New Fossil (new + fossil)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


New Fossils of Eoptychopteridae (Diptera) from the Middle Jurassic of Northeastern China

ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 2 2009
Jianying HAO
Abstract: Three new species of the extinct genus of Eoptychopterina from the Eoptychopteridae family, Eoptychopterina antica sp. nov., Eoptychopterina adnexa sp. nov., and Eoptychopterina mediata sp. nov., are described and illustrated. These three new species are established based on fossil specimens with bodies and complete wings. All were collected from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou in eastern Inner Mongolia, China. Based on the new materials, the name of two species in Eoptychopterina from China,Eoptychopterina elenae Ren and Krzeminski and Eoptychopterina gigantea Zhang,is sysnonymum Junius. [source]


The extinct sloth lemurs of Madagascar

EVOLUTIONARY ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 6 2003
Laurie R. Godfrey
Paleontological expeditions to Madagascar over the past two decades have yielded large quantities of bones of extinct lemurs. These include abundant postcranial and cranial remains of new species belonging to a group of giant extinct lemurs that we have called sloth lemurs due to their remarkable postcranial convergence with arboreal sloths. New fossils have come from a variety of locations in Madagascar, including caves in the Northwest (Anjohibe) and the Ankarana Massif, located in the extreme north, as well as pits in the karstic plains near Toliara in southwestern Madagascar. The most spectacular of these is the extremely deep pit (>100 m) called Ankilitelo, the "place of the three kily trees." These new materials provide insights into the adaptive diversity and evolution of sloth lemurs. New carpal and pedal bones, as well as vertebrae and other portions of the axial skeletons, allow better reconstruction of the positional behavior of these animals. New analytical tools have begun to unlock the secrets of life-history adaptations of the Palaeopropithecidae, making explicit exactly what they had in common with their relatives, the Indriidae. Paleoecological research has elucidated the contexts in which they lived and the likely causes of their disappearance. [source]


Evolution and homology of the astragalus in early amniotes: New fossils, new perspectives

JOURNAL OF MORPHOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
F. Robin O'Keefe
Abstract The reorganization of the ankle in basal amniotes has long been considered a key innovation allowing the evolution of more terrestrial and cursorial behavior. Understanding how this key innovation arose is a complex problem that largely concerns the homologizing of the amniote astragalus with the various ossifications in the anamniote tarsus. Over the last century, several hypotheses have been advanced homologizing the amniote astragalus with the many ossifications in the ankle of amphibian-grade tetrapods. There is an emerging consensus that the amniote astragalus is a complex structure emerging via the co-ossification of several originally separate elements, but the identities of these elements remain unclear. Here we present new fossil evidence bearing on this contentious question. A poorly ossified, juvenile astragalus of the large captorhinid Moradisaurus grandis shows clear evidence of four ossification centers, rather than of three centers or one center as posited in previous models of astragalus homology. Comparative material of the captorhinid Captorhinikos chozaensis is also interpretable as demonstrating four ossification centers. A new, four-center model for the homology of the amniote astragalus is advanced, and is discussed in the context of the phylogeny of the Captorhinidae in an attempt to identify the developmental transitions responsible for the observed pattern of ossification within this clade. Lastly, the broader implications for amniote phylogeny are discussed, concluding that the neomorphic pattern of astragalus ossification seen in all extant reptiles (including turtles) arose within the clade Diapsida. J. Morphol. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Rhyacophila quadrata n. sp., a new caddisfly (Insecta, Trichoptera) from Eocene Baltic amber

FOSSIL RECORD-MITTEILUNGEN AUS DEM MUSEUM FUER NATURKUNDE, Issue 1 2008
Wilfried Wichard
Abstract Rhyacophila quadrata n. sp., a new fossil caddisfly, is described from Eocene Baltic amber. The new species belongs to the family Rhyacophilidae whose extant larvae prefer cool running-water habitats. In Baltic amber, the genus Rhyacophila is now represented by only seven species, whereas more than 500 extant species are described from the Holarctic region. Differences in the biodiversity patterns of the rare fossil faunas and extant species are discussed. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


A well-preserved ,charadriiform-like' fossil bird from the Early Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark

PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
SARA BERTELLI
Abstract:, We describe a new, exceptionally well-preserved fossil bird recovered from marine deposits of the Early Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark. Morsoravis sedilis gen. et sp. nov. is known by a single specimen that consists of a three-dimensional skull, vertebral column, ribs, pelvis, and left hindlimb and associated parts of the right hindlimb. Comparisons based on overall morphology and particularly characters of the skull, vertebrae and pelvis indicate that the new specimen is morphologically similar to charadriiform birds (the shorebirds and relatives). This similarity is also expressed by a phylogenetic analysis of higher neornithine (modern birds) taxa, which supports a close relationship between the new fossil and modern charadriiforms. The morphology of the hindlimbs, in particular, shows that the new fossil corresponds to a new taxon that is distinguishable from modern charadriiform clades. One interesting aspect of its morphology is the presence of hindlimb specializations that are most commonly found among perching birds , these suggest that ecologically the new Danish fossil bird may have differed from the wading habits typical of most charadriiforms. [source]


A NEW BASAL LINEAGE OF EARLY CRETACEOUS BIRDS FROM CHINA AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON THE EVOLUTION OF THE AVIAN TAIL

PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
CHUNLING GAO
Abstract:, We report on a new Early Cretaceous bird from China that sheds significant light on the evolutionary transition between primitive birds with a long bony tail and those with a short tail ending in a pygostyle. A cladistic analysis of basal birds supports the placement of the new fossil as the sister-taxon of all pygostylians. Possessing a unique hand morphology with a phalangeal formula of 2-3-3-x-x and a reduced number of caudal vertebrae lacking a pygostyle, the new specimen reveals anatomical information previously unknown and increases the taxonomic diversity of primitive, non-pygostylian birds. We infer from the specimen that during the evolution of the avian tail, a decrease in relative caudal length and number of vertebrae preceded the distal fusion of caudals into a pygostyle. [source]


A NEW GENERALIZED PAUCITUBERCULATAN MARSUPIAL FROM THE OLIGOCENE OF BOLIVIA AND THE ORIGIN OF ,SHREW-LIKE' OPOSSUMS

PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 5 2007
FRANCISCO J. GOIN
Abstract:, Insights into the origin of ,shrew-like' oposssums of South America are gained thanks to a new fossil from the Oligocene Salla Beds in Bolivia. The specimen described here consists of a partial rostrum, palate and postcanine teeth, and shows several generalized features (cranial and dental) in the context of the Paucituberculata. On this basis we recognize Evolestes hadrommatos gen. et sp. nov. In order to evaluate the affinities of the new taxon, we performed a phylogenetic analysis including representatives of the Caenolestidae, Pichipilus and allies (not regarded here as caenolestids), Palaeothentidae, and Abderitidae, with three outgroups. Evolestes is the basalmost ,caenolestoid', and provides clues to the morphological changes involved in the origin of caenolestids. [source]