, except Xyropteris, and c. 73% of the currently accepted species. The phylogenetic relationships of the lindsaeoid ferns with two enigmatic genera that have recently been included in the Lindsaeaceae, Cystodium and Lonchitis, remain ambiguous. Within the monophyletic lindsaeoids, we found six well-supported and diagnostic clades that can be recognized as genera: Sphenomeris, Odontosoria, Osmolindsaea, Nesolindsaea, Tapeinidium and Lindsaea. Sphenomeris was shown to be monotypic; most taxa formerly placed in that genus belong to the Odontosoria clade. Ormoloma is embedded within Lindsaea and therefore does not merit recognition as a genus. Tapeinidium is sister to a clade with some species formerly placed in Lindsaea that are morphologically distinct from that genus and are transferred to Osmolindsaea and Nesolindsaea, proposed here as two new genera. We do not maintain the current subgeneric classification of Lindsaea itself, because neither of the two generally accepted subgenera (Lindsaea and Odontoloma) is monophyletic, and most of the sections also appear unnatural. Nesolindsaea shows an ancient biogeographical link between Sri Lanka and the Seychelles and many of the main clades within Lindsaea have geographically disjunct distributions. © 2010 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 163, 305,359. [source]


New Fossil Palaeontinids from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China (Insecta, Hemiptera)

ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 1 2009
Ying WANG
Abstract: Two new genera and species of fossil Palaeontinidae are described from Daohugou Village, Inner Mongolia, China: Cladocossus undulatus gen. et sp. nov. and Cricocossus paradoxus gen. et sp. nov. Both new genera are described based on well-preserved forewings. This discovery confirms the high diversity of palaeontinids during the Middle Jurassic. Both specimens have interesting modal structures which are new to Palaeontinidae: M five-branched and M3 with two branches. Based on this character, wing structural characteristic is discussed. [source]


Three New Stoneflies (Insecta: Plecoptera) from the Yixian Formation of Liaoning, China

ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 2 2008
LIU Yushuang
Abstract: Three new genera and species Archaeoperla rarissimus gen. et sp. nov. (Perlidae), Liaotaenionema tenuitibia gen. et sp. nov. (Taeniopterygidae) and Parvinemoura parvus gen. et sp. nov. (?Nemouridae) are described and illustrated. All of them were collected from Yixian Formation of the western Liaoning, China. Hitherto, A. rarissimus is the oldest species possessing typical characters of Perlidae; the finding of L. tenuitibia indicates taeniopterygids once lived in the northeastern China in the late Mesozoic, but frequent volcanic activities, climate changes, or other environmental changes might have resulted in the disappearance of Taeniopterygidae in northern China after Mesozoic. Ancestral groups of Nemouridae have been abundant from Middle Jurassic, and male genitalia of P. parvus gen. et sp. nov. has been developed and similar to extant Nemouridae in the late Mesozoic. The stonefly fossils found from Yixian Formation are not divers at the species level, but rich at the family level. The diversity of stonefly implies different microclimate existed in the northeastern China at that time. A large old lacustrine basin existed in the western Liaoning, surrounded by hygrophilous plants on swampland and lake shore, warm and humid; tall arbor and boscage on the hillside nearby, mild and dry; mountains in the distance, rivulets running among the mountains, cool and wet. Many insects, prefer cool climate (e.g. stonefly, raphidiopterans, et al.), lived in the mountains with rivulets. [source]